Number Nanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsGraduation Thesis
Number Nanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsGraduation ThesisTopic size 22, bold, and centeredStudent Name XXXXXXX ID Number 010210101College Major Aeronautical EngineeringClass 0102101Advisor Name professional positionJune 2008 Nanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsGraduation Thesis Letter of CommitmentPrivate solemn statement: the whole content of this Graduation Thesis (Title? ) is made and the whole results are experimented personally under the guidance of my faculty advisor. Except the deliberately added remarkable contents, this graduation thesis is completed with my own knowledge and doesn’t involve other thesis written by any other person or group.
Personal’s signature? Date: (Student ID Number)? CHAPTER ONE – ANLYSIS ON SELECTED CARGO AIRCRAFTSAim of the chapter one is to gather all the necessary technical data of each aircraft and write some sort of brief analysis on each aircraft. I also added some extra analysis on ULDs (unit load devices) This helps to understand about those aircraft in some level anyone who read this report even without having any knowledge in aeronautical engineering. Basic steps of chapter one shown in diagram below 1.1 INTRODUCTIONEven though economic crisis, slow global economic and GDP growth has been directly correlated to the progress and prosperity of the domestic and international air freights I personally believe it’s still very important to evaluate and to do analysis of the efficiency of the cargo aircraft operations. According to the forecasts and researches which have been done by major aircraft manufacturers; After air cargo industry has faced a significant decline in the 2011 economic crisis and it bottomed in 2014, due to the rebounding of the beginning of the 2015 declining momentum has been flipped the side and since then industry is increasing its growth in each year.
2015 it could gain almost 2% of annual growth. In 2016 it got hit by financial crisis again. Hopefully it will return to the long term trend of growth in 2018.World air cargo traffic is forecasted to grow an average 4.
2 % per year over next 20 years to reach total of more than twice the number of RTK (revenue tonne-kilometer) in 2015. Most importantly the number of airplanes in the freighter fleet will also be increased by the 50-70% by the end of the forecast period. When it comes to freighters there are many aircraft type and model to be considered like military transport aircrafts, single engine small transport, bush planes, transport helicopters, multi engine propelled aircrafts, small ; mid-size carriers, super carriers. So here in my thesis I will only be focusing on the Mid-size freighters that have been playing a significant role since decades of time in major cargo airlines such as FEDEX, DHL, CARGOLUX, UPS etc. In this thesis I’m going do an analysis about 10 aircrafts and I will also do the calculations for the IDEAL (Hypothetical) aircraft. first of all, I will do a research on following 10 cargo aircrafts;I. A330-600F II.
A330-200F III. B757-200F IV. B767-300ERF V. B777F VI. MD-11F VII.
MD10 VIII. TU-204 IX. ILYISHIN IL76 X. Y-10 In that research I will basically be focusing on the Flight performance, Flight mass, Power plant and Dimensional data and I will gather those data in to a table in this chapter; ? FLIGHT PERFORMANCE;Flight performance is determined by aircraft’s physical characteristics.
Theoretical aircraft performance, obtained after manufacturing and flight testing, are described in flight manual. Transport aircraft in operation is usually exposed to standard operational conditions. Despite the standard operational conditions and regular aircraft maintenance, structure aging and high dynamic loads due to high subsonic Mach number could lead to changes of main physical factors that determine flight performance.
? FLIGHT MASS DATA;Weight is the force generated by the gravitational attraction of the earth on the aircraft. Each part of the aircraft has a unique weight and mass, and for some problems it is important to know the distribution. But for total aircraft maneuvering, we only need to be concerned with the total weight and the location of the Center of gravity.
Center of gravity is the average location of the mass of any object.? POWER PLANT DATA;An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates the mechanical power. In my thesis all aircrafts equipped with a turbofan engine.? DIMENTIONAL DATA; this includes all the dimension in body of the aircraft that includes length of the wings wing area, swept wing angle, fuselage diameter etc.on each aircraft and table every data that I can possibly find. And also I will include some introduction to each aircraft. That contains bit of history of the aircraft Then I will determine the data and measurements for my IDEAL aircraft.
I will add all the calculation in Chapeter-2 which I’m going to do in order to get data for my ideal aircraft and also I will include a drawing for the ideal aircraft in chapter 2 for illustrate the model aircraft that comes out from the data by calculations which I’m going to do. In Chapter 3 I’m going to do a comparison of each aircraft with my IDEAL aircraft and also points will be given to every aircraft. In that point system it will be easy to find the most suitable aircraft. 1.2 ANALYSIS ON AIRCRAFTS? Airbus A300-600? Role: Wide-body freighter ? National origin: Multi-national ? Manufacturer: Airbus? First flight: 28th of October 1972? Introduction: 30th of May 1974 with Air France? Status: Out of production, In service? Primary users: FedEx Express; UPS Airlines; European Air Transport, DHL express? Produced: 1974-2007? Number built: 561? Variants: A300-600ST Beluga; Airbus A310? Developed into: Airbus A330; Airbus A340 ? Extensive use of composites for an aircraft of its era? Center-of-gravity control by shifting around fuel? Wingtip fences for better aerodynamics (first introduced on the A310-300).
The aircraft that holds the distinction of being the world’s first twin – engine wide body aircraft which is manufactured by airbus. First flight was happened in 1969 and A300 was the first product of the Airbus industries. Aircraft has maximum range of 7500km when it is fully loaded. Development of this aircraft goes back to the very beginning of the airbus industries which was a collaboration of various aircraft manufactures in United Kingdom, France and West Germany. Even though British withdraw from this collaboration later on , France and Germany formed the airbus industries on their own in 18th of December 1970 to produce A300. Air France was the launching customer of the A300 which was the first product of airbus industries and aircraft was introduced to service in 30th may 1974.
