One of the approach in cognitive psychology is memory. Memory is considered as a complex process in humans that functions by involving parts of brain to maintain information for periods of time (Matlin, 2005). In the multi-store memory model that was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin, memory is composed of three types of stores which are sensory store, short-term store (STS), and long-term store (LTS). Generally, this works by encoding information that comes from our senses so that it could enter the sensory store that has unlimited capacity but able to decay information just in seconds. If individuals really give their attention to it, the information would be transferred to STS that has competence to hold 7 + 2 information for duration of no greater than 30 seconds. Then, that information would only possible to have a further transfer to LTS if it has been rehearsed over and over again. The LTS is known to have unlimited capacity in which if individuals want to recalled back information, that information would undergo retrieval process to be transfer back to STS.
Alesha B. Humphry (2006) has conducted a research that aimed to show the effect of rehearsal methods on number of words recollection. This study had involved undergraduate psychology students that would eventually be divided into three groups which are no rehearsal, highlighting and writing down groups. All participants would receive set of paper that consists of instruction and spaces to recall words according to the group that they were assigned in. Then, for next 60 seconds, participants in no rehearsal or control group were asked to see list of 20 words in the slides, whereas, the second and third group participants were asked to study those words with highlighting or writing down method. Afterward, they were given distractor tasks before recalling those words for a minute. Results showed that participants that were in no rehearsal and highlighting method group tend to have same number of words recalled with the mean of 5.00 and 5.06. However, participants who undergo writing method showed to have recalled more words compared to both two groups, with the mean of 6.94. Thus, it suggests that writing down words tend to help individuals to recalled greater number of words than highlighting or no rehearsal method.
That research would be replicated in this investigation with the aim to determine whether highlighting method and no rehearsal are more likely to increase the number of words recalled among the high school students. I believe it is an interesting topic to investigate because it could give an idea for high school students, who tend to have lots of tasks to complete, on the effective way to read or study text in a short time.
H0: there will be no significant difference in the number of words recalled between participants who had rehearsal method of highlighting and no rehearsal method.
H1: there will be significant difference in the number of words recalled between participants who had rehearsal method of highlighting and no rehearsal method.
The independent variable is consisted of highlighting method and no rehearsal method; the dependent variable is the number of words recalled.