The true term ‘swine flu’ means; influenza in pigs. Swine flu is transmitted by the exposure of infected droplets of cough and sneeze this highlights that swine flu is like the regular seasonal flu rate of transmission in that it is easily passed from person to person.
People who known to be in direct contact with pigs are said to be of a higher risk in contracting this H1N1 influenza strain It’s more likely for people between the ages of 5-25 to catch this virus. This is easily transferable from human to human, i.e. from a pig source to a human host subsequently this spread is rapid leading to cases of pandemic outbreaks of flu, in which the population has no immunity to. In different scientific papers it was stated that few elderly individuals over the age of 65 years were affected by the virus. The virus also caused for woman in gestation to enter preterm labour and abortion rates increased due to complications in the third trimester. In one of the papers two women studied had spontaneous births. It was also found that depending on a person’s underlying condition people with compromised immune systems. eg; asthma, it increased their risk of influenza complications. Swine flu leads to respiratory disease. The emergence of the strain (H1N1) (S-OIV) that caused the worldwide pandemic in 2009, most likely emerged in North America. This strain challenged the public health systems and had huge negative economic impact. It likely occurred from a reassortment of H3N2 and H1N2 with avian-like swine viruses. Previously other stains of swine flu existed such as H1N1, H1N2 and H1N3, but did not lead to human-human transmission.
This is an example of how the great 2009 flu pandemic in both Ireland and Canada emerged. In humans the clinical symptoms of swine flu includes pneumonia, runny nose, headache, fevers and in some cases diarrhoea and vomiting. The average period range for the H1N1 flu virus spans from day one to four averaging for about seven days for the majority. While it might range up to seven days for other individuals. Furthermore regarding this threatening virus the people with their immune system weakened may be at risk with a larger contagious period than other individuals.
An effective treatment is yet to be discovered in response to cure swine flu, although vaccines and antiviral has been used and is used to minimise the spread of the rapidly growing disease. Quadrivalent and Trivalent are examples of these flu vaccines.
1918-1920 Spanish Flu
This ranged between 24.7 – 39.3 million deaths. However, it was stated that this was lower than the actual death toll.
Contrasting to H1N1, this strain had the capability to duplicate in the absence of trypsin.
First 12 months of 2009 Swine Flu
Many diseases were calculated in order to gain accurate insight into the number of individual deaths that occurred.
Respiratory mortality rates and Cardio-vascular disease mortality rates were studied.
Furthermore in these findings it was discovered that mortality rates during the pandemic period was multiplied by age in order to accurately calculate associated death numbers.
In a laboratory hospitalized data were collected on approximately 70,000 H1N1 pdm patients, of which 9,200 of them were admitted to ICUs following a report between the moths of April 2009 and January 2010 of which there were 2500 deaths from 19 countries such as Australian, Canada ,China, Germany, Hong Kong , Spain and the US etc.
The highest per capital with the risk of death was the age group of 50-64. While the age group 5-14 were highest of hospitalization among patients. In further findings data showed that countries with a higher population of young people/ adolescents had higher pandemic death rates in 2009. A Global Action Plan (GAP) was put in action in 2006 by WHO for influenza vaccines in order to minimise the pandemic influence vaccine. Record represents that in poor countries most death occurred there due to their scarce heath resource. Meanwhile economies with high economic income had a lower reported mortality rate in comparison to lower middle and upper middle economic classes. In addition characteristics the economic status of the outbreak locations and the region influence the mortality outbreaks rates.