All the A300 series aircraft equipped with CF6-50C2 , CF6-80C2, JT9D-59A or PW4158 engine. The production of A300 series stopped in July 2007. Until to that day A300 family aircrafts have built in couple of different variants like A300B4 – 200, A300-600R, A300-600F.
A300-600FThe cargo variant of A300 family A300-600 model is the aircrafts that I have been focusing on my thesis. Aircraft made its maiden flight 8th July 1983 and entered service with Saudi airlines later that year. Even though A300 family aircraft production has been ceased in 2007 most of the cargo airline still relay on this aircraft for significant amount of their cargo operations FEDEX, DHL, UPS have in their fleets. A300-600F designated from other A300 models because it has increased space by using A310s rear fuselage unit and horizontal tail unit. Freighter version equipped with much powerful engines CF6-80 or Pratt ; Whitney PW4000 engines for higher thrust which directly correlated with the higher take-off weight and also A300-600F aircraft includes uses the Honeywell 331-250 auxiliary power unit(APU).
Other changes include an improved wing featuring a rechambered trailing edge, the incorporation of simpler single-slotted Fowler flaps, the deletion of slat fences, and the removal of the outboard ailerons after they were proved unnecessary in A310 series. The aircraft can carry 55000kg payload to the maximum range of 7500km. Freighter can carry significant amount of tonnage and volume in main deck and as well as lower holds.
The total cargo volume available is 115.7m3. The aircraft is fitted with a 141 X 101-inch primary cargo door on the forward fuselage that facilitates the loading of standard containers and pallets on the main deck, while large doors for the lower cargo holds facilitate the handling of freight in these below-deck zones. On the main deck, the capacity is 15, 96 X 96 X125-inch pallets in single-row loading, or the side-by-side loading of up to 21 pallets sized at 88 X 96 X 125-inches. The lower deck cargo holds accept both 23 LD3 containers and pallets. This aircraft is ideal for routes in worlds principal economic regions and also suitable for time sensitive shipments. With the development of the aviation the aircraft has included fuel saving aerodynamics such as wingtip devices, electrical signaling for slats, flaps and spoilers the use of six identical electronic flight instruments on the flight deck, and automatic wind shear protection which make this aircraft reliable and profitable.
After long successful production run 561 of those aircrafts were built and 300 of those aircrafts expected to remain in service beyond 2025. ? A330-200? Role: wide-body freighter ? National origin: multi-national ? Manufacturer: Airbus? First flight: 2nd of November 1992? Introduction: 17th of January 1994 with Air Inter ? Status: in production, In service? Primary users: FedEx Express; UPS Airlines; DHL express, united airlines? Produced: 1992 – present? Number built: 1050? Variants: Boeing: A330MRTT? Develop into: A330neo, Beluga XLA330 is a medium, long range wide body twin engine aircraft made by Airbus. Aircraft capable of carrying 70000kg of payload for 7500km. A330 was developed along with the A340 which shared many common airframe components but differed in number of engines. A330 is equipped with fully glass cockpit and also fly by wire flight control system.
A330 was Airbus’s first airliner that offered a choice of three engine types: General Electric CF6, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, and Rolls-Royce Trent 700. The maiden flight of the A330-200 was happened in 1998. Subsequently developed A330 variants include freighter, the A330-200F, a military tanker, the A330 MRTT, and a corporate jet, ACJ330. Since its launch A330 helped airbus to conquer its market share in wide body aircrafts. Competing with B767, B777, and B787. Development of the long range A350XWB .
airbus planning to replace A330 series by A330neo which includes new engine and other advanced technologies. As end of the 2017 airbus had 1707 A330 orders which 1390 had been delivered and 1358 remained in operations. The largest A330 operator is Turkish Airlines with 64 A330s.A330-200FA330-200F is the freighter variant of the A330 family which is capable of carrying about 70000kg of cargo weight for 7500km range. The reason why I chose this aircraft in my thesis is its reputation as a modern freighter. Its maiden flight was made in 2009 and first delivery was made to the Etihad Airways cargo. According to airbus A330-200F is the world’s most modern mid-size freighter since it has been introduced in 2009.
Aircraft has proven as a reliable flexible and profitable in all continents. Since aircraft attained reliability rate of 99.6% and service utilization up to 400 flying hours per month most of the major cargo airlines in the world turned to the A330-200F for long haul and regional operations. The freighters large cargo door of the main deck allows to accommodate all types of cargo pallets and containers, and also it can carry 23 side by side pallets on its main deck with flexibility for additional arrangements such as single row loading of 16 pallets, and mix of 9 AMA with four pallets. The lower deck holds capable of carrying up to 26 LD3 containers, plus 19.7 cubic meters of bulk cargo. Its overall flexibility has also been enhanced with the introduction of Airbus versatile main deck cargo loading system.
Most importantly A330-200F is capable of carrying 30% of more volume than any freighter in its class. The aircraft has proven its profitability by an adaptable cargo strategy with up to 35% lower operating cost per tonne compared to larger freighters. The A330-200F flies 20% further and has a cost per tonne is lower than its direct competitor. Airbus Global Market Forecast forecasts a demand of nearly 800 new built freighters in next 20 years. One of the most fascinating thing about this aircraft is its eco-efficient technologies for reduce CO2 emission and noise levels.
