Task 1- P1 Life stage Key features of PHYSICAL development Conception Conception happens around 2 weeks after a woman’s last period when the egg becomes fertilised by sperm then travels into the fallopian tube this is when a woman has conceived and the egg is called a zygote at 4 weeks a woman will begin her first trimester which lasts 12 weeks during this time the development of the spinal cord

Task 1- P1
Life stage Key features of PHYSICAL development
Conception
Conception happens around 2 weeks after a woman’s last period when the egg becomes fertilised by sperm then travels into the fallopian tube this is when a woman has conceived and the egg is called a zygote at 4 weeks a woman will begin her first trimester which lasts 12 weeks during this time the development of the spinal cord, nervous system, lungs and heart begin at 4 weeks. At 8 weeks this is when the facial features start to develop in a fetus such as the nose becoming more noticeable other changes happen as the brain starts to form as well as other organs and the heart develops a small heartbeat. Muscle development also begins as legs and arms start to move slowly. At 12 weeks the fetus starts to show signs of facial expressions such as smiling or frowning also weighs around 1 ounce and is 3 inches in length, at this time the sex of the baby is also known. By the first 3 months a woman enters her second trimester during this time at around 13 weeks the baby starts to kick which maybe the first time the mother will feel her baby’s movements, sensory development begins which will allow the baby to hear the mother’s voice. At 16 weeks the baby has a strong heartbeat and finger/toe nails develop. At 20 weeks this will be the time a baby’s heartbeat can be heard, more facial development happens in terms of facial hair such as hair, eyelashes and eyebrows. At 24 weeks a babies eyes will start to open and will have grown to around 11 to 14 inches in length and weighs around 1 to 1 ½ pounds.
At 28 weeks a woman will begin her final trimester which is the third taking her up to the birthing stage during this a baby will become very active and respond to sound and a baby will get more body fatat 36/38 weeks a baby becomes less active as a baby will be 19 inches+ so will have less room to move around as it is nearing 40 weeks.

At 40 weeks the baby will begin to move their head through a woman’s cervix and birth canal as this is a smaller space to do this a baby has two soft spots in the skull that enables the head to move closer together to move through the birth canal.

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Birth and infancy
(0-2 years)
Birth begins at 9 months between this stage and infancy growth in size of the baby increases but as a new-born the brain is not developed to its full size but senses are slightly developed to be able to hear sounds. Physical development that begins for gross motor skills include a new-born’s reflexes developing from birth with include grasp reflex which is used by a baby holding onto a parents finger, the startle reflex when a baby is frightened when experienced too loud noise which the baby responses by moving arms outwards and crying and the suckle reflect is used to allow the baby to feed which helps to gain the right nutrients from the mother’s milk by a baby either attaching itself to a breast or bottle this helps with overall development. (Anon., 2015)  
At 5-7 months teething in babies begins which is development of an infant’s first tooth growing. By the age of 2 an infant will have a full set of 20 baby teeth (Baby centre)
Fine motor skills meaning smaller muscle movements during infancy include being able to turn head to each side when hearing voices or sounds, lifting arms up to mouth, pick up small objects such as a spoon or toy. (0-12 months)
Gross motor skills meaning larger muscle movements include being able to lift body weight up from the floor and sit up without little support and roll over being able to use arms to hold upper body and head in a steady position from 3-6 months. At 6 months a baby may be able to stand holding onto furniture for a short time. At 12-24 months an infant can begin able to run, kick a ball and walk with help.

Childhood
During childhood muscles become stronger enabling children to be able to climb onto furniture and upstairs unaided, growth is also at a steady rate, facial development also happens during this period where a child loses baby fat to move on the next life stage of adolescence.
Bones and teeth become stronger caused by calcium intake from milk. At around the age of 6-7 baby teeth begin to fall out to replace those with permanent adult teeth.

Fine motor skills at the ages 3-4 include being able to feed themselves, dress themselves enabling them to become more independent. Activities that can help with a child’s fine motor skills include painting, moulding playdoe and drawing and writing this also helps improve a child’s intellectual development by learning new skills keeping the brain stimulated. Gross motor skills activities that develop physical strength include cycling, playing football, throwing and catching a ball.

Adolescence
During this life stage people aged from 9-18 go through physical development changes known as puberty caused by different chemical hormones in the body puberty effects females and males in different ways. Changes that happen in females are breast development caused from fat tissues growing, growing taller, facial, pubic, leg & armpit hair, hips become wider to be able to carry children also periods starting to allow a woman to become pregnant. A female may produce oily skin due to the menstrual cycle as excess oil is created from hormones causing breakouts. Changes that happen in males include voice becoming deeper, facial and pubic hair growth, Penis and testicles become bigger also sperm is produced to allow a male to reproduce.

Adulthood
During adulthood you will reach your full height by the time you are in your mid-20s. Skin changes will start to develop in the form of getting wrinkles and losing elasticity making the skin less firm. Hair will begin to go grey during the later stages of adulthood.

Fertility will change during middle adulthood which is the natural process of women aging known as menopause which is where a woman gradually stops having a period the process happens around the age of 45 to 55 it is caused by hormone levels that females produce (estrogen, progesterone) the levels of these hormones change frequently as the ovaries start to not produce and release eggs every month this means that a woman can no longer become pregnant naturally.

During this stage your eyes begin through changes that can affect how well you see this can affect seeing objects closely and text may need to be bigger as smaller print can be difficult to read you may also develop cataract.

Older adulthood
During older adulthood physical changes include muscle mass becomes weaker, reaction time becomes slower which can cause an increase in falls as mobility becomes poor. Hearing becomes weaker as cilia hairs become damage throughout life changes. Vision can become worse you may need glasses as you may not be able see clearly.

Memory loss occurs as function of the brain starts to decline this can cause intellectual problems and also be the start cause of dementia.
Hair loss can happen with both male and female hair can also turn grey
Skin can become looser causing the appearance of a sunken face this is due to the loss of collagen.

