REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This study examines the impact of family support system given by the parents on the academic performance of a student. The related literature reviews articles, books, studies and journals which are relevant to the topic which is the “Effects of Family Support System to the Academic Performance of a Student”.
Iganga and Mayuge (2003) stated in their study that; Family is the basic unit of society. Enhancing cognitive development, learning, and socialization and moulding an individual who fits in the community; school is the responsible on it. Finally, community is perceived as the universe where all individuals converge, irrespective of their character or past experience. To build a healthy and peaceful society, human interactions at various stages of human development are inexcusable.
Every individual is traced back to a family and therefore parental involvement in any stage of individual’s growth is inseparable. It is worth noting that parental involvement in development of an individual varies within cultures and societies. Parental involvement takes many forms such as good parenting at home, provision of basic necessities, positive behaviour moulding, instilling positive social values and good citizenry and above all, enhancing educational aspirations (Rafiq 2013).
In line with the study conducted by Singh (2002), and Eilam (2001), for the self concept of the student, family and parental support has significant impact. The parents itself should have the initiative to support the children. It is also said that dominantly, some parents are illiterate and economically depressed. For the normal situation, the normal responsibilities of the school and teacher increases. They have the initiative and the right to perform their duties and responsibilities to the students and children. Moreover, they should encourage them as well through individual efforts.
Coaching and teaching children on their home is one of the very important things. Henderson and Mapp (2002) on the he fourth edition of the Evidence publication entitled “New Wave of Evidence Report reviewed over 80 research studies. This report indicated that the continuously generated evidence on positive parental participation influences their children’s academic performance is substantial and consistent. The children will possibly have a better academic performance when families, schools and communities work in collaboration in supporting the child’s learning. These outcomes include: improved learning achievement, retention in school and improved educational aspirations. The same report indicates that there are long-term effects associated with children whose families are involved in their education. Such include children attaining better test scores, being enrolled in education programmes which are perceived to be challenging, regular school attendance, positive behaviour and better socialization skills. Numerous education research studies have provided consistent evidence on interconnections between families, schools and communities in enhancing children’s growth, development and learning Boethel (2004) and Epstein (2001).
According to the comprehensive framework by Epstein (2001) the six types of the parental involvement on their children’s learning outcomes. Numerous education research studies have provided consistent evidence on interconnections between families, schools and communities in enhancing children’s growth, development and learning . This framework remains the most useful tool that links parental participation with learning outcomes within the three overlapping spheres of family, school and community. The six types of parental involvement are parenting, communication, volunteering, learning-at-home, decision-making and community collaboration. Each of these participation types has a significant and unique influence on the child’s growth, development and learning and of course on parents, school and community as well. To mention but a few, the author briefly describes the six types of parental involvement and the benefits to the students only while making reference from the book “Perspectives and previews on research and policy for school, family and community partnerships” by Epstein. The six types are; parenting this encapsulates helping families to establish a home environment that supports children as students. First, schools should help parents with information on how to create a conductive learning environment at home. This is can be achieved through sharing information related to parenting approaches which include child’s health.
Bradley (2000) recognizes a portion of these weights as developing holding up records, state and government activities to restrict Medicaid spending, and rebuilding of the supplier business. One reaction to these weights with the possibility to extend open assets is the network direct element of Washington State’s Family Support Opportunity program, which helps families in distinguishing and anchoring network based assets to meet their care needs.
Dunst, Trivette, and Deal (2004) depict the objective of family bolster programs as recognizing families’ needs and finding suitable casual and formal assets to meet them. These projects regard the uprightness of families and their capacity to be independent in addressing their requirements. This approach does not require a family to be reliant upon a social administration framework to settle on choices or do treatment designs composed by experts.
Freedman and Boyer (2001) utilized concentration gatherings of guardians of youngsters with formative inabilities to inspect family requirements for administrations and approaches to encourage family decision and control of backings. Guardians referred to adaptable financing as a way to help them secure administrations that are the best for their families and also guaranteeing congruity also, consistency of administrations and backings. They distinguished a few noteworthy hindrances to getting to underpins, including absence of data and effort, benefit frameworks that respond to emergencies as opposed to concentrating on counteractive action, and requirement for more steady treatments, for example, conduct, physical, word related, and discourse.