The A330-200F has been proven that it’s not only a profitable, efficient and reliable but also environmentally friendly modern day aircraft which will be in service many more years to come. ? Boeing B757? Role: narrow-body freighter ? National origin: united state ? Manufacturer: Boeing? First flight:19th of February 1982? Introduction: 1st of January, 1983 with eastern airlines? Status: Out of production, In service? Primary users: FedEx Express; UPS Airlines; DHL express, united airlines? Produced: 1981-2004? Number built: 1050? Variants: Boeing c32The Boeing 757 is a mid-size narrow body twin engine aircraft which is designed by Boeing commercial airplanes. It was the largest single aircraft on operations from 1981 to 2004. 757 has two crew members. It is equipped with fully glassed cockpit same like 767. The 757 series designed concurrently with a wide-body twinjet B767 and owing to shared features, which makes pilots to fly both aircrafts. All 757s are powered by Rolls-Royce RB211 or Pratt & Whitney PW2000 series turbofans which produce sufficient power to take off from relatively short runways and higher altitudes.
767series has supercritical wing design which also includes conventional tail to reduce aerodynamic drag. The main purpose of developing 757 was to replace smaller three engines 727 on short and medium routes.the 757 was produced in two fuselage lengths. The original 757-200 entered to service in 1983. The 757-200PF freighter variant and the 757-200M a passenger – freighter combined model has also been built in 1980s.
The stretched 757-300 the longest narrow body twinjet aircraft ever built also joined to service in 1999. Later on passenger 757-200 model have also been converted into special freighter(SF) specification for cargo use. Meanwhile military version C-32 transport aircraft, VIP carriers, research aircrafts and other multipurpose aircrafts have also been built in the 757 platform.
Eastern airlines and British airways were the first airlines to put 757 in commercial service in 1983. 757 has been a very successful series of aircrafts it’s been proved over the time and became commonly used aircraft in short and mid-range flights, domestic routes, shuttle services, and transcontinental US flights. After having approval for extended flights over waters ETOPS in 1986, airline companies began using the aircraft for intercontinental routes. Major customers for the 757 included U.S. mainline carriers, European charter airlines, and cargo companies.
757 production ended in 2004, on to that date 1050 aircrafts have been built for 54 different customers. B757-200 model was far more popular and 913 aircrafts were built in that model. The last 757 series aircraft was delivered to shanghai airlines in November 2005. The delta is the largest operator with 128 aircrafts.757-200PFfreighter version of the 757 family and this is the aircraft I focused on my thesis, 757-200PF entered to service with UPS airlines in 1987. UPS targeted overnight package delivery market by operating new 757-200PF. The aircraft can carry up to 15UDL containers or pallets in the main deck, for volume up to 187m3 while its lower deck can carry up to 51.
8m3 of bulk cargo. The maximum revenue payload capability is 39800kg including container weight. The 757-200PF is specified with a MTOW of 116,000 kg for maximal range performance.
Fully loaded aircraft can fly range up to 5830km. the 757-200pf has couple of different engine versions, RB211-535E4B engines from Rolls-Royce, or PW2037 and PW2040 engines from Pratt ; Whitney. The aircraft has a large upward opening main deck cargo door on its forward port size fuselage.
Both lower holds can be equipped with a telescoping baggage system to load custom fitted cargo modules. UPS’s 757-200PFs feature an upgraded auxiliary power unit, additional cargo bay fire suppression equipment, enhanced avionics, and an optional supplemental fuel tank in the aft lower hold. Total production for the 757-200PF totaled 80 aircraft. ? Boeing B767? Role: wide-body freighter? National origin: united state ? Manufacturer: Boeing? First flight: 26th of September 1981? Introduction: 8th of September 1982 with united airlines? Status: in production, In service? Primary users: FedEx Express; UPS Airlines; DHL express, united airlines? Produced: 1981- present ? Number built: 10106 to December 2017? Variants: Boeing E767, KC-46 It’s a mid-large size wide body twin engine aircraft built by Boeing commercial airplanes. It was the Boeing’s first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with two crew glass cockpit. 767 is equipped with two turbofans there are couple of engine models- Pratt & Whitney PW4000, General Electric CF6, or Rolls-Royce RB211 engine versions.
Having couple of engine versions there are difference in take of weight, cargo capacity and range in each version. All the 767 aircrafts have conventional tail and in order to reduce aerodynamic drag it has supercritical wing design. 767 model has design as a relatively smaller wide body airliner than earlier aircraft such as 747. 767 has 7000 – 11800 km flight range, Aircraft has a decent flight range compared to other aircraft in its class.
Development of the 767 has a huge influence from 757 narrow body twinjet this result of both aircrafts having same features and cockpit controls that allows same pilots to fly both aircrafts that’s very economical when it comes to cargo airline industry. The original version has entered into service in 1982, then 767-300 in 1986 and 767-400ER in 2000. 767-300F version has also been released in 1995.
Aircraft has produced in three fuselage length. United airlines was the first operator of the 767 aircrafts the first commercial flight happened in 1982, initially flown in domestic routes during that period of time 767 showed its reliability of twin engine design. In 1985 it became the first twin-engine aircraft to receive regulatory approval extended overseas flights then the aircraft was used to expand non-stop service on medium to long haul intercontinental routes. In 1990s Boeing initiated higher capacity 767, and it led to development of building B777. The 767 is the first twinjet wide-body type to reach 1,000 aircraft delivered. The 767 is the first twinjet wide-body type to reach 1,000 aircraft delivered.
As of December 2017, Boeing has received 1,204 orders for the 767 from 74 customers with 1,106 delivered. A total of 742 of these aircraft were in service in July 2016. Among those 7677-300ER with 583 delivered. Delta is the largest operator of 767 with fleet of 91. B767-200ERFThe version that I focused on my thesis. This aircraft has been using in almost major cargo airline in the world and entered to the service in 1995 with UPS airlines.
