REPORT ON MOST POLLUTED COUNTRY IN THE WORLD
Shamsa Naser Al Mansoori – 201731101
Asya Al Dayyani – GEN195-008
Table of Contents
Reasons of being most polluted country 3
Impact of pollution 4
Strategies implemented by the government to reduce pollution 5
Pollution has become one of the serious concerns across the world that creates great impact on health, economy and environment. Among the top 10 most polluted regions in the world, India has been chosen in this study because once again it is heading into the worst time of the year for excess air pollution.
The study aims to analyze the statistics showing the reason why the country is among the top ten polluted countries in the world.
Reasons of being most polluted country
Around the world, the increased threats of dust, ozone, and soot have caused fears among the billions of populations. India stands out for air that consistently being polluted. The statistics of World Health Organization revealed that nine out of every 10 people in India breather air, which is highly polluted (Irfan, 2018). It is reported that 93% of the children in India are breathing polluted air that resulted to increased respiratory diseases. In recent years, it has been noted that New Delhi city in India have brought worst air pollution causing repetitive unhealthy environment for its population.
Figure: India’s Pollution Statistics
(Source: Irfan, 2018)
The WHO reported that in 2016 after monitoring air quality among 4,300 cities across the world, India’s cities were listed the most such as Varanasi, Delhi, Lucknow, Faridabad, Patna, and more (Smith, 2017). The financial capital of India, Mumbai has ranked fourth in the world’s most polluted megacity. Apart from air pollution, India also faces threats of water, land as well as noise pollution, however the level is much lesser in comparison to the risk of air pollution in the country
Figure: Most polluted cities in India
(Source: Irfan, 2018)
Impact of pollution
The increased rate of air pollution is causing 90% deaths among the low-and-middle income families. In the context of India, majority of the deaths are related to pollution. According to Rizwan, Nongkynrih ; Gupta (2013), vehicular emissions and industrial activities were responsible for both indoor and outdoor air pollution. The increased rate of pollution in India has created dangerous impact on the health of Indian population causing the risk of cardiovascular disease and respiratory problems. The serious concern lies on the fact that exposure of human health to PM10 level of air pollution brings serious effects on both respiratory and breathing system, cancer, damage of lung tissue, and premature tissue.
The measures for controlling pollution such as banning vehicles that emits pollution and factories emitting smoke, noise and effluents cause great impact to the Indian economy. From the report of Chafe (2014), it is identified that World Bank revealed that India last year has lost approximately 8.5% of its GDP due to increased cost of welfare and loss of huge labors due to hazardous impact of air pollution. Pollution cost India $80 billion each year, which is nearly 6% of the GDP. Apart from this, the pollution is responsible for 7 per cent healthcare spending in the country, which is continuously increasing every year (Smog hangs heavy over India’s GDP too, 2017). The report confirms that impact of pollution on economic factors will go on increasing until the link between pollution and diseases becomes clear.
Strategies implemented by the government to reduce pollution
In order to reduce the disastrous pollution impact on the country, the Indian government has initiated many strategies for the same purpose. From the report of Gargava, Sengupta & Biswas (2000), it is found that the Delhi government is using a device called Pure Skies that emits radio waves in order to scatter the pollutants named 10 and PM 2.5. As a result, this has helped to clear up the air quality. Furthermore, the Indian government has introduced thousands of CNG gas vehicles in order to prevent smoke emission out of cars or auto rickshaws. The Government of India been seriously concerned about the increased pollution level and impact on health and economy; hence, it has implementation many statutory regulations such as Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, Motor Vehicles Act, 1988, and others. In addition, the Indian government has modified the engines of vehicles at the manufacturing stages to reduce the emission rate (Gargava, Sengupta & Biswas, 2000). Moreover, the strategies implemented to improve fuel quality in regards to reduce sulphur in diesel and lead in gasoline. Besides, the government is also responsible to incorporate many strategies and campaigns reducing land pollution by showing the importance of waste management and brought “Swatch Bharat” concept.
From the above study, it is concluded that nine out of 10 top polluted cities in the world are in India that confirm the country is responsible highly to pollute the environment. In this regards, it is found in the study that pollution creates both health and economic impact negatively. Finally, the study concludes stating the implemented strategies of Indian government to reduce pollution burden from the country.
Chafe, Z. A., Brauer, M., Klimont, Z., Van Dingenen, R., Mehta, S., Rao, S., … & Smith, K. R. (2014). Household cooking with solid fuels contributes to ambient PM2. 5 air pollution and the burden of disease. Environmental health perspectives, 122(12), 1314. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4256045/
Gargava, P., Sengupta, B., & Biswas, D. (2000). Strategies for Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in India. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236179607_Strategies_for_Prevention_and_Control_of_Air_Pollution_in_India
Irfan, U. (2018). Why India’s air pollution is so horrendous. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/2018/5/8/17316978/india-pollution-levels-air-delhi-health
Rizwan, S. A., Nongkynrih, B., ; Gupta, S. K. (2013). Air pollution in Delhi: its magnitude and effects on health. Indian journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian Association of Preventive ; Social Medicine, 38(1), 4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3612296/
Smith, O. (2017). Is Delhi the most polluted city on Earth? Not quite. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/asia/india/articles/delhi-most-polluted-city-in-the-world/
Smog hangs heavy over India’s GDP too (2017). Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/indicators/smog-hangs-heavy-over-indias-gdp-too/articleshow/61587387.cms