As indicated by Agosta and Melda (2003), family bolster programs currently center around giving families with backings to live however much like different families as could reasonably be expected. They fight that building up a powerful framework for supporting families should start with the possibility that relatives assume a main part in basic leadership. Racino (2003) showed that the initial phase in supporting families is evaluating their qualities, convictions, and perspectives and at exactly that point working with families to figure out what part outside help may play in their lives. This engages families so as to guarantee that projects are responsive to them (Bradley, Knoll, and Agosta, 2002; Turnbull, Garlow, and Barber, 2001). Comer and Fraser (2003) include that families ought to be considered buyers who take part in joint basic leadership with specialist organizations. Sadly, as pointed out by Racino (2003), numerous relatives, incorporating the person with a handicap, still are not engaged with basic leadership about the utilization of family bolster stores.
Freedman and Boyer (2000) utilized concentration gatherings of guardians of youngsters with formative inabilities to look at family requirements for administrations and approaches to encourage family decision and control of backings. Guardians refered to adaptable financing as a way to help them secure administrations that are the best for their families and additionally guaranteeing congruity also, consistency of administrations and backings. They recognized a few huge boundaries to getting to bolsters, including absence of data and effort, benefit frameworks that respond to emergencies as opposed to concentrating on avoidance, and requirement for more steady treatments, for example, social, physical, word related, and discourse.
According to Cooper, the schools should endeavour to assimilate and incorporate the students’ family life orientation into what is taught in the classroom. The benefits of the parenting type of involvement to the student include improved discipline, improved school attendance, increased learning time and understanding the importance of schooling later in life, nutrition, discipline and adolescence. As states executed constitutionalism of people with developmental in limits, families progressively supported for administrations that would help being taken care of by individuals with inabilities in their family home. Today, a family with a youngster with a handicap has a assortment of choices, due in extraordinary part to the family bolster development and family bolster programs.
PARENTAL AND SELF CONCEPT
According to William James (2007). The “self” is considered as a fundamental concept from the very beginning in personality theories of psychology. It is used in two different ways, I and me. Thus, self-concept is said to be a set of planned self-attitudes that are relatively established and “characteristic” of an individual. Parental Support factors have significant effects in the development of positive self regard statistically to academic achievement of a student. Research study states that teaching-learning activities in school do not directly involved by parents.
According to the study conducted by Okapala and Smith (2001) economic circumstances are significantly correlated with academic achievement. The study indicated that the nature of the parental support change at different age levels of children.
According to Gonzalez & Pienda (2002) have found that the parental support was decreasing when a children move primary to middle and then to high school grades. Similarly, according to Fan (2001), as children grow older, the development of the sense of their responsibility becomes evident and they can do better as they grow older. Also, it is stated that when a parent has
high expectation, the children will do better.
According to Mahaffy (2004), there is a significant contribution in the development of positive self regard that is related to academic achievement of a student.
According to Pakistan Social and Lining Measurement (2008), in line with academics matters,it is hard for children to seek a good and proper guidance in academic performance/matters after the school hours. Lacking of parental support to the children will create a major problem to school and the child also.
According to the book of Introduction to Psychology by Arenas, Ph. D (2003), the set up of families is shaped by culture. This is the model which the family consciously or unconsciously fits the personality of the child. It is transmitted through language, mores, tradition, belief of groups or individuals. The culture of a place is as different as the people that comprise it.
According to the book of Social Problems & Issue in the Philippines by Toluene, responsible parenthood, the moral duty of parents is not just to procreate in order to perpetuate the human species, but awareness to procreate. The parents do not merely find sexual fulfilment but also contribute better children for the improvement of society. The new constitution of the Republic of the Philippines provides that the state shall strengthen the family as a basic social institution. The natural right and duty of parents in the learning of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the support of the government.
IMPLICATIONS OF LEGAL SEPERATION
Children of legally separated parent have high races of delinquency and are most likely to become legally separated also when they got married.
Legal separation causes personal psychological suffering not only for the marital partners but also on the part of the children.
Studies reveal that children of legally separated parents usually suffer traumas that most often lead them to lack of interest in studying, drug addiction, juvenile delinquency and immorality.
According to Ilan, Katz (2003), effective family support is the key to global child welfare issue, yet there is a consensus on what constitutes family support or what are the best way to evaluate it