767-300ERF can hold up to 24standard 220x320CM pallets on its main deck and up to 30 LD2 unit load devices on the lower deck.With a total cargo volume of 438m3 . aircraft includes onboard freighter handling system and refrigeration capabilities and also facilities for crew. As November 2017 767-300F deliveries stand at 131 with 61 unfilled orders. Airlines operated 180 examples of the freighter variant and freighter conversions in July 2017All Nippon airways took the first delivery of 767-300BCF program (Boeing Converted Freighter), the conversion was done by ST Aerospace Services in Singapore and it was the first company to offer the convert 767-300BCF, and involved the addition of a main deck cargo door, strengthened main deck floor, and additional freight monitoring and safety equipment.
Since then, Boeing, Israel Aerospace Industries, and Wagner Aeronautical have also offered passenger-to-freighter conversion programs for 767-300 series aircraft. ? B777? Role: wide-body freighter ? National origin: united state ? Manufacturer: Boeing? First flight: 12th of June 1994? Introduction: 7th of June 1995 with united airlines? Status: Out of production, In service? Primary users: Emirates, FedEx Express; UPS Airlines; DHL express, United airlines? Produced: 1993 – present? Number built: 1547 to April 2018? Variants: 777XThe B777 holds the record of world largest twin jet which is manufactured by Boeing commercial airplanes in 1994 and first entered the service with united airlines in June 7 1995.The aircraft can carry 68000-103000kg payload for 9704km range. The aircraft commonly referred as” Triple seven”. The most distinguishing feature of this aircraft is its extra-large engine. It holds the record for largest and most powerful GE90-110B1 turbofan engine for any commercial aircraft.
The diameter of the engine is exactly same as Boeing 737 fuselage. Other than that there are lot more other features that distinguish for 777, long raked wings, six wheels on each main landing gear, fully circular fuselage cross-section, and a blade-shaped tail cone. Aircraft has capacity of 16 flying hours without refueling. The 777 was designed to replace older wide-body aircrafts like 767 and 747.
As Boeing’s first fly-by-wire aircraft, 777 has computer-meditated controls. It was also the first commercial aircraft to be designed entirely with computer-aided design. As 2017 aircraft has produced two fuselage lengths. The original version 777-200 entered to service in 1995 and extended version 777-200ER, 300 equipped with General Electric GE90, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, or Rolls-Royce Trent 800engines. The 777-300ER has ultra-long range it is the one of the world’s longest range aircraft which is capable of flying half way around the globe and it also holds the longest distance flown non-stop by commercial aircraft. In November 2013, Boeing announced that they were developing third generation 777, the 777X which features composite folding wings and GE9X engines plus further more technologies developed for the B787, it is scheduled to enter service by 220. The 777 has received more orders than any other wide body aircraft in production.
More than 60 different customers had placed orders for 1962 777s of all variants with 1534 delivered. Emirates operates the largest 777 fleet, with 161 passenger and freighter aircraft as of July 2017One of Malaysian B777 had shot down in midair by unknown source in 2014 that was the deadliest crash in the 777 history. Boeing developed 777 to compete with other wide body aircrafts A330-300, A350XWB, A340, MD11.B777F777F is the freighter version of the 777 family and that is the variant I had to focused on my thesis. 777F shares lots of features with 777-200LR these include engines, fuel capacity, airframe and payload.
777F is capable of flying 16hours nonstop maximum range of 9200km. freighter holds name for the world’s most environmentally friendly freighter. It is the lowest fuel burn of any comparably sized aircraft, by consuming 18% less fuel than today’s freighters.
Aircraft has equipped with an enhanced, light weight powered cargo handling system which also has capability of monitoring the operational health of the system. A maneuver load alleviation system also has been installed in the deck which is capable of distribute the load on the aircraft even in the on flight. GE90-110B1 the world’s most powerful turbo fan engine which produces 490KN of thrust is the power plant this aircraft. When it comes to environmental factors this aircraft plays the role model of environmental friendly freighters, QC2 noise standards compliance for maximum accessibility to noise – sensitive airports.
777Fs huge cargo door facilitates smooth handling and transition of 10-foot-high pallets between B777F and B747. This simplified uplifting 3.7m wide 3m high main cargo door not only makes easy and smooth handling for oversized load but also makes 777F the aircraft that has largest cargo main deck door in any wide body aircraft.
Fly by wire technology, GE90 engine, advanced on board cargo handling system and relatively advanced wing design makes this one of the most technologically sophisticated freighter ever built. In 2000 Boeing launched conversion program of 777-200ER and -200 airliners into freighters under the name of 777BCF (Boeing Converted Freighter). Freighter currently operates in almost every huge cargo airline Emirates skycargo, UPS, FEDEX, DHL. New orders have also been placed by some customers.
? MD-11? Role: wide-body freighter ? National origin: united state ? Manufacturer: McDonnell Douglas / Boeing ? First flight: 10th of January 1990? Introduction: December 1990 with Finnair? Status: Out of production, In service? Primary users: FedEx Express; UPS Airlines; DHL express, Lufthansa Cargo? Produced: 1988 – 2000? Number built: 200? Developed from : DC -10The McDonnell Douglas MD 11 is three enginev(Trijet) medium and long range aircraft which is manufactured by McDonnell Douglas later by Boeing commercial airplanes. MD-11 is completely based on its predecessor the DC-10. Stretched fuselage, increased wing span plus winglets, refine airfoils on the wing and smaller tail plane mainly dignifies from the DC-10. Aircraft also features with fully glass cockpit that decreases the flight deck crew to two from the three, the older DC-10 required a flight engineer. Two of three engines are mounted on underwing pylons the third engine at the base of the vertical tail unit.
