The title is relevant to service users in a health and social care setting because In order to care for and meet the needs of service users practitioners must ensure that they have effective communication with them. Having effective communication can ‘help a person in a vulnerable situation to feel safe, secure and also respected’ according to Stonebridge(https://www.stonebridge.uk.com/blog/health-and-social-care/effective-communication-skills-in-health-and-social-care 30/04/18). This quote suggests that by having effective communication individuals will increase their self esteem, form relationships and develop a bond of mutual trust, understanding and respect. It also implies that if practitioners ask questions using the correct tone of voice, the individual will feel as though they can express their views, needs and issues. However if the practitioner isn’t doing this they may feel uncomfortable and will be reluctant to talk as they feel as though what they have to say isn’t important. Practitioners must also be aware of individual’s preferred method of communicating which includes using symbols, photographs, sign language and phrases. This is important because it will ensure that a good quality of care and support is being provided which meets the service users needs. It will also help make relationships that have been built more effective between practitioners and service users.
Communication takes place between individuals and others as a way of interacting so that crucial information can be shared. For example practitioners may share information with others regarding an individual that has been placed in their care where it is necessary in their best interests. If others are aware of this they can ensure that the service users needs are being met through the care and support that is being provided. If a service users health deteriorated they could could express any concerns that they have through communicating with practitioners, who would then monitor their health so that their needs can be met.
Practitioners can support the health and wellbeing of service users by having effective communication with them which will allow them to feel safe, empowered and protected. This is because they will be understood by others better. Whereas if communication is ineffective they may feel worthless, isolated and emotionally threatened. This can have severe implications on a service users health and wellbeing as they may feel as though they don’t have to follow the advice that has been provided by the practitioner unaware of the consequences. They may also harm themselves because they don’t feel as though they are being supported enough or listened to. Having a positive and meaningful relationship with service users may mean that they have a speedy recovery and issues that they experience can be identified. This ensures that their needs are being effectively met by the practitioner and that their care plans are reviewed more efficiently, this will reduce the risk of them being harmed, neglected and abused. Through empowerment individuals will become more independent. They may also share any issues or concerns that they have which will ensure that practitioners and services that they access are meeting their needs and that they are being respected and valued.
Practitioners can also support the health and wellbeing of service users by ensuring that they understand their language needs and preferences. This is because an individual’s ability to communicate can be affected if they have a visual, sensory or hearing impairment. Practitioners may have to adapt the way that they communicate so that language needs which can improve the service users health and wellbeing can be met. They may also require alternative methods of communication so that they can book an appointment to see a practitioner. If alternative methods are unavailable it may negatively affect their health and wellbeing.
Practitioners can also support service users by giving them the opportunity to make their own decisions and manage the risks associated with doing so. Through doing this they will take more responsibility for their own health and wellbeing. For example if an individual wanted to make a cup of tea but they had a tendency to shake it may result in them being scalded. The individual would need to risk assess and decide whether or not doing this will result in them being scalded and obtaining severe burns. This allows them to protect and promote their own wellbeing, feel empowered and be in control. Placing individuals in control of their care will reduce the risk of something happening such as abuse and neglect, this can have a detrimental affect on their health and wellbeing. This individual would be aware of their rights and understand and the quality of care that should be delivered. According to Professor Alf Collins, doctor, commissioner, researcher and national policy advisor in person-centred care ‘By involving people in decisions about their health and care we will improve health and wellbeing, improve the quality of care’. (https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/ppp-involving-people-health-care-guidance.pdf 30/04/18). This quote suggests that by involving individuals in decisions made regarding the care and support that is being provided the quality of care will have improved and so will their health and wellbeing.
Practitioners can also promote an individual’s health and wellbeing by ensuring that they are happy in all aspects of their life. Practitioners must be understanding, empathic, non judgemental and positive. Concerns regarding an individual must be shared with your line manager so that something can be done to meet their needs. Potiential dangers must be identified and reported by practitioners before they occur so that individuals aren’t being harmed which will affect their health and wellbeing.
