Within this essay it will be discussed based on what coaching style is best suitable for elite athletes and a sports coach role in society. A sports coach, whether it’s a team or individual sports look at their athletes performance in a competitive game and take key aspects from the athletes performance that can be improved and plan training sessions overtime to overcome these problems (Z.R.Knowles ,2005). A coach’s process is to be viewed as a week to week basis to improve the athlete’s performance rather than working on all aspects at once (Borrie and Knowles 2001). The modern coach that is known today is expected to take responsibility for the performer outside of training, inside practice sessions and a competitive environment (Z.R.Knowles ,2005). Coaches are always expected to be aware of the performers phycological development as this can influence the athlete’s performance (Lyle 1999a, b, 2002). Modern elite coaches or coach support education is suggested that coach educators require academic literature research to find the key aspects and factors that should be targeted towards elite coaching programmes (Z.R.Knowles ,2005). According to Z.R.Knowles (2005) many coaching focused research has not developed to an appropriate standard of to what is required to be an effective elite coach with in the coaching education programmes, instead research shows that the majority of coaches reflect and learn from an experienced situation to improve effectiveness on an athletes performance (Z.R.Knowles ,2005). When coaches are not achieving success, it’s vital to change the process even if coaches perceive or believe at stage of always becoming successful, it is key to be aware of the process in order to strive for an athletes performance (Stephanie J.Hanrahan 1997). It is important for the coach and the athlete to have a trusted, strong and personal partnership as this will help the athlete’s performance increase overtime and for the coach to analyse the negative effects on the athlete’s performance due to mental health issues (Jowett ; Cockerill, 2002).
Autocratic coaching style is applied when a coach presumes authority and all the decision making when applied (Lyle 2006). The advantage that the coach has with in this style is that it includes a dominating and directive approach to prepare the individual to later compete in competitive events (Lyle 2006). The negative side of this coaching style is that it is a one-way process and the coach will show a lack of sympathy and determine the rules and rewards (Bandura 1971). Tennis is a sport where an autocratic style comes to a start for a young performer preferably children (Fraser-Thomas et al. 2005). Authoritarian parents within sports can have a low response and high demands towards children (Holt et al., 2009). Parents that use authoritarian styles of coaching use physical punishment, verbal insults and shaming for poor performance also children find it hard to express feelings towards parents (Atkins et al., 2015). As parents are mainly the coaches with in tennis it’s a right to control the child but the leading problem is that this can cause the child’s self-esteem, anxiety and depression (Ryan, 1996; Scanlan, Stein, ; Ravizza, 1991). Furthermore, the stress that occurs with the competitive sport can tend to have a burnout and the child will have no interest nor enjoyment with in the sport the child once loved (Gould, 1993). Study shows that authoritarian coaching in tennis has made a young athlete into a world champion, examples such as Andre Agassi whose father was very authoritarian when it came to the sport and Rafa Nadals uncle who kept telling him to practice with his left hand with the racket even though he was right handed (David bagget, 1997). Football can be a sport where young athletes with talent will feel under pressure, research shown by Leff ; Hoyle (1995) suggested that it was the parents support, pressure and perfectionism but did not conclude the coach. Other research has shown such as the (MANOVA) tournament of Norway that children with autocratic parents had a low quality of self -esteem, confidence and felt intimidated by the parents if they made a mistake which resulted in poor performance (Glyn C. Roberts ; Blake W. Miller,2006). As soccer requires team coaching, it is very hard to be an autocratic coach due to the diversity of players and different mentality (Dr. Greg A. Shelley, 2000). The athletes wanted the coach to be knowledgeable to the sport, in a result to improve the athlete’s game, furthermore; the athletes wanted the coach to be authoritative to in order to take control of the team and for motivational purposes (Dawson L. Driscoll,2000).
To summarize, the benefits of having an autocratic coach or authoritative coach is that it does improve the athlete’s performance, not phycological but through ability. The suitable coaching style or preferable style of coaching in tennis would be authoritative, reason for this because when looked back at what Ryan, 1996; Scanlan, Stein, ; Ravizza, (1991) says how the parents taught the young athlete by being in control over them with in a manipulative way. This shows that mentally or physiologically this will lead the young athlete to give up the sport that once loved due to the lack of confidence and harsh feedback from the coach (parent). Successful athletes from a young age have gone through authoritative, David Bagget (2010) mentions that Andre Agassi’s father was very authoritative which resulted in verbal feedback but also being passionate as well. Rafa nadals uncle always made Rafa feel a shamed when to not have practiced as Rafas uncle accuses Rafa of being normal like the rest of the people and having a normal life. Authoritative coaching can involve in being passionate with the young athlete, this can result in encouragement and motivation purposes for the athlete. Authoritative coaching is best for young athletes rather than autocratic (authoritarian), the reason for this is because young athletes such as children need to be controlled due to not knowing what’s best for them such as making decisions. Authoritative coaching does not just allow to be in control but to be passionate and understand the young athletes’ problems rather than being abusive.