In 30th December McDonnell Douglas announced the commitments for MD-11 and received 92 orders from various customers. Assembly stared on march 1988 and the first flight was originally planned to occur in march 1989 but numerous reasons slowed that down. Maiden flight finally happened on January 1990 and the first MD-11 was delivered to Finnair on December 1990. The first commercial flight was happened in 20th December 1990.In the beginning MD-11 failed to meet the target performance so some airlines canceled the orders.
Aircraft burnt more fuels and it could not be able to reach the target range later on McDonnell Douglas, along with Pratt & Whitney and General Electric began a modification program known as the Performance Improvement Program (PIP) to improve the aircraft’s weight, fuel capacity, engine performance and aerodynamics. McDonnell Douglas also worked with NASA’s Langley Research Center to improve aerodynamic improvements in MD-11. Originally planned for sell 300 aircrafts but only 200 were built.
MD-11F The MD-11F is a aircraft that almost every main cargo airline has been using since 90s. freighter was the second variant on offer at launch in 1986. MD-11Fs main deck volume is 440m3 , maximum payload of 90700kg.
aircraft can carry 26, 2.2 m × 3.2 m pallets or 96 2.4 m × 3.
2 m pallets. MD-11F was delivered between 1991- 2001 mainly to FEDEX, LUFTHANSA, UPS, DHL and other airlines with fewer aircrafts. ? DC – 10? Role: wide-body freighter ? National origin: united state ? Manufacturer: McDonnell Douglas ? First flight: 29th of August 1970? Introduction: 5th of August 1971 with American airlines ? Status: Out of production, In service? Primary users: FedEx Express; UPS Airlines; DHL express? Produced: 1968-1988? Number built: 386? Variants: Boeing KC-10MD-10 is a program that updated older DC-10s with a new advanced technology flight deck.
It has two engines mounted on underwing pylon and the third engine mounted at the base of the vertical stabilizer. DC-10 has a medium to long haul flights capable of carrying 58900kg payload for 9200km of maximum range.DC-10 was noted for its poor safety record in early reputation specially after the fatal crash of American airlines flight 191. Following the flight191 crash FAA withdrew DC-10s safety certificate on 6th of June 1979 and that ended up grounding 138 US registered DC-10s ban also effected for any foreign government that has bilateral agreement with the united states regarding aircraft certifications from flying their DC-10s. The ban was withdrawn after five weeks 13th July 1979 after modification were made to the slat actuation and position systems, along with stall warning and power supply changes. After all this chaos in August 1983, McDonnell Douglas announced that it would end production of the DC-10 due to lack of orders.
Airlines were not interested on DC-10 anymore due to bad safety reputation and poor fuel consumption records. However, DC-10 ultimately accumulated a good safety record as design flaws were rectified and fleet hours increased, comparable to second generation commercial aircraft, as of 2008.The initial model DC-10-10 was domestic design with typical range of 6100km. The DC-10-30, 40 models were international versions with extended range of up to 9000km and a third main landing gear to support the higher take-off weight. Production of DC -10 ended in 1989 with 386 aircraft delivered to airlines and 60 to U.
S air force. The largest operator of the DC-10 is FedEx Express. Despite the airliner’s popularity, only a few DC-10s are on service, while other retired aircraft are in storage or being scrapped.
Finally DC-10 was succeeded by related MD-11. MD-10After the McDonnell Douglas being bought by Boeing in 1997, Boeing saw the potential of upgrading older DC-10s with modern and sophisticated glass cockpit that eliminated flight engineer position, after upgrade, aircraft were re-designated as MD-10s. Boeing offers MD-10 conversion program to all DC-10 owners of all 386 aircraft that have been built in 1968-1988. This is most probably the largest airplane modification effort in commercial airplane history.
The program provides operators with the opportunity to retrofit their airplanes with the advanced common flight deck (ACF). converting DC-10s to MD-10s produces significant cost saving particularly in changing three-person flight crew to two-person flight crew cockpit. The conversion also replaces approximately 50 line replaceable units (LRU) with 19 state of the art LRUs, it improves reliability and decreasing inventory costs.
The MD-10 conversion reduces weight approximately 454 kg. Additional maintenance and labor savings will result from commonality in an MD-10/MD-11 fleet, including same type ratings for pilots who fly either airplane. FEDEX was the launching customer and FEDEX applied for flight deck retrofit to 70 DC-10 freighters as the first order. Boeing planned to delivery to FedEx in early 2000. DC-10 to MD-10 conversion program is include two phases:1.
Passenger-to-freighter conversion.2. Flight deck retrofit.
1.Passenger to Freighter conversionIn the first phase,the FedEx MD-10 program Boeing converted passenger DC-10 airliners to freighters and redelivered them to FedEx. The conversion program which began in 1997 , took about 120 days per airplane.
Program includes maintenance check, standardization and reliability upgrades, and removal of passenger seats, Other main conversion activities include:? Main deck cargo door installation.? Rigid cargo barrier installation.? Structural changes to increase maximum takeoff gross weight (MTOGW).2.Flight deck retrofitIn phase two, installation of fully glass cockpit which is similar to MD-11. It includes huge displays that show all the flight and system information. This type of cockpit modification allows flight crew to move from MD-11 to MD-10 with minimal additional training.
The ACF includes following features;? High-speed, high-capacity computers.? Airplane system controllers.? Operational improvements.