Due to legislation such as the Care Act 2014 local authorities were required to establish a Safeguarding Adults Board. This was so that if individuals were being abused or neglected it could be investigated, so that they can decide what action should be taken to help them. Organisations also had to work in partnership. For example if a teacher came across a child that had sexual knowledge beyond it years who felt uncomfortable, displayed a change in behaviour and was withdrawn. They would be concerned, especially after another teacher had then disclosed that the child had unexplained bleeding and bruises around the breasts. The teacher would then have to listen to the child and record everything factual without leading the child. A designated safeguarding lead must be contacted and informed so that the child can be dealt with. Other agencies such as the police, social services and a GP may need to be contacted. The family must also be contacted unless it is seen as unsafe to do so because they are involved.
Social services play a key role in protecting and promoting the health and wellbeing of children. They will decide on whether or not action needs to be taken if an allegation has been made. If the child is at risk of being abused and harmed an assessment will be carried out which will include whether or not the child’s parents have the ability to meet the needs of the child . Other factors may contribute such as the environment and background. Family members and the child may be interviewed. By working with other agencies information that may be relevant can be gathered.
The police also work to help vulnerable children that have been abused or neglected, so their health and wellbeing isn’t being affected. They investigate allegations and complaints made, so that evidence can be collected and those responsible can be prosecuted. Police forces have a child abuse investigation unit which decides whether or not a crime has been committed so that an investigation can be led.
GPs and doctors must examine signs of abuse which includes bruising on the genitals, unexplained bleeding and bruising on the breasts which may be a cause for concern . Social services must be alerted, a report must be gathered and evidence should be given in court if they suspect that abuse has taken place. This must be done to ensure that the child’s wellbeing and health isn’t being affected because they are being potentially harmed, or abused sexually.
Some service users may be unable to work because they have ill health which may result in them not having enough income to maintain a healthy lifestyle. If they live in a house that is overcrowded, have a diet that is unhealthy, are poorly educated and are low paid they may also have poor health compared to others who aren’t deprived.
Information Sharing Policy
The information sharing policy provides staff with a framework so that legislation can be complied with. In relation to sharing information so that they are aware of when consent must be given by service users and the capacity in which this should be done. It is also so that they have guidance. Health and social care practitioners must be open and honest with service users and their family members as to who the information will be shared with, why and how this will be done unless they believe that it is unsafe or inappropriate for them to do so. Information should only be shared in the best interests of the service user which is why their health and wellbeing should be considered. If the need to ask for consent is overridden by public interest information may be shared. Information must be accurate, kept up to date, be shared securely and on a need to know basis. Information that is necessary should be shared. This policy relates to communicating so that the needs of service users can be met by ensuring that information is only shared in their best interests when necessary and that their health and wellbeing is taken into account.
Data Protection Policy
This policy was made by the Cambridge City Council to ensure that legal obligations by the Data Protection Act (1998) are being met and complied with so that data is used lawfully and fairly once it has been collected. To fulfil operational needs and legal requirements data should be accurate and kept up to date. Data must be kept for the appropriate retention period and adequate measures should be put in place to protect it. Staff should be aware of good practice in data protection so that when they handle it they are aware of where further guidance can be found. If there are any queries regarding data protection in internal or external organisations it should be dealt with in a way that is effective. Procedures and guidelines should be regularly reviewed by organisations. If data has been obtained it should only be used for the lawful and specific purpose, data should not be excessive and kept for longer than is necessary. If data has been destroyed, damaged, lost or accessed by unauthorised personal appropriate action must be taken. Data can also not be transferred outside of the European Economic Area unless there is an adequate level of protection being provided. This policy relates to communicating so that needs of service users can be met by ensuring that information is only shared if there is adequate protection to prevent it from becoming damaged or lost. This allows service users health and performance to be monitored by services so that their needs can be met. This also ensures that they are not taken advantage of because of their vulnerability.
