PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
In order to generate findings from the primary data, processing and content analysis was used on the transcribed interviews involving examining, sorting, categorizing, evaluating, comparing, synthesizing and contemplating on coding, establishing patterns and arranging the data into different themes depending on the sources of information according to Neuman (2014). One of the enduring problems of qualitative data analysis is the reduction of copious amounts of written data to manageable and comprehensible proportions.
The data collected through interviews emerged into categories guided by the specific objectives. The interview findings are presented according to the outline of these objectives. In addition to the predetermined objectives, additional thematic areas emerged during data analysis and these are listed below:
• Industry player and their roles
• Company challenges
• Motives of companies
• Extent of involvement of companies
• Guiding Policies in waste recovery and recycling in Namibia
• Legislation controlling waste recovery and recycling in Namibia
• Emerging waste recycling trends.
• Recycling value addition processes and products.
• Benefits chains of recycling industry in Namibia.
• Network linkages in the industry.
This chapter presents and interprets results of the analysis results obtained on the primary and secondary data. Primary data gathering was facilitated by semi-structured interviews with recycling companies and observations, while document search provided for secondary data. For confidentiality purposes the companies were coded as A, B, C etc. The research results are presented in Tables, Figures and in narrative format.
4.2 Industry players and their roles, challenges, motives and extent of involvement in solid waste recycling in Namibia
The study required to establish actors and motives behind their recycling efforts in the country during the time of research. Thus, the first objective served to establish motives, themes and extent of involvement of companies in the recycling industry. It is however, very important to present first the profiles of those companies that participated in the study.
4.2.1 Industry players and their roles
Different players were involved in the recycling industry as shown diagrammatically in Figure 4.1.
Source: Research Data, 2015
Figure 4:1: Communication lines of the players in the industry
The following sections outline the demography of participants, the roles their companies are playing in the industry, the distributions of their operations within Namibia and the challenges they are facing.
184.108.40.206 Role of players in recycling industry
Both public and private institutions are involved in this industry in their different capacities as shown in figure 4.1. During the interviews, it emerged that these companies have been involved either as collectors and processors, manufacturers and packagers or supporters and promoters of recycling activities as given in table 4.1.
Table 4.1: The role of different players in recycling industry
Government Regulation and promotion of the industry (policies, legislation, land and other services)
Recovery participants (informal waste pickers and waste collectors) Recovery of recyclables from bins, dumb site, homes and institutions
Processing Companies Raw material production and distribution
Manufacturing companies Production and selling of new products
Corporate companies Other (Supporting through transport, education, awareness raising, funding and depository facilities.)
Source: Research Data, 2015
220.127.116.11 Demography of companies
The literature reviews on recycling in other countries around the globe shaped the initial thoughts as to who the key players in the recycling value chain are. Twenty companies were the target population of the study. However, only 15 companies were eventually interviewed since not all companies were willing to engage the researcher. Table 4.2 shows the companies that were involved and their demographic data during the study.
Table 4.2: Demography of participating companies
Company Gender of participant Location of Company Title of participant Age of company in business Number of workers
A male Windhoek, Walvis Bay, Oshakati, Swakopmund & Husab mine Business Developer 27 +_500 total
34 Walvis Bay
B male Windhoek Public Relations Manager 34 400
C male Okahandja Director (owner) 48 74
D male Okahandja Production Manager 10 35
male Windhoek, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Rundu, Ondangwa, Oshakati, Angola, Cape Town Plant manager 35 150
F female Windhoek supervisor 8 56
G Female Windhoek Country Representative 34 unknown
H male Oshikango supervisor 20 53
male Windhoek Contract manager 15 unknown
J female Windhoek Director(owner) 8 10
K. male Windhoek Logistic Manager 4 3
L female Windhoek Corporate Relations Manager 95 unknown
M female Windhoek Coordinator 10 unknown
N male Keetmanshoop Director (Owner) 22 17
O male Windhoek Solid Waste Management Education & Marketing Officer 19 322
Source: Research Data, 2015
The players were identified mainly through exploratory interviews with local authorities, desktop studies through the internet as well as secondary sources like local media publications. A number of players were identified throughout the whole country. However, only those who were willing to engage the researcher made up the sample of study. Ten companies that participated in the study were located in Windhoek, the Capital City of Namibia.
The results revealed that the years of existence of the companies varied from four years to ninety five years of operation, which shows how old the participating companies were in Namibia. Number of workers also varied from three to over five hundred signifying the size of companies involved in the industry.
18.104.22.168 Distribution of companies and contributory factors
Recycling activities in Namibia are concentrated in Windhoek, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Keetmanshoop in the southern parts of the country and the northern towns, where Namibia’s largest concentration of people or major industrial activities are located. Nevertheless, in the other small urban centers recycling efforts were being facilitated through the establishment of collection depots and buy-back centers.
According to an official of one company “Namibia is a very large country and because of that, peripheral areas are sometimes left out in the operations yet there is a lot of recyclables lying all over the country for, example in resort areas and small settlements. Move around, and see how many plastic and glass bottles are lying around.” The researcher also observed these recyclables heaped next to roads at small business centres especially in the northern part of Namibia: Oshana, Oshikoto, Ohangwena and Omusati regions. According to the participants, this was attributed to a number of challenges highlighted in the next section and general awareness especially in towns. Thus, recycling efforts are concentrated in major towns but the majority of small centres on the country-side it remains a challenge.