The conversion program gives advantages to operators including lower operating costs, greater reliability, a reduced spares inventory, and increased payload and range. ? TU-204? Role: narrow-body freighter ? National origin: Soviet Union / Russia ? Manufacturer: Avistar SP/Kazan Aircraft Production Association? Design: Tupolev ? First flight: 2nd of January 1989? Introduction: 1995? Status: in production, In service? Primary users: DHL express, Red wings airlines? Produced: 1990 – present ? Number built: 83? Develop into : TU-214TU-204 is Russian built twin engine medium range aircraft designed by Tupolev and manufactured by Aviastar SP and Kazan aircraft production association. First introduced in 1989 and its equivalent to Boeing 757 with slightly lower range and payload. It is very economical aircraft and has good fuel efficiency in its class. TU204 mainly developed for major Russian airline Aeroloft, as a replacement for the medium – range TU-154 trijet. The latest version TU-204SM with significant improvements and updates made its maiden flight on 29th December 2010.
Aircraft is powered by either Aviadvigatel PS-90 or Rolls-Royce RB211 engines. The TU-204 is modern Russian built aircraft which features many sophisticated technologies such as fly by wire flight control system, glass cockpit, supercritical wings with winglets and its available with both Russian and international avionics. The wings and tails are relatively resistance to ice buildup, and aircraft is not equipped with a de-icing system. During the test flying aircraft performed well and obtained Russian and European safety certificates.TU-204-100CThe reason why I chose TU-204-100C for my thesis is it has been proved its reliability and profitability over the time as a freighter.
Due to that DHL Express one of the major cargo airline also included TU-204-100C to its fleet in 2008. Development of the TU-204-100C is completely based on its basic version TU204 and equipped with fuel efficient PS-90A engines manufactured by Perm Engine Company one of the leading Russian engine manufactures. PS-90A is a turbo fan two shaft high by pass ratio exhaust mixing engine with common exhaust and thrust reverser. Engine design is basically aimed at providing high fuel efficiency and weight perfection. TU-204-100C is capable of carrying payload of 30,000kg to the distance of 7200km. TU-204-100C is result of cooperation between two major aviation companies JSC ,Tupolev and Aviastar-SP.
The main cargo deck is features with a B1965-20 of ANCRA cargo loading / unloading system. Cargo capacity in main deck 164.4m3, forward baggage – cargo compartment 14.7m3, after baggage compartment 28.
3m3. opening dimensions of the main cargo door 3,408 x 2,080 mm, forward baggage-cargo compartment door 1,350 x 1,162 mm, aft baggage-cargo compartment door 1,350 x 1,162 mm. According to Tupolev , TU-204-100Cs reliability , high efficiency and competitiveness are due to 😕 State-of-the-art aerodynamic configuration? High standard aerodynamic quality? Perfect airframe and equipment systems structure? Up-to-date efficient engines ? IL-76? Role: strategic airlifter ? National origin: Soviet Union / Russia ? Manufacturer: Tashkent Aviation Production association, Aviastar? Design by : Ilyushin? First flight: 25th of March 1971? Introduction: June 1974? Status: in production, In service? Primary users: Antarctic logistics, TransAVIAexport airlines? Produced: 1971- present? Number built: 960? Variants: IL-78, KJ-2000I would say IL-76 is worlds one of the iconic cargo aircrafts ever built.
Its distinctive body design, capability of operating in harshest weather conditions, low operational cost make this aircraft lot more popular in cargo operators worldwide. Even though IL-76 originally built for military purposes and it has military variants in operations even today, in my thesis I have only focused on commercial aspects of the aircraft. IL-76 is multi-purpose four engine strategic airlifter which was designed by Soviet Union’s Ilyushin design bureau.
it was first planned as a commercial freighter in 1967 and main purpose of the development is to replace much older AN-12 fleet. One of the reasons I chose this aircraft in my thesis is its capability of delivering Ramp-delivered cargo / able to perform loading and unloading by the ramp without having an external cargo loading system. IL-76 also capable of delivering heavy, oversized cargo which other freighters unable to accommodate.
The aircraft has been using in emergency response, civilian evacuation, humanitarian aid and disaster relief around the world. Because it’s ability to operate from unpaved runaway strips and ability operate in harshest environmental conditions like sub-zero temperatures and desert temperatures. Aircraft has proven reliability over decades of time all over the world. Il-76 first introduced in 1967 and maiden flight was happened in June 1974. From 2014 onward most of the Il-76 were upgraded new PS-90 engines to comply with European noise limitation. Older aircrafts also had cockpit and modern avionics upgrades. In 2010 it was announced that Ilushin was working on modernized version of Il-76, which they called Il- 76MD-90A.
After four years of research and developments first aircraft was flew 16th of June 2014.Overall design features of the aircraft are high set swept wing and T shaped tail unit. Observation bubble for a navigator also being introduced in down below in the nose section.
This not only makes pilots to get clear and more accurate information about the landing strips and environmental conditions but also it makes IL-76 ideal bush plane which is suitable for extreme and hostile environments. The crew cabin, cargo hold, and rear compartment are completely pressurized. Wing leading edge flaps and trailing edges are fitted with high lift devices, comprising deflectable five section leading edge salts, triple-slotted trailing edge extension flaps, aileron, spoilers and air breaks. The integrated flight control and aiming-navigation system includes a compass system, ground surveillance radar, a central digital computer, automatic monitoring system, automatic flight control system, short-range radio navigation and landing system, IFF transponder, optical / infrared aiming sight and a ground collision warning system. Talking about the cargo handling system, basically aircraft is equipped with rear loading and unloading ramp which is capable of loading any kind of heavy machinery or vehicle. IL-76 is also equipped with onboard two electric winches of 3 tonnes traction each and 4 electric hoists with a pulling capacity up to 10 tonnes.
