The ancient Egyptians known the temple of Karnak as Ipet-isu—or “most select of places”—by .over 2,000 years this city of temples was built and officiate to the Theban triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu. This disused place is still strong enough to cover many wonders of the modern times. This religious structure covers about 200 acres (1.5 km by 0.8 km), and this place was for Religious rituals nearly 2,000 years ago. The region of the holy fence of Amun alone is sixty-one acres and may convene ten average European cathedrals. The considerable temple at the centre of Karnak is so big that St Peter’s, Milan, and Notre Dame Cathedrals would fit within its walls. The largest room in the Karnak Temple is the Hypostyle hall, at 54,000 square feet (16,459 meters) and displaying 134 columns, In addition to the main sanctuary there are several smaller temples and a vast sacred lake – 423 feet by 252 feet (129 by 77 meters). The lake encompassed by storerooms and living habitation for the priests, along with an aviary for aquatic birds. Amun, Mut and Khonsu religion temple was dedicated to them from around 2055 BC to around 100 AD and it is the largest religious structure ever constructed.
there were two axes for karnak Temple: one following the sun from east to west; and the other following the Nile from north to south moreover there were three main areas at Karnak are: 1) the refuge of Amon; 2) the refuge of Mut, 3) refuge for Montu. Each is unattached by a hard brick border and each has a main temple in the middle of the fence.
Trees were infrequent so wood was not exceedingly used as a building material in ancient Egypt. but the only materials that were in abundance were Mud, clay, rock and reed .The ancient Egyptian first lived in reed houses and following switched to unbaked mud brick, which was also used on palaces. Around 2,700 B.C. they advanced a method of erection buildings from stone and during half a century they were constructing pyramids, also during a century and half they construct the Great Pyramid of Cheops.
Parts of Karnak Temple
It is a big concatenation of structures split by six large walls and big gates. Amidst these walls are large halls and precinct, some with obelisks. The “Propylaea of the South” is a stretching that contain the seventh, eight, ninth and tenth big gate. It consists of a walkway sided by a parallel row of sphinx statues with ram heads. The rams symbolize Amon.below the rams heads are small statues of Ramses II. The path of the Cryophinxes, leads to the first and largest pylon. In general unornate and built during the Roman-Greco Ptolemy era, the path is 113 meters wide and 15 meters thick.
. On the north part is surrounded wall fronted by columns with closed papyrus capitals. In front of these are sphinxes commissioned by Ramses II. The pavilion was 21 meters high, had a wooden ceiling and was built to house sacred boats.
In front of the columns to the right is the Temple of Ramses III. On three sides of the interior of the temples are pillars fronted by statues of Ramses III with his arms crossedm holding a crook like the God Orisis. On the left side is the Temple of Seti I, dedicated to the chapels of the Thebes Triad: Amon, Mut and Khonsu. The white chapel of Semostris I and the alabaster chapel of Amenhotop I were rebuilt in the 1940s.
Nowadays we can use or pick the structure of the column when we want to build huge halls that’s needs strong base structure also we can pick the pattern of the columns as a good example of space Organization of building.