The final stages of life
During the later stages of life height begins to decrease due to the vertebrate moving closer together, fat can start to decrease from the body.

Mobility starts to decrease as your body becomes weaker
The brain begins to shrink which can cause cognitive function to decrease which causes problems with memory
Immune system becomes weaker which can increase the chance of developing illnesses.

Language Development
Life stage Key features of language development
Conception
During conception language skills are developed around the time when the fetus gains sensory skills at 13 weeks when hearing the mother’s voice or familiar voices around them this allows the baby when born to recognise certain phrases and know who their mother is. This is learnt when the brain starts to development in the temporal lobes which is used for hearing and language skills.
Birth and infancy
During birth the first signs of communication start with crying once being born as the baby is not used to a new environment and taking the first breathes once leaving the womb. (MccoyJ, 2015) In the later stages of birth and infancy other means of communication is using sounds, cry’s or babbles to say to express what they need for example different cries can be used for either being hungry, needing to be changed, being tired or becoming scared. A baby may make soothing noises such as cooing whilst being breast feed or when happy as they become content.

Childhood
During childhood language development becomes more complex as a child begins to learn more vocabulary from going to school and socialising with others. During this time a child should be able to name objects, form sentences that are understood by adults. Should be able to talk about what they did during the day.
By the age of 5 a child should be able to understand conversation from adults such as teachers and parents. Respond back to both adults and children’s in a way that is easy to understand. A child should begin to learn the alphabet and list some numbers counting to 10/50.

Adolescence
As a child goes into adolescence and starts high school vocabulary has a wider range due to learning new subjects and taking part in exams. Written and oral communication becomes more challenging compared to childhood as new words are being learnt and used. Language improves in taking part during problem solving as they must develop abstract thinking skills. As more knowledge is learnt it can help broaden vocabulary skills.

Teenagers develop better communication skills during this time as language becomes more difficult and can develop social skills.

Emotional language improves as a teenager becomes more aware of other people’s feelings this can also relate to as a teenager can become more argumentative.

Adulthood
During this stage language should be fluent but knowledge can still be learnt. But memory can become slower so information can become forgotten, individuals are at high points in their careers during this stage communication skills will be in formal tones meaning to be professional. Speed that information can process becomes a lot slower.Older adulthood
During this stage language may be spoken at a slower pace but higher tone this can be due to environmental issues such as hearing loss which can cause mild deafness this may make it difficult to receive and understand messages quickly. Also, language may be repeated from both the individual and the person communicating as the individual may find it difficult to understand. This could be down to conditions such as dementia where information may be forgotten.

The final stages of life
Similar to older adulthood language may be in past tense as they reflect back on life thinking about past events such as a partner dying as the memory starts to decrease an individual may start speaking as if the partner is still alive to relive memories an individual could be speaking in present tense as they are putting ideas in place for before they die. An individual at this stage would like to spend time with close family and friends sharing memories that they’ve had.

Intellectual Development
Life stage Key features of intellectual development
Conception
During conception intellectual development begins at around 8 weeks this is when the brain starts to from this allows the baby to make its first movements due to the spinal cord and brain fusing together. Throughout the brains development this allows the baby to make facial expressions in the womb such as frowning or smiling also the brain sends messages to the rest of the fetus’s body to respond to noises by kicking this is also helping develop the babies gross motor skills. Also the baby can sense pain during the brains development. Some of a babies reflexes needed from birth are working at this stage such as sucking which is needed at birth for feeding, A baby can also sense different types of noises during conception from the ears sending sound waves to the brain.

Birth and infancy
During the early stages a baby will be able to recognise familiar faces and voices and will instantly know how to use reflexes from birth such as a suckling reflex which is needed after birth for feeding from the mother. A baby may also copy facial expressions from others such as sticking a tongue out, a baby will also know what certain words means and objects and can form sounds such as da da at around 6 months.
At 4 months a baby will explore with their month placing objects to see what they are. Also, can react to sounds by turning the head in the direction where sound is coming from.
At 8 months a baby will be able to know what different cries mean and can express them for example each cry will sound different for if a baby is hurt, hungry, needs changing or needs attention. At this stage a baby can find toys that is hidden under blankets or in boxes. Can form a sentence by babbling.
At 12 months a baby can start to speak their first words that are understandable to adults usually either ma-ma or da-da. Movement also happens in the form of bouncing to music.
Can focus on picture books and point out objects in the book.

At the age of 2 an infant can start to explore more of their surrounding environment and can recognise themselves in a mirror. Can listen to directions and instruction from adults.

Childhood
At 3 an infant can start to ask and respond to more questions such as who, why, where and how and has a wider concentration time. At 4/5 an infant can count up to 5 and start to draw objects they recognise and explain what they are. Also, a child may be able to try and write their own name. Can create stories using own imagination, can sing familiar songs and nursery rhymes.A child’s vocabulary will amount to around 2,000 words by the age of 6
A child will be able to name simple shapes such circle, square and triangle.

At the age of 7 a child may be able to think more logically and be able to problem solve a child will also have a better sense of time
A child may be able to read by themselves at this age and become more independent with learning.

Adolescence
During adolescence teenagers begin to think more logically and solve theoretical problems and interpret important information.

Teenagers become more aware about the world around them and think more about politics, current world issues and helping the environment.
But also begin to challenge parents as more knowledge is there to question their decisions.
A teenager’s brain development will continue learning more subjects at college this can influence how well you do and help identity a career path.
This stage is when a teenager is questioning their identity and trying to get a sense of who they are with personality traits as they progress onto adulthood by developing opinions about themselves and others and goals which can involve further careers.
Adulthood
Intellectual development that happens during adulthood is individual’s start thinking more about careers and the knowledge that needs to be learnt to achieve a chosen career, also adults become more aware about other people’s opinions and take them into account sometimes before there own for people close in their life such as a partner, children or close friends/family.