In health and social care there are person centred values which are principles that have been put in place to ensure that individuals receiving care and support are at the centre of decisions made and everything that has been done, it also provides practitioners with guidance. The values include individuality, privacy, choice, independence, partnership, dignity, rights and respect.
Individuality is one of the values involved in person centred care. Individuality means that each individual has their own needs, beliefs, identity and values which distinguishes them apart from others. According to Skills for Care ‘One size fits all’ does not work when it comes to providing care and support’ (https://www.skillsforcare.org.uk/Documents/Learning-and-development/Care-Certificate/Standard-5.pdf 08/05/18). This quote suggests that individuals have specific needs and when providing care and support it must be centred around them, if it isn’t it may result in their needs not being met.
Privacy is another value involved in person centred care which involves ensuring that individuals have a space that it is private and time when they require it. Privacy
can affect how and where care and support is being provided. This includes procedures that are invasive and personal hygiene. For example if a service user soiled themselves a bath would be required, they may feel self conscious about being undressed in front of others so it should be done privately. This is a private activity so if practitioners are helping someone have a bath they must ‘be sensitive and try to maintain their dignity’ according to the NHS (https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/social-care-and-support/hygiene-and-washing/ 08/05/18). This quote implies that practitioners must be sensitive, reassure individuals and ask how they prefer being helped so that they can be as independent as possible in a way that is safe which helps maintain their dignity. Their emotional state must also be taken into account and by finding out the shower gel and shampoo that they usually use it will make the the experience more familiar.
Choice is the third value involved in person centred care which means making a decision. Individuals should be supported to do so if they are able to by practitioners. For this to happen in a way that is effective service users need to be involved in personal decisions that affect their care including how they dress and what they eat. In order for them to make informed choices they will need to be given information in a way that can be understood. When working with service users who are unable to express their wishes and needs, other ways of communicating with them must be found. Through having further training, supervision and guidance these skills can be developed.
Independence is the fourth value which is required for person centred care which looks at what individuals are able to do for themselves and it empowers them so that they can feel in control of their actions, be confident and more independant. This allows them to agree to the support that they need or want. Through being more active in looking after themselves the pressure that has been placed on healthcare services can be reduced. It also has the potential to improve patients experiences.
Partnership is the fifth value required for person centred care which involves placing individuals and their families at the centre of decisions in all aspects of the care users life whilst working alongside professionals to achieve the best outcome. The key to having a successful partnership is having good communication, valuing what others have to say and a bond built of mutual trust and respect. By respecting people’s values and ensuring that people at the centre of care have their preferences taken into account their needs will be met as they will be provided with the care and support that they require.
Dignity is the sixth value required for person centred care and it involves treating service users with respect and valuing their beliefs and individuality. Practitioners must not make assumptions about how they will want to be treated and have a positive attitude. They must also ensure that they are aware of how personal care may affect the service users dignity. The individual should feel valued and their self esteem should be raised but this cannot happen if they are spoken to by practitioners in a way that is undermining.
Rights is the seventh value needed for person centred care. The rights of people living in the uk have been set out by the Human Rights Act 1998. Practitioners must ensure that the rights of service users are being respected by other people involved in care and support as well as themselves. Individuals have the right to be protected from being harmed, freedom of speech and the right to respect, privacy, dignity and equality.
Respect is the final value that is required for person centred care which involves taking the views and beliefs of individuals into consideration and being kind to them, even though you may not agree with them. Practitioners can do this by finding out about an individuals culture and beliefs instead of questioning and criticizing them.
Having a person centred approach involves working with the individual so that their needs can be met by planning care and support. By placing the individual at the centre, they can place how they want their care and support to be provided. This will effectively reduce the risk of treatment that is unfair and their needs will also be met. There are four key rules which are used in person centred planning. The first rule is the belief that individuals can plan for themselves which must focus on their ability and strengths. The second rule is that the care plan must be written in first person to clearly show that it belongs to the individual. The third rule is that the care plan has been made to make the individuals life easier. The final rule is that the individual should be in control of the decisions that they can make. Healthcare services and organisations view individuals as equal partners which is why decision making is shared. They are also treated with dignity, compassion and respect when being involved in their own care. Care is only focused on the individual if person centered values have been put into practice.