4.2.2 Challenges in the industry
While the issue of motives and extent of company involvement in recycling was being investigated, it came out that the industry is faced with a number of challenges which if they could be addressed, the industry will recognize its full potential, as respondents pointed out. Most participants revealed that the industry was not an easy one. On further probing into this matter, participants brought up challenges they were confronted with in the industry. The researcher asked the question “What challenges are you experiencing in this industry?”
The responses show that companies had different kinds of challenges they were facing. Poor public participation stood out as the major challenge, with ten participants reporting it, and labor issues were also highlighted as another worry some challenge. Labour issues included lack of commitment appeared to be one of the main source of concern. In Keetmanshoop at company N, on the interview day, the researcher confirmed during site observation, that one out of seventeen workers was present. To make it worse, at the same company, vandalized equipment was observed. The researcher was shown some of the crushing machines that had their wheels removed.
Challenges that were revealed are all shown in the table 4.3.
Table 4.3: Challenges in recycling industry in Namibia
Challenge Number of Responses
Transport and Logistics
high transport costs, lack of transport
Lack of trained staff (skills shortage),
lack of commitment and high turnover of skilled staff
industry is expensive and not viable
Harsh weather conditions especially coastal environment
Shortage of storage and operational space
To establish viable recycling plants
Lack of operating machinery and equipment
Vandalism and theft of equipment a big issue
Poor public participation and cooperation
Lack of awareness on recycling
Lack of clear policies and legislation on recycling
Lack of enough government support
Market forces 2
Monopoly by big companies
Low raw material prices on the international market 2
Source: Research Data
4.2.3 Motives for Recycling
For the researcher to establish motives, the following question was posed to all participants who were interviewed “What motivated you to be involved in recycling activities?” Respondents gave different views and these were some of the responses as captured in table 4.4.
Table 4.4: Motives for Recycling by Companies
Company Environmental Economic Social Core or Side Activity
A Protecting the environment Business
Raw Materials Side
B Right thing to do for the environment Business
Raw materials Core
C Protecting the environment Business Core
D Environmental Business Core
E Waste reduction Business Core
F Cleanliness business Earn a living Core
G Safeguarding environment Entrepreneurs-hip Uplifting families Core
H cleanliness Business
raw material Core
I Waste reduction Side
J Environmental Economic livelihood Core
K Environmental protection Side
L Environmental Protection Raw materials sside
M Environmental protection Core
N Environmental Protection Economic Core
O Protect and Cleaning of the environment Economic Side
Total 15 13 3
Percentage 100 86.6 20
Source: Research data
Companies were driven into recycling due to three main reasons: environmental, economic and social. All companies responded that the motivation for their involvement in solid waste recycling activities was based on environmental reasons, which came out to be 100%, economic reasons came out to be 86.6%; and only 20% of the companies reported social reasons. Therefore environmental and economic stood out as the main motives for recycling by companies.
Discussions with most participants, 100% of companies considered recycling to be environmentally driven. However, 100% of the companies who were physically recycling indicated that they were doing this for economic reasons.
4.2.4 Extent of Involvement in Recycling Industry
The extent of involvement of companies varied depending on their core activities in the recycling loop. According to EPA (2016), the recycling loop involves the following three major activities:
• step 1-collection and processing,
• step 2 manufacturing;
• step 3 purchasing/selling of new products made from the recycled materials
The loop is not considered complete without purchasing. These steps are repeated over and over again as the products are repeatedly recycled, thus companies aligned themselves with all or some of these activities.
22.214.171.124 Extent of Involvement with regards to processes
The study was based on the assumption that companies are involved in the three steps mentioned above, but these activities could be further broken down into smaller activities as illustrated later on in this section.
To establish the extent of involvement with regards to the processes, the following question was posed “What is the extent of your involvement in the industry in terms of collection, processing, manufacturing and purchasing and selling of new products?” Responses were as shown in the table 4.5.
Table 4.5: Extent of Involvement with regards to the recycling process
Company Collection and Processing Manufacturing Purchasing/ selling Others/
Promoting Total Activities Per Company
Recovery and Collection
A ? ? ? 3
B ? ? ? 3
C ? ? 2
D ? ? ? 2
E ? ? 2
F ? ? 2
G ? ? 2
H ? ? ? ? 4
I ? 1
J ? ? 2
K ? ? 2
L ? ? 2
M ? 1
N ? ? 2
O ? 1
Total Companies (%) 9 8 1 3 3 7
64 57 7 21 21 50
Source: Research Data
The extent of involvement of companies emerged into five categories: collection, pre-processing, processing, manufacturing, purchasing as summarized in Table 4.5.
The responses illustrate that all companies were involved though one of the participants had indicated during the interview that “There is no recycling here. We just collect and send the materials to South Africa.” Majority of companies, 64% were involved with collection and pre-processing activities, the first step of the recycling loop; 21% of the companies were into manufacturing and selling of products respectively, while 50% were involved in other activities and 7% in processing of collected materials (7%).