Older adulthood
During older adulthood an individual’s memory may start to become slower due to not learning new skills
Reflexes may also become slower which can cause simple tasks to take longer which is why it is encouraged for adults to keep mentally active this can be by doing puzzles, learning new hobbies and reading as this helps improve memory and brain functions.
The final stages of life
This stage can be where information may not be processed properly as either there is a physical barrier such as a hearing impairment that stops this or it can be because of brain development becoming slower, dementia can also affect this as memory can be forgotten which can make understanding information difficult information may be remember using pictures. Also music may bring back memories of past events to an individual.

Social Development
Life stage Key features of social development
Conception
During conception social development that a fetus goes through is being able to recognise and respond to familiar voices that the fetus will hear while in the womb this is around 6 – 13 weeks when the sensory system in the body begins to develop even though the sounds that the fetus hears will be muffled the fetus will still familiarise itself with voices heard frequently the baby will also be able to hear its mothers heartbeat. In terms to responding to sounds a fetus will kick whilst inside the womb.

Birth and infancy
At the first stages of birth social development that is used in order to communicate is the use of sounds and emotions to describe how they are feeling examples of this include when being born the first thing that a baby does is cry as this is shown as a sign of coming into a new environment that is unfamiliar to them and needing the attention of its mother which is why it is a quick transition after birth to form the first stages of pre attachment which means baby will recognise this is it’s mother from smell, face and voice. This form of attachment developments up until 2 months of age. Crying develops further on throughout the early stages of life as it means if a baby is either hungry, needs to be changed ,hurt or in need of something it could also mean needing affection from a parent or relative as a baby cannot yet speak this is the main form of social communication. Other forms of social communication include smiling when seeing a familiar face or being made to laugh this lets the adult know the baby likes what’s happening.

Facial expressions and body language that are used in social interaction from birth into infancy include waving arms and legs around to show either excitement or fear.

http://www.kamloopschildrenstherapy.org/social-emotional-infant-milestones
In Piaget theory the 2 stages that begin during this life stage is the sensorimotor stage that (0-2 years) during this a infant will gain experience of the environment by interacting will people and learning new sounds, which goes on into preoperational stage at age 2 then carries on into childhood this is when children begin to learn about pretend play and socialise with others and can recognise objects using words.
An infant should also take part in different types of play there are 4 main types which are solitary play which takes place at around 0-2 years this type of play means to be around other people but not involving yourself with them when playing and be concentrating on solely just playing and is usually unaware of others this type of play links to intellectual develop as a infant can develop their own learning skills and exploring the environment on their own.
The next stage of play leads into childhood which is where a child will play alongside another but not interacting but is aware of another child being there this is known as parallel play and happens around 2-3 years.
Childhood
During the ages of 3-8 a child will start nursery and primary school during this time social skills will develop at a quick pace from learning new skills, information and interacting with others from a variety of cultures and backgrounds. Children build friendships during this stage and take part in cooperative play which means children working together during play activities this also links to piaget’s theory stage of the preoperational stage which develops between 2-7 years as children develop better vocabulary and language skills they can now associate objects with words and can be involved in pretend play in small groups. A child will also develop more of an individual’s personality instead of one that has been learnt as they get ready for adolescence and become aware of other people’s feelings and their own self-esteem and image this links with the concrete operational stage that develops into adolescence.
Adolescence
During adolescence a child will develop into a teenage. Individual will become more socially independent as they don’t rely on parents as much and are influenced more by people their own age then adults. Relationships will also change as you develop of your own identity which this can be influenced by peer groups, social media and family expectations so childhood friendship groups can change as you start high school, college and university. As you start puberty individuals will begin to become more involved with romantic relationships as you look for a long-time partner. Socially you will start to communicate more using social media developing technology skills and terminologies. Socially a teenager will prefer to spend more time with friends rather than family. Teenagers will also develop a wider vocabulary from learning new subjects throughout high school all the way to university. The last stage of piaget develops at age 12 onwards which is called the formal operational stage which develops a teenager to think more about what is happening in the world involving politics and social issues.

Adulthood
In adulthood this is the stage where people often become married or make commitments in a relationship and start to live together and start a family in the middle adulthood most, adults will have children around the age of 18 where they will leave for university this allows adults to increase their social development as they can go out socialising and catching up with childhood friends. Erikson’s theory during this stage is called intimacy vs isolation which he believed that relationships formed either romantically or as a friendship play a key role in social development during adulthood as he explains that people successful in finding meaningful and long lasting relationships will have a better chance in keeping good relationships with others such as with family, friends and partners (intimacy stage) compared to if you struggle making a connection in the early stages of adulthood forming these types of relationships you may then struggle with loneliness and being depressed explaining his stage of isolation. Which could also link to disengagement theory as you become isolated as you create a natural response to withdrawing yourself from social contact by finding it difficult to form strong relationships. https://www.verywell.com/intimacy-versus-isolation-2795739Older adulthood
During this stage people in older adulthood the 8th stage of Erikson’s theory is called integrity vs despair which is where people reflect back on life of either satisfaction or regret. This can either make someone feel depressed with the fact life is nearly over which can result in disengagement and thinking about what could have happened during different life events. Or a person can think about their accomplishments which may be having a family or getting a good job, this can help them feel good about their life and move onto the final stages of life. Socially older people may reconnect with others to share memories and reminisce on past events. New hobbies can be taken up during this time that can help not to disengage and still remain apart of the community.
The final stages of life
During this stage a individual may want to spend there time mostly with family and friends at the final stages of life and talk about memories this time may be seen as a celebration of someone’s life. A person may question the end of there life if they have achieved what they wanted to this can be a time where people do things they haven’t done before. Someone may first be in denial about being in the last stages then followed by anger at the fact they don’t want to die this can go onto bargaining with others hoping they can have more time this may be due because of an illness that has caused an individual’s life to end before they want to but family and friends can reassure them on achievements the individual has made in their life which can lead to acceptance that death cannot be avoided.