In order for individuals to be respected and have their needs and preferences taken into account you will have to talk to them and look at their personal information so that you can find out what they like and dislike. This will help put together a care plan, which sets out the daily care and support that needs to be provided. Care plans should be reviewed and updated because the needs of an individual may change. This allows practitioners to decide with the individual what is working and what isn’t so that it can be changed. For example if an individual was taking new medication that prevented them from eating a certain type of food, their diet would change as a result the diet but it should still reflect what they would enjoy eating. Care plans should be maintained properly so that if a worker decides to change their shift the new one can have information that is up to date which will enable to them to provide the best quality of person centred care. If practitioners feel as though an individual’s care plan needs to be changed they should speak to their manager.
Through having a person centred approach individuals can fulfil their potential in a way that is safe. Practitioners must not be judgemental and take the individual into account when making a decision. To improve an individuals quality of life they should be supported to plan for their future wellbeing. Individuals should be able to express their beliefs and opinions and change their mind if they want to. They should also be spoken to by practitioners about their needs. Individuals may find it difficult to communicate their wishes as their condition progresses which is why other ways of communicating with them must be found. By working with an advocate the individuals wishes can be expressed on behalf of them. Some individuals will plan in advance what they would like to happen if they are unable to communicate for themselves. Individuals that haven’t got the mental capacity to do so are supported by the Mental Capacity Act 2005.
A person centred approach links in with communication to meet the needs of individuals because if practitioners have to share information they will have to take the service user into consideration. For example if an individual has a visual, speech or hearing impairment that affects their communication so they are unable to receive the messages that have been sent. The individual’s ability to communicate will need to be accessed. Practitioners may also have to adapt their approach to communication so that the needs of the person can be met. They would come to a conclusion by taking the individuals needs into consideration so that a positive outcome can be achieved.
https://www.scie.org.uk/prevention/choice/person-centred-care 30/04/18 https://healthinnovationnetwork.com/system/ckeditor_assets/attachments/41/what_is_person-centred_care_and_why_is_it_important.pdf 30/04/18 https://www.tutorhunt.com/resource/7867/ 30/04/18 https://www.skillsforcare.org.uk/Documents/Learning-and-development/Care-Certificate/Standard-5.pdf 30/04/18
Argyle was a social psychologist (1972) who came up with the fact that communication is a two way process. Argyle believed that skilled interpersonal interactions involves changing your behaviour and decoding what other people have communicated in order for you to communicate effectively. The communication cycle requires a code that needs to be translated and the other person’s behaviour also needs to be worked out.
An idea occurs: An individual has an idea that they want to communicate
Message coded: The individual thinks through how they are going to say what they have been thinking. They will then put their thoughts into a language or another code such as british sign language. This can be done non verbally and verbally.
Message sent: The individual then speaks, writes or signs so that the message can be sent, this can be done in another way.
Message received: Another person will then receive the individual’s message when they hear the words that have been said or if they see symbols and signs. This requires them to have active listening skills because if they don’t it may be misinterpreted and because of this the communication will not be as effective.
Message decoded: The other person then has to decode and interpret the individual’s message. They will also make assumptions based on what has been said and look at body language.
Message understood: If all goes well then the individuals ideas will be understood but this does not always happen the first time. They will then respond by asking questions or giving feedback.
Tuckman’s theory of group interaction was developed in 1965. He believed that most groups will often struggle before they can actually communicate effectively. The process that groups go through has five stages which are forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
The first stage is forming which takes place when individuals meet for the first time, ask questions and share information because they are unsure of the role that they have, there may be some conflict.
Inclusive practice involves ensuring that individuals are included and being given equal opportunities, not discriminated against for being different or left out. Practitioners have a duty of care to ensure that individuals are supported to live how they would like to so that they can be in control. They must also work in the best interests of individuals that that recieve care and support, due to legislation and codes of practice.