Aircraft is also capable of executing air cargo drops day and night by in VFR and IFR (visual flight rules and instrument flight rules) These 10 tonnes onboard cranes are capable of lifting up 20ft container and load it into the aircraft. Cargo bay is able to facilitate two of 20ft containers. One thing I see as a drawback of this aircraft , its large crew IL-76 needs five crew members to operate; two pilots, a flight engineer, spotter and navigator. It obviously exceeds modern day carriers crew limitations. Many cargo airlines which are operating in extreme weather and environmental conditions have turned to IL-76 due to its profitability and reliability in such conditions. Some operators are The United Nations Humanitarian Air Service, Antarctic logistics and Gulf Aviation Technology and Services.
? XI’AN Y-20??? Role: strategic airlifter ? National origin: China ? Manufacturer: Xi’an Aircraft Industrial Corporation? Designer : Tang Changhong ???? First flight:26th of January 2013? Introduction: 6th of July 2016? Status: in production, In service? Primary users: ? Produced: 2013 – present? Number built: 10XIAN Y-20 is a Chinese built heavy strategic airlifter. Aircraft is developed by Xi’an Aircraft Industrial Corporation and was officially launched in 2006. The Y-20s,Y is stands for Chinese character: ?-20 in pinyin: Yùn-20; literally meaning of “transport-20”. The official code name of the aircraft is Kunpeng?? which comes from mythical bird in ancient china that can non-stop fly thousands of miles. I had to chose Y-20 even though It has developed and built for mainly military purposes, As china has not been developed commercial cargo aircraft yet and also the country I represent was one of the first countries to ordered Y-20s. That also made a strong reason to add this aircraft in my thesis.
Y-20s empty weight just over 100tonnes, making it the largest military aircraft currently in production, As Boeing C-17 production stopped in 2015. Y-20 is also the biggest domestic strategic aircraft ever built in china. Aircraft first introduced to the public in 2013 and first entered to the service in July 2016. There were two key Chinese personals evolved in development and designing of this aircraft they were, general designer Tang Changhong ???, and the deputy general designer Guo Zhaodian ???. The Y-20 has wide fuselage T-tail unit empennage configuration with high-mounted horizontal surfaces on the vertical stabilizer. The high mounted moderately sweptback monoplane/shoulder wing is also intergraded with trailing edge flaps.
Engines are fitted under the wing pair by each side. The aircraft is equipped with fully glass cockpit which accommodates three crew members two pilots and one loadmaster. Cockpit crew also equipped with helmet mounted displaces. It has rear cargo loading and unloading ramp which provides capability of handling oversized heavy cargo and equipment. This also makes Y-20 capable of transporting china’s largest tank ZTZ99 , as well as other heavy vehicles and supplies.
Y-20 is also capable of executing airdrops. Aircraft has range of 8300km while carrying 40tonnes of cargo. Initially Y-20 is equipped with four Russian-built Soloviev D-30 turbofan engines.
Then Chinese replaced D-30 by Chinese built WS-18 which is 300kg lighter than D-30, thrust also being increased from 12.5 to 13.2tonnes due to engine upgrade. Fuel consumption also being reduced by WS-18 engines. Later they are planning on upgrading to 14tonnes thrust, WS-20 engines which allows Y-20 to achieve its maximum payload of 66tons. There are lot to talk about development of this aircraft due to most sophisticated technologies have been used in the development of this aircraft.
Y-20 has used lots of components which are made of composite materials. Aircrafts cabin is incorporates with flame-retardant composite developed by the 703 institute of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC). It’s said that it took 3years to develop flame-retardant composite. y-20 is also one of the first aircrafts to use 3D printing technology to develop its components and it dramatically increases production speed and lower the manufacturing cost. Model based technology (MDB) is also being used in the manufacturing process and it’s the third aircraft to use MDB technology in the world after Airbus A380 and Boeing 787. With adoption of MDB technology manufacturer able to shortened installation of the wing month to couple of hours. In general, the design work reduced by 40%, preparation for production reduced by 75%, and manufacturing cycle reduced by 30%.
In addition to 3D printing, Y-20 is also one of the first aircraft to implement associative design technology (ADT) in its development. Even though the initial attempts were fail moths of hard work paid off in the end by dramatically reducing its development by eight months and wing design which took a week before is also shortened to a half of a day. The landing gears include one nose gear and heavy duty two main landing gears which are consist of three rows with pair of wheels for each row, totaling six wheels for each side. According to its deputy general designer Y-20 is capable of taking off 600-700m take of run. After Y-20 first immerged in air show china in 2014 lots of international orders were started to flowing in from various countries, Sri Lanka was also among those countries. Y-20 filled the gap which china had decades of time for domestic built heavy airlifter. Developing Y-20 china made the third country to develop heavy airlifter after United States and Russia.
I successfully accomplished the task in chapter one and this will be helpful for a better understanding in Chapter Two calculations and Chapter Three Estimation. Overall I could accumulate wide range of data and knowledge in those ten aircraft which I have taken into consideration throughout whole my thesis. I believe the knowledge and data that I was able gather in this chapter will helpful for anyone who is enthusiastic about these well-known aircrafts and as I was able to narrowed whole information down to a one single chapter may certainly will save anyone’s time and energy rather than search by him/herself. CHAPTER TWO – CALCULATIONSMain purpose of Chapter Two calculation is to determine the Mass parameters, Power Plant parameters and Geometrical parameters and these are values of the hypothetical aircraft that I’m going to create in my thesis. Those values will be useful throughout the thesis. All the calculations are done according to the General Arrangements of Airplane – Project Manuel which I was provided by my supervisor. All the calculations and estimations are done by under the Russian standards.