Emotional development
Life stage Conception
During conception emotional development begins when around the same time as sensory hearing does as the fetus is able to hear the parent’s voices for the first time this allows bonding before birth from either reading, singing, using a calm voice or playing music whilst in the womb as the baby will recognise and be soothed by these voices after birth. A fetus will also show signs of emotional development using facial expressions from small muscle movements in the face to show signs of smiling or being upset. A baby can also sense when its mother becomes stressed or is tired by raising its blood pressure as the mother’s blood pressure also becomes higher.

Birth and infancy
During birth and infancy emotional development that happens is the only means of a baby communication is through sounds and facial expressions to show emotions which is learnt from others around the baby. Some examples of facial expressions a baby will learn to develop for different meanings include scrunching up of the face, frowning and the bottom of the lip shown for crying. Raised eyebrows and open mouth for being surprised and smiling and slightly closes eyes for laughter. These can be shown with body language such as moving arms and legs in uncontrollable motions to match the emotion of being upset or throwing arm in the arm for being surprised. These emotions can be used to show parents a baby’s needs such as if a baby needs changing crying will be used from discomfort or could be shown for being scared during a game of peek a boo laughter can also follow this when the baby sees that there is no danger.

During birth and infancy, a variety of emotional milestones should be reached such as developing skills in social play and pretend play like peek a boo or playing with toys. Also, a baby should be able to cry when needing attention from others, respond to sounds and voices.

Childhood
During childhood individuals discover more emotions as they become more self-aware examples of this include becoming embarrassed, shy and feeling guilt from social interactions during nursery and school as self-concept develops. Also a child may develop an emotional attachment to an imaginary friend this is learnt through pretend play this can help develop a child’s emotions and conversation skills. A child may start to argue and become angry/upset with other children this can be from parallel play when children learn how to share toys. Erikson’s theory during this life stage this is called industry vs inferiority which is used during a child’s time starting a new environment of school and gaining new friendships and taking part in more complex challenges to perform well in school which can help develop confidence from academic achievement which relates to industry but can be turned into inferiority if a child struggles in school and feels like failing when they don’t achieve well. A child may also experience signs of mood swings by being made upset by another child but becomes happy when seeing a parent. During this stage starting nursery at the early stages a child will be very attached to his/her mother as this is all they have known so a child will experience emotions of being upset waiting for the parents but as nursery is brought into a child’s daily routine they recognise that they are not being left and start to be more independent and become attached to friends around them but will still need his/her parent for protection when something bad happens.
Adolescence
As a child goes through puberty and develops into a teenager a lot of changes happen involving emotional development as the brain begins to develop hormones such as estrogen and progesterone for females and testosterone. Emotions will be changing all the time due to different levels of hormones going through the body many times which can cause mood swings unexpectedly.

This is time where a teenager may be lacking in self esteem and become sensitive to other people’s opinions about them.

https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-hormones-responsible-for-different-emotions-in-humansAdulthood
During early adulthood an individual will face a range of emotions such as anxiety, stress or happiness which can be from either successes or failures that can include getting a new job, relationship or house.
Emotional attachment can also begin during this age as an adult will move away from wanting attachment to parents or friends and will be looking for a romantic attachment.
Older adulthood
During older adulthood individuals enter retirement this is where someone it at the age where they no longer have to work and can enjoy their final stages of life. In retirement the first stage may include happiness as they have a sense of freedom to complete goals an individual hasn’t had chance to do due to working and enjoy doing activities. This may only last a while after completing goals a person may become depressed as they don’t know what else to do as they have nothing to fill their time. This is where an individual should take up a new hobby in order to socialise with others and build new relationships with others.
The final stages of life
During the final stages of life emotional development can be a time where individuals look back on life where they can think about happy times or where they made mistakes it can be a time of reflection. Emotionally individuals can be upset as they may want to live longer or happy about life achievements this can be a time to make more memories with family members that can be passed on after a death.

M1- Nature and nurture (Stephen Hawking)
About him
Stephen hawking’s was born on the 8th January 1942 in oxford
He went to St. Albans school at the age of 7 then went onto the university college in oxford to study physics he left after 3 years with a first honours degree in natural science after this he went on to study Cosmology at Cambridge which he got a Ph.D. He went the institute of astronomy he then became the researcher at the department of applied mathematics and theoretical physics in 1979 until 2009. While studying at Cambridge Stephen was diagnosed with ALS just after his 21st birthday resulting in him developing depression after being told he would only survive 2 years.
http://www.hawking.org.uk/about-stephen.htmlAbout motor neurone disease
Motor neurone disease or ALS is a condition that affects around 5% of people and is a cause of the breakdown of the nervous system in the brain and spinal caused as the neurones in the brain start to not function correctly.

Physical problems
During the stages of diagnoses symptoms that start to develop include physical difficulties which can cause speech to become slurred and swallowing difficult this can cause problems with drooling due to excess salvia as the condition becomes worse facial and throat muscle begin to deterate. Muscles in the body begin to become weaker as the muscle starts to waste away this can cause cramps or spasms as muscles become weaker problems with grip and holding objects occur. Later stages can lead to memory being affected which can be caused by a type of dementia called frontotemporal dementia that is caused by motor neurone disease.
https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/motor-neurone-disease/https://www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/Directory/M/motor-neurone-disease Emotional problems
Having ALS can affect you emotionally as you may find everyday tasks such as eating, drinking and walking difficult which could be a big change if you lived independently before being diagnosed with the condition. As you now may find you can’t swallow or breathe properly, you also may become depressed as long-term effects can affect a person’s memory which could become frustrating due to trouble concentrating or forgetting certain words and meanings.

