Salafi-Jihadism path of argument that led to
Salafi-Jihadism does not come into existence with Islamic faith, rather conditions triggered it. In Islamic teachings killing a fellow Muslim is unlawful, except in situation where the Sharia qualifies it. The question of who is a Muslim, and whether it is allowed to declare jihad against anyone who calls him or herself a Muslim; this starts the theological path of argument that led to Salafi-jihadist ideology. Salafi-jihadi ideology put forward the question of who is a true and is ready to lead the state with the divine law, Sharia – these are the battles they are fighting until today. The root of Salafi-Jihadism could be trace way back to the period of Ahmad ibn Taymiyya, who passed a fatwa to use the violence form of jihad against group that called themselves Muslims. Twentieth-century brought about the explicit ideology of Salafi-Jihadist by the Islamists.
The likes of Maududi, who declared most of the Muslim societies as un-Islamic and considered them to be living in the state of jahiliyya and he recommends Sharia to be the only mechanism to rescue them; Hassan al Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood; and Sayyid Qutb, who got their inspiration from the ibn Taymiyya, Maududi, and Hassan al Banna as a guide to return the contemporary states to Islamic states. Maududi could be considered to first scholar in 20th-century to argue against the modernity and Westernization. He stresses that nothing good that a state needs which is not in Allah’s law, Sharia. By this, he advocated for returning to Allah’s sovereignty through forming Islamic states and be ruled by Caliph; in accordance with the Sharia. His revolution was not as hashed and powerful like that of Qutb and others, however, he called for political party and Islamized the state and finally be ruled by a Caliphate.
Qutb began with much powerful claims that the umma is no longer in existent because Muslim lost their way and they worship things other than Allah by accepting secular rulers. For Qutb, to accept Islamic faith means to denounce and reject all form of government, except the one ordained by Allah – by this he specifically refers to the secular system of government. He further argues that to begin with, the umma must segregate itself from the secular government or society. Both Qutb and Maududi agreed on forming an umma community first and later move on in the society to convert others to Islam. In this process, he advocates for the use of violent jihad to transform the society.
Once umma wins the battle, they would build a community that will live the life of Prophet Muhammad and jahiliyya would be eradicated for good. Finally, the aim of Salafi-Jihadists is to bring back the lives of Prophet Muhammad and his followers. In achieving this, Qutb unlike later Salafi-jihadi theorists, conceptualized Jihad as a tool against the those oppressing the umma, then against the Muslim state, and finally against the non-Muslim world.