Sleep deprivation is defined as “being prevented from getting the desired or needed amount of sleep” (Coon & Mitterer, 2011). Sleep is a basic function of the body and the amount and quality of sleep influences the impact of sleep on a person’s wellness (Coon ; Mitterer, 2011). When my grandfather passed away, I had my first experience with sleep deprivation that lasted for nine days in the row from the time he was rushed to the hospital through the wake up to the funeral. After sleeping as little as an hour and a half during the wake and attending school in the morning, I lost a lot of sleep. I remember feeling drowsy as early as my first period in school and dozing off at the cafeteria on the fifth or sixth day. If I remember correctly, I felt like I was not fully aware of my actions by the fifth or sixth day of sleep deprivation.
The impact of sleep deprivation on the body creates sleep debt (Coon ; Mitterer, 2011). When this occurs on a short term basis, like missing the right amount of sleep for one or two nights, the person could still perform normally but their ability to concentrate and stay alert would be compromised (Coon ; Mitterer, 2011). In the case of airplane pilots, drivers, and machine operators, regular or long-term sleep deprivation has a negative impact on their ability to perform work-related tasks perfectly (Otmani, Pebayle, Roge, ; Muzet, 2015). Driving automobiles, taking off, and landing planes require alertness and concentration so regular or
long-term sleep deprivation could potentially lead to errors and accidents for drivers, pilots as well as machine operators because their work requires concentration and alertness (Otmani et al., 2015).
Classical conditioning was introduced by Ivan Pavlov where a learned behavior is exhibited when exposed to a conditioned, often unrelated stimulus (Coon ; Mitterer, 2011). Advertising has often applied the principles of classical conditioning to evoke strong feelings when communicating (Gorn, 1982). One example is the use of music to evoke the desired emotional response from the target audience (Gorn, 1982). Advertisers for cars, hotels, resorts, and spas, and restaurants carefully use background features to accentuate the message of their advertisements (Gorn, 1982). For example, car commercials often use fast, upbeat, energetic music to advertise their new sports cars and SUVs while they use mellower, pleasant music when advertising sedans and hatchback cars. Music is used as a background feature that creates a mood that triggers an emotional response from the target audience.
Second, classical conditioning is used by advertisers when they use celebrity endorsements for their products. Products like Nike, Gatorade, and Pepsi use celebrity endorsers. Till et al. (2008) found that a high celebrity-product fit or belongingness leads to effective conditioning. This means sports stars like LeBron James and Michael Jordan endorse sports products like Nike and Gatorade, conditioning becomes more effective. While low celebrity-product fit like David Beckham’s Pepsi endorsement would create a weak conditioning link between product and endorser (Till, Stanley, & Priluck, 2008).
One type of classical conditioning used in my family is the use of the alarm clock. Growing up, the sound of a digital alarm clock is symbol of school or work in my family. My parents always used a digital alarm clock and when I hear the same or similar sound at the mall or in public, it makes me feel that I have to get ready for school.
Intelligence is a vital cognitive function. Coon and Mitterer (2011) define intelligence as the capacity of the individual to “…act purposefully, to think rationally, and to adapt to one’s surroundings” (p. 330). Because of the importance of intelligence in cognitive function and daily life, defining, measuring, and evaluating intelligence has become crucial and controversial in the field of psychology. Traditionally, intelligence has been measured and evaluated based on the following: fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory (Coon & Mitterer, 2011). In 2000, Howard Gardner proposed the presence of Multiple Intelligence where individuals are said to have “different kinds of mind and therefore learn…in different ways” (p. 21). The idea of multiple intelligence proposes that there are eight different types of intelligences and they influence the learning styles of individuals (Coon & Mitterer, 2011). The idea that there are more than one way individuals learn and acquire knowledge has been widely accepted among educators but Gardner’s idea that there are multiple forms of intelligence has not yet been proven empirically through studies and has not been backed up by physiological evidence of the various types of intelligences identified by Gardner (Waterhouse, 2006). Current science and academic research have no proof to support the Multiple Intelligence Theory (Waterhouse, 2006). In the same way, the current limitations of science do not allow its critics to disprove the theory.
After reflecting on the topic of multiple intelligence, the lack of empirical support for MI undermines its reliability as a theory. I believe that the idea that people learn in different ways because they have different learning styles is the most important contribution of the theory. However, Gardner’s assertion that there is more than one type of intelligence is something that I feel tentative about unless research and science could prove that multiple intelligence is true.