http://alsn.mda.org/article/when-als-affects-mindWhat is nature vs nurture?
Nature vs nurture is an argument that decisions are influenced by either social surroundings or by a person’s genetics. Nature means is something that is unchangeable in the gene or inherited for example skin and eye colour cannot be changed. Nurture means something that is learnt by either our upbringing’s or surrounding were we are raised such as beliefs or personality. The debate comes to question for such factors that includes high blood pressure and obesity whether these conditions have been caused from genetics passed down from parents to explain the nature side or the conditions have been caused by a person living by unhealthy lifestyle choices from eating foods high in fat and sugar which describes nurture that has been learnt from surroundings examples being from the media advertisements glorifying fast foods to make these choices.
In relation to Stephen hawking
The nature nurture debate in relation to Stephen Hawking could suggest that as Stephen was diagnosed with ALS at 21 this could be down to genetics as the chances of him getting the condition were irreversible as explained on https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/motor-neurone-disease/causes/ motor neurone disease can be caused from a number of genetic reasons such as the mitochondria which is reasonable for the energy in the body’s cells show that people diagnosed with ALS have abnormal deformities but in most causes motor neurone disease is caused from aggregates which are clumps of protein within the motor neurones which control how they work. Another cause is by cell disruption which main jobs are to transport chemicals out of the cell by in causes of ALS is by build-up in cells from natural activity. People suffering with motor neurone disease are suffering with lack of antioxidants which are normally produced in the body. These factors would suggest that Stephen Hawking’s development of motor neurones disease was down to nature however, ALS made Stephen unable to do simple tasks that other 21 year olds at the time would. Physically he was unable to walk unaided which stopped him from taking part in activities that he used to do. His speech became slurred and he lost the ability to write which gave him difficulties while he was at Cambridge. As he was independent he refused any kind of help while suffering the early stages of ALS which caused him to be frustrated with how his life had become. Despite this he still carried on with his studies as both his parents went to oxford to study medicine, philosophy, politics and economics so he knew that it was expected of him to perform well academically. As a child Stephen’s parents made him read every day which could suggest his parents taught him that education was important from a young age. He followed his father’s studies of medicine despite wanting to study maths at Oxford as this is what he was good at in school this could suggest that nurture has a part in his decision as it was learnt from his parents. While at Cambridge he received a first honours degree in natural science and went onto to receive a PHD in applied mathematics, physics and cosmology all while suffering with motor neurone disease.
He since then created theories based on the big bang, the black hole and how the universe works and is now known as one of the world’s greatest physicists by communicating only by eye movements using a computerized voice to translate. It is seen as nurture to him to carry on with his education to be successful learnt from his background and environment around him at the time solely from his ex-wife Jane Wilde and his condition motivating him to do well that has allowed himself to become known worldwide for managing alongside his disease for over 50 years despite only being given 2 years and has received many awards for his work to science.
In conclusion despite nature being the cause of his condition and the main cause that influenced his life he carried on with his education, got married and had children and still followed his instincts to follow his career choice in science instead of letting his disease take over he chose to raise awareness for others about ALS.
https://www.thoughtco.com/stephen-hawking-biography-2699408D1- Evaluation on nature vs nurture
The two life stages of development I’m going to discuss of how nature and nurture may affect Stephen hawking’s P.I.E.S is childhood and adulthood.
Childhood (3-8 years)
Physical
During Stephens physical development in childhood his growth will be at a steady rate, gross and fine motor skills will begin to become more advance for example he will not be able to start running, climbing and be able to pick up and throw objects this also links to fine motor skills as Stephen will also begin to pick up pencils and drawing. This life stage will also see Stephen lose his baby teeth to allow permanent teeth to come through. Nature is responsible for this part of development as physical development is something that cannot be changed as it is a part of life. However, nurture can also influence factors including fine and gross motor skill development as Stephens parent’s need to teach him how to hold objects like pencils and helping him learn how to run and climb.

https://www.verywell.com/physical-development-in-childhood-2795117Intellectual
As Stephen begins going to primary school nurture is going to be the main influence for this factor as he is going to learn new things about different environments he’ll be in and learning new subjects to allow brain development his parents will also help with this as he is encouraged to read every night this will help with his intellectual development. However, he didn’t learn to read until the age of 8 this could have been affected by nurture as he mentioned that his previous school ‘Byron house’ caused him to fail being able to read due to progressive methods at a young age. This shows that nurture is needed at this stage as vital things such as reading should be taught to children otherwise this will slow down intellectual development.

Emotional
During Stephen’s emotional development in childhood he will learn what different emotions mean being in a new school environment he will develop self-esteem from new friends he will also learn pretend play and depending on his surrounding this will affect the type of people he hangs around with. He will become more aware of other people’s feelings and their own self-image his emotions are a part of his genetic development as a natural response to the situation/environment he is in examples of this include becoming embarrassed, shy and feeling guilt from social interactions. As he couldn’t read in the early stages of childhood this links to Erikson’s theory during this stage of industry vs Inferiority as he struggles with reading this affected him academically as he felt like he was failing compared to others this made him further behind with reading skills during childhood this would make him have a low self-esteem as he may feel like he isn’t achieving well.
Social
During Stephen’s social development nature is involved in his development of language skills and how his brain receives and responds to messages. This will be influenced by what he learns during school and who he interacts with which will either help him gain confidence or be shy. Nurture will affect the choices he makes socially which could involve conversation topics and opinions he has of himself and others. It will also link to nurture as during this stage Stephen will develop his own personality as he gets a sense of who he is this can be learned traits from his surrounding environments but can also be influenced by Stephen’s parents for example as both his parents are involved in medicine and science this may influence him on subjects in school which will allow him to socialise with others that have similar interests. He will learn how to build friendships and take part in different types of play working in groups. He will also be able to associate words with objects during this stage. He made a close group of friends during his time in school this would have influenced his interests and how he communicated.

Adulthood (19-65 years)
Physical
During the first stages of adulthood Stephen was diagnosed with motor neurone disease at the age of 21 this made his physical development decline over the years. The first signs that affected his physical development was becoming uncoordinated as he started falling more and having difficulties with physical activities in university. This later progressed after he was diagnosed to him having trouble walking and his fine motor skills declines as he had trouble writing. This resulted in him losing the ability to walk and had to use a wheelchair as his main means of moving in 1960. After being given only 2 years to live he defined these odds to survive the disease as in 1970 his facial muscles began to detraite causing him to lose his speech due to having pneumonia and in 2005 he lost the ability to use his hands and couldn’t move his neck. These physical changes were a result of nature as the changes that happened were the symptoms of the condition which was inevitable and could be changed. However, Stephen learned how to adapt to his life changes which is known as nurture and measures were put in place to allow Stephen to have a better quality of life this included having a wheelchair that could be controlled by his facial expressions and small movements this helped him move around.

Intellectual
During Stephens adulthood he improved his intellectual skills by going to university to study physics this is associated with nurture as he has learnt the information from others. As his condition progressed he had trouble concentrating and as his speech became slurred he had trouble trying to plan his conversations. Despite his condition he was still motivated to carry with his studies which allowed him to carry on his work in science and maths allowing him to receive many awards such as at the 2016 pride of Britain awards he received the life time achievement award for his work towards science and british culture. He went onto raise awareness about ALS which became known worldwide and raised money by doing the ice bucket challenge. His mind went onto create theories about the black hole and the universe.
Emotional
During adulthood in the first stages when Stephen found out about having motor neurone disease this caused him to have develop depression as he was only told he had a few years to live. As his condition became worse which resulted with him not being able to simple tasks this made him frustrated when not being able to walk and talk this is seen as a natural response which links to nature as this is the brain’s way of responding to life events. As he lived past the time he was given to survive als this made him determined to carry on with his studies this allowed him to achieve awards in science this would have made him happy as he also went onto do work in order to raise awareness about both problems happening around the world to do with science such as climate change and talking more about motor neurone disease to help others this would have raised his self-esteem as people valued him for the work he did. As he became older he got married to Jane Wild who he was friends with during university he felt pleased as he knew he was still loved despite his condition and she stuck by him throughout, he went onto have 3 children which he believed that his condition did not stop him from achieving his dreams in life although at times he felt upset as a father he couldn’t do physical activities with them growing up which would have made him feel like he missed a part of their lives as he couldn’t join in. This would have been down to nature and nurture as he learnt how to deal with his condition and allowed him to become motivated to learn more during university which helped him develop his career.

Social
Socially during adulthood Stephen’s way of communicating decreased as his speech became slurred and lost the ability to communicate altogether in 1980’s so he had to use facial expressions such as raising eyebrows to select letters on card in 1986 technology became more advanced so he had measures in place in the form of a computerised speech device which used his hands to select over 3000 phrases to speak but after losing the use of his hand movements he had to learn other ways of communicating this included using facial expressions in his cheeks this then developed into a computer scanning his brain patterns to translate that predict words this was a quicker way of Stephen communicating with others. These ways of communicating even though caused by nature from the decline in his condition the ways that were used to allow him to communicate were adapt throughout the years as Stephen has learnt how to use them from other people’s and his own teachings. His work in science and for his work with disability charities raising awareness about motor neurone disease this has allowed him to make more friends during these interactions.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_HawkingIn conclusion despite nature being the main cause of how it affects Stephen’s development overall that created many challenges and changes for him he used nurture as a way of learning more about his condition which allowed him to create ways that helped with his development to not cause as many barriers this allowed him to carry on with his studies, create a new way of communicating using brain patterns, contribute his work to science, raise awareness to others and celebrate milestones that he thought he wouldn’t have been able to do such as getting married and having children he didn’t like his condition take over his life.

Task 2- P2 Potential effects of life factors on Stephen hawking
Education
The effects that education had on Stephen Hawking is that he developed his intellectual skills by learning how to read and write during childhood he extended this as he got older from his parent’s teachings as they wanted a good education for him and from subjects he took at school such as he gained 459304654011300an interest in mathematics which he wanted to take in university but his father didn’t allow it as he thought medicine was a better career choice this could have affected Stephen as if he choice medicine he may have not done as well academically compared to maths which could have affected his overall career choice instead he chose physics as maths wasn’t available at Oxford during his time at Cambridge university Stephen developed als emotionally he would have found his education to be difficult to handle under the influence of stress and depression after being diagnosed with 2 years left to live he didn’t see the point with carrying on with his education. Physically this would have affected his education as he would find it difficult to communicate, walk and write.

Education allowed Stephen to make social interactions with others from being at school while at St Albans he remained friends with a group that were interested in board games, manufacturing of fireworks, aeroplanes and boat models these activities would have also linked with intellectual development as it would need problem solving skills to be involved. His IQ is known to be over 160.

450614218632700Marriage
Stephen got married to Jane Wilde in 1965 2 years after his diagnoses of motor neurone disease which was around the time doctors said he would live up to but at this stage he could still walk, and the disease didn’t affect as doctors predicted so he was still very able when he got married. Marriage is a predictable event that most people go through during their lifetime when getting engaged to Jane in 1964 Stephen said this gave him something to live for so emotionally Stephen felt motivated and delighted he was getting married.

396221925028100Children
Another predictable life factor that Stephen went through was having children Jane and Stephen had 3 children during their marriage Robert (May 1967) Lucy (1970) and Timothy (April 1979). Physically despite have motor neurone disease Stephen was still able to have children as the condition didn’t affect this as with his first child Stephen was still to stand. Emotionally this would have made him happy as he may have thought this wouldn’t happen but as his children were growing up he rarely discussed his illness and challenges with his children and tried to hide his emotions as physically he couldn’t do activities with him and he began to be upset with this as he thought he was missing out a part of their childhood.

Disability
405982748740800Stephen developing als is the main life factor that affected his development as this was an unpredictable life event something that he didn’t know was happening but couldn’t be stopped this affected him in many ways physically he was unable to do many simple tasks he had trouble speaking, writing and walking this made him need support by using wheelchairs, computerised speech generator as his way of communicating. As he became paralysed he needed to use his facial muscles to communicate it effected his entire life, but he managed his condition in a way of awareness and allowed himself to continue with his work.

Career
38207041061400His contributions to science allowed Stephen to intellectually increase his development as he learnt more about the world he became a scientist that is known all around the world he became the researcher at the department of applied mathematics and theoretical physics in 1979 until 2009. He is known for his work surrounding theories about the black hole and the universe as a whole. His income which is around $46 million makes him the highest paid scientist in the world this has allowed him to live a sustainable lifestyle.

https://en.mediamass.net/people/stephen-hawking/highest-paid.htmlP3- Influences of predictable and unpredictable life events on Stephen Hawking.

Predictable life events are factors that an individual is to go through during their life that cannot be helped. Examples of predictable life events that Stephen went through is school this was one of his major life events as this is where he developed his physical, intellectual, emotional and social development which is how he learnt skills and knowledge to go onto university education is an important event as he learnt how to read after changing to another school later on in his school life he learnt complex information that helped him develop his intellectual skills which influenced his decisions when choosing subjects for university he wanted to learn maths as that is what he learnt best but his father influenced his overall decision by saying a subject involving medicine would be better he chose physics which influenced his life completely as he chose a career involving science where he went onto receive a PHD in applied mathematics, physics and cosmology at Cambridge and be known around the world. Another predictable life event was Stephen having children this influenced his life as it gave him something to live for and was a positive part in his life as he had time to spend with his children and create a bond also he could learn new skills involving parenting a negative part was he was unable to physically be apart in their development as he became paralysed from motor neurone disease this left a gap as he couldn’t do activities such as sport with them which he may of wanted to teach his children rowing that he did whilst in university but was unable to do this.

Unpredictable event
An unpredictable life event in Stephen’s life was being diagnosed with motor neurone disease as he didn’t know this was going to happen whilst growing up this affected him in many ways during his development in adulthood a positive way this influenced him was he had to learn new skills to adapt to the physical change such as learning how to use a wheel chair or using his facial expressions to allow a computer to communicate for him, he could also raise awareness about motor neurone disease as he is known to be one of the longest survivors from only being given 2 years to live at his diagnosis at 21 to celebrating his 75th birthday this year. This has helped many others know the symptoms and be diagnosed quickly. A way that this could have been negative for him is by the fact he lost many of his skills during adulthood such as walking and writing this could have caused him a great deal of anger as he felt hopeless during his time in university and when having children, he couldn’t hold them and bond with them playing games like other fathers may have been able to do.

Another unpredictable life event that Stephen went through was getting divorced from Jane Wilde in 1995 this would have influenced him as he may have blamed his condition for this which could cause resentment within himself as his condition became too much for Jane and the fame Stephen was getting for his work and condition as she suffered with depression whilst dealing with the progression of his illness being his carer. A way that this influenced him was they became good friends after their divorce and she still helped him with his condition and both went onto remarry Stephen marrying his carer at the time Elaine Mason.

Task 3-
The process of aging- (p4)
The theory of aging is stages individuals go through during a lifetime there are 3 main theories which are continuity, activity and disengagement theory all are different to each other and many people go through stages in their life stuck at the same theory. The two theories that I’m going to discuss is the disengagement theory and activity theory.
The disengagement theory was developed by Cumming and Henry in 1961 they explain that as you get older you will become more detached from social activities that you may have done when you were younger to fit in with societies views such as a boy not taking part in ballet anymore as it may be seen as embarrassing. As you begin the stage of adolescence you may withdraw from social contact with others due to anxiety which can then result in losing friends and not seeing family events due to isolating yourself. As you enter the later stages of life you are more likely to develop physical illnesses such as arthritis and Parkinson’s disease this can lead to people developing other illnesses such as depression. Disengagement theory is considered as a natural process as you get older and you become more of an individual due to either you or family moving away or isolating yourself from society. Factors that can influence why disengagement happens can be due to either ill health such as developing a hearing or visual impairment which can make communication difficult. Mobility problems can stop people leaving the house which can then lead to isolation. Geographical locations can stop people interacting with social circles from adulthood by moving away to another location disengagement can happen as older people may find it more difficult to interact with others due to lack of new interests. Inevitably it can lead to loss of social opportunities this can cause health problems such as depression by developing a low esteem due to not seeing others. Intellectual development can decrease as an individual will not be learning any new skills.

The next theory I’m going to discuss is the activity theory which was created by Bromley in 1966 he believed that as people become older they disengage to stop this older people should remain mentally and physically active in order to not disengage completely to avoid isolation as they start to lose identity they had in earlier life he believed that people should be encouraged to take part in new activities as you get older to keep involved with social interactions such as being involved in group activities which could include gardening, bowls, bingo, swimming or tennis as these have many benefits to the quality of life someone can have in later life as physically doing those activities or one’s similar can not only give someone a higher quality of life it can increase mobility expect to live a longer life expectancy, being more mentally aware, increased intellectual development from learning new skills and making more friends/ becoming more socially active which you may not do in later life. Also taking part in activities can reduce the risk of developing health risks associated with old age such as osteoporosis which is a condition that makes bones become weaker and more fragile this can cause serious problems as bones can become fractured very easily due to old age. Other conditions that can happen due to being inactive include arthritis and heart problems these can all decrease the quality of life someone leads. To stay mentally active people should promote activities that increase intellectual and social development such activities include board games, quizzes and music which can help people with dementia as music can bring back memories from childhood or adult life which can increase mental stimulation. In conclusion the activity theory shows that interacting with others in later life can build relationships, by being active an individual can increase self-esteem and maintain a positive mindset and overall life satisfaction it can limit developing the risks associated with the disengagement such as having depression and becoming lonely the activity theory was put in place so that individuals can become happier and can take part in new experiences with people of a similar age.

How the two theories relate to Stephen Hawking? M2
The disengagement theory can relate to Stephen Hawking as when he developed als he began to isolate himself from others due to feeling a burden and no point in carrying on with his education getting 2 years left to survive he became very depressed as he couldn’t do simple tasks by himself and stopped taking part in physical activities that he did apart of university but later on during his studies he became motivated to carry on achieve more in life this can relate to the activities theory as during his career he became more mentally aware and focused on science when receiving aid in the form of a wheelchair and a computerised speaker this allowed him to take part in more activities as he was more mobile this allowed him to gain awards for his work and become recognised around the world he realised that he needed to be active and involved within the community he had carers that looked after him physically as he could no longer do this.
D2
The influence of the disengagement and activity theories on the health and social care provision is that as people become older everyone takes different approaches to later stages of life some may disengage themselves completely while others may slowly start to disengage but wish to engage in new activities so health care settings provide services that can promote this settings can include day centres which allows elderly people to seek rehabilitation from home life which may be lonely to seek social environments and interact with others to build relationships within activities such as drawing, painting, knitting and going out to do physical activities. For activity theory settings such as nursing homes ways that this theory can influence this provision is that holding game afternoons such as bingo, board games or quizzes can allow residents to socialise that may have otherwise just stayed in rooms not socialising this can allow others to make new friends while in the nursing home. For disengagement theory as individuals may not want to go to day centres as they may be suffering with depression, but carers may need to visit them services that can offered by healthcare providers such as NHS is volunteers and helplines that provide services to elderly people that have become disengaged that can either come and spend time with the individual to have a talk either in person or over the phone, watch tv or to just play cards. This type of service offers a platform for individuals to be social with someone else and make sure the individual’s wellbeing is good.
Charities are also put in place for the elderly to help against naturally disengaging from society this could be for a manner of reasons such as ill health, location or due to lack of interest. Charities which specialise with helping the older generation include Age UK which aims to provide a service to elderly people who may have become lonely and need someone to talk to.

In conclusion health services put services in place in order to tackle older people from not disengaging from others and as people become older they can become lonely if away from friends and family which could eventually lead to developing health problems such as depression and anxiety which could result in isolation if services aren’t there. These are needed to let people know they have someone to talk to and somewhere to go if they need support this could just be in the form of having someone there that is interested in having a conversation with them once a week even though it is not every day it gives individuals something to look forward to during the week which could boost their self-esteem.
P5.

As you become older throughout your life your body goes through a lot of changes that physically can be associated with ageing. These changes include…
Hearing
As you become older throughout your lifetime excessive loud noises can cause permanent damage by tiny hair cells that pick up soundwaves and send messages back to the brain these become destroyed and cannot regrow this can be caused by loud music from either concerts or headphones that go directly into the ear. This can make communication difficult as speech can become less clear. A way that can help with this to wear a hearing aid. Symptoms of hearing loss can be asking people to repeat themselves, misunderstanding what they say and listening to music or tv on high volume.

Visual
As you age your eyes begin through changes that can affect how well you see this can affect seeing objects closely and text may need to be bigger as smaller print can be difficult to read. From getting older there is an increase of developing diabetes that can cause cataracts which is when the lens becomes less clear and vision can be cloudy and can damage vision from light not reaching the back of the eye. This potentially make someone blind symptoms include having double vision, colours looking faded and difficult vision in dim or bright lighting.

Female reproductive system
The natural process of women aging is menopause begins which is where a woman gradually stops having a period the process happens around the age of 45 to 55 it is caused by hormone levels that females produce (estrogen, progesterone) the levels of these hormones change frequently as the ovaries start to not produce and release eggs every month this means that a woman can no longer become pregnant naturally. Symptoms that a woman can experience during this process is getting hot flushes, night sweats, mood can become low, levels of anxiety can happen a woman’s sex drive may become low due to loss of hormone levels another symptom is problems with memories and concentration. This process can cause both physical and emotional changes and can cause a woman to become frustrated with menopause.

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/menopause/
Skin
As you age the skin loses elasticity and becomes thinner this can be due to personal habits such as exposure to the sun caused by uv rays which can also cause an increase in freckles and age spots skin can also be affected by smoking. Skin may become less tight which can cause the skin to wrinkle in certain areas which is a natural part of skin aging. Fat can be lost around the cheek and eye area which can make the face appear sunken. As you age your skin decreases in the natural oils that it produces leading to skin becoming very dry.
Physiological changes
Ageism
Becoming older individuals may feel like they have less opportunities to do things such as getting a new job and not being given a fair chance compared to someone applying for the same job at a younger age as teenagers may be considered as newly experienced. This can be known as ageism and can cause stereotypes in younger age groups that elderly people cannot do the same things that younger people can this can negatively affect a person’s confidence and financial situations as a younger person is more likely to get a job role.
Increased leisure time
In the later stages of life elderly people enter retirement which gives an individual time to take of themselves and spending time with family and friends retirement increases overall leisure time which allows individuals to take up new hobbies that they may have not done during working life. Which can relate to the activity theory new changes could be doing more physical activities such as swimming, cycling, walking or running which can provide health benefits such as being more physically active and can prevent the risks of falls by having better mobility this can increase a person’s better quality of life.

Loss of a partner
As you enter the later stages of life bereavement becomes a common occurrence to happen with friends and relatives but can happen with long term partners which can affect a person emotionally by causing a person to develop depression and anxiety and not wanting to leave the house this can cause the first stages of disengagement by not wanting to see others during the time someone is grieving which can be over a long period of time this can cause a person to become lonely.

M3
How physical changes affect self-esteem and self confidence
As you get older a lot of physical changes happen throughout life stages which can either positively or negatively affect someone’s self-esteem and confidence. Factors that can affect this is when the skin starts to age by getting wrinkles and aging from the sun by damage in the inability to protect itself as we age. This can affect someone’s self-confidence as they might not feel as youthful anymore and may start comparing themselves to others. Others may see this as a positive change as this may be sign of maturity entering the later stages of adulthood. As women become older going the menopause may affect someone self-esteem and confidence as this is the stage where a woman will stop producing eggs this can be an upsetting time for woman that haven’t been able to have children as this means they can no longer become pregnant naturally. Women also may feel less attractive to others this can affect someone’s self-esteem due to not wanting to go out. Another physical change that can happen during aging is bladder control due to bladder muscles becoming weaker with age this causes incontinence which can affect someone’s self-confidence going out as they may see this as embarrassing it can happen due to poor mobility or a woman that has gone through childbirth or menopause.
References
Social development- childhood
https://www.scanva.org/support-for-parents/parent-resource-center-2/social-development-in-children/References
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