I start off with mass parameters; fuel mass ratio because I needed that as the first thing in order to calculate take-off weight M0 cargo mass . Then I calculate the engine parameters total thrust and then Thrust for an engine by .Finally, the Geometrical parameters for Wings, Fuselage and Tail unit. Calculations of wings consist of Wingspan (L) , Wing surface area (S), Root , tip , Aerodynamic chord , and Coordinate of MAC (ZA).
Fuselage parameters can be divided into main three units Fuselage Length LF,Nose Length LN, Tail Length LT. Lastly, the Tail Unit parameters, in here I’m going to calculate Area of Horizontal Surface SHS and Area of Vertical surface SVS in Tail Unit. 2.1 CALCULAION ON AIRCRAFT’S MASS PARAMETERS Table# 2. Tactical-technical dataVmax,km/h Hmax, km L ,km L TO ,m npass HCR VCR,km/h980 12500 9254 1 500 2 12800 9602.
1.1 DETERMINATION OF THE AIRPLANE TAKE-OFF MASS (M0)Take-off mass of the airplane for zero approximation is determined by the formula below received from the equation of mass ratio with using statistical data. Mc is cargo mass/payload, MCR is mass of the crew, MK is mass ratio of the airplane structure, MPP mass ratio of the power plant, MEQ is mass ratio of the equipment, MF is mass ratio of the fuel. Mc is cargo mass/payload 70000kg and MCR is mass of the crew 160kg are taken from Chapter 1.4 Statistical Data Table. Subsonic cargo aircrafts values for MK-0.
26, MPP-0.07 , MEQ- 0.07 are taken from Table 4.
Mass ratio of airplanes, General Arrangements of Airplane – Project Manuel. MF – 0.32 is taken from Chapter 2.
1.2Value Of Fuel Mass Ratio, my first calculation. = = = 250 572kg2.1.2 VALUE OF MASS RATIO OF FUEL L is flight range, VCR is cruise speed, a and b have values for turbo fan enginesHere L and VCR are taken from Chapter 1.
4 Statistical Data Table. a and b are constant values for subsonic airplanes which are taken from General Arrangements of Airplane – Project Manuel. = a + b * 0.75 = 0.05 + 0.04 * 0.
75 = 0.322.2 CALCULATION ON ENGINE PARMETERS2.
2.1 DETERMINATION OF ENGINE PARAMETERSIt is necessary to determine starting thrust of the engine P0. It is determined on the basis of the collected statistical values of the starting thrust to weight ratio t0. For this it’s necessary to establish value of the t0 for the projected aircraft.
Thrust of the one engine can be determined basis of the engine number n, P01 = P0 / n. g = 9.81ms-2M0 is take-off weight which is calculated in chapter 2.1.
1 determination of the airplanes takeoff mass. t0 thrust to weight ratio is taken from the Chapter 1.4 Statistical Data Table.? Total thrust of engines: = = 9.81 x 250572 x 0.
3 = 737 433N = 737 433N ? Thrust for an engine = 368 716.5 = 370KN2.3 DETERMINATION OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS FOR AIRPLANE UNITS2.3.1 DETERMINATION OF WING PARAMETERSP0 is specific loading on a wing at takeoff. b0 and tip bk wing chords determined proceeding from values S, , L g = 9.
81ms-2In S – wing area calculation; M0 is take-off weight which is calculated in chapter 2.1.1 determination of the airplanes takeoff mass. P0 – 550 N/m2 is taken from the Chapter 1.4 Statistical Data Table.
In wing span calculation; – 9 wing aspect ratio is taken from the Chapter 1.4 Statistical Data Table. In Root and tip wing chords calculation; Wing area S = 446 , Wing span L = 63.35m are from wing parameter calculation.
Wing taper – 3.3 is taken from the Chapter 1.4 Statistical Data Table. In aerodynamic chord (MAC) calculation ; is from wing chords calculation. – 3.
33(0.3) is taken from the Chapter 1.4 Statistical Data Table. In Coordinate of MAC along a wing span; Wing span L = 63.35m, Wing taper – 3.3*Here = 0.3 value I had to take as due to Russian standards.
? Calculation for the wing area : S = S = S = 446 ? Wing span is equal to: L = L = L = 63.35m? Root and tip wing chords are determined proceeding from values S, , L: = * = 3.33 = * = * = 10.812 m = = = 3.28 m? Wing mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) is calculated by the formula: = 7.71? Coordinate of MAC along a wing span is determined by: * 12.992.
3.2 DETERMINATION OF FUSELAGE PARAMETERSThe sizes of a fuselage (length of fuselage , length of its nose parts and length of tail part are determined by statistical data. N is aspect ratio of the fuselage nose part, T is aspect ratio of the fuselage tail part. In Fuselage length calculation; ?F -10.
8 and DF -5.64 are taken from taken from the Chapter 1.4 Statistical Data Table.
In length of nose calculation; DF -5.64 is taken from taken from the Chapter 1.4 Statistical Data Table. – 1.7 aspect ratio of fuselage nose is from Table 7 static data of fuselage aspect ratio in General Arrangements of Airplane – Project Manuel.
In length of tail part calculation; – 3 aspect ratio of fuselage tail part. DF -5.64 is taken from taken from the Chapter 1.4 Statistical Data Table.? FUSELAGE LENGTH ( ) = ?F * DF = 10.8*5.64 = 60.
912m 60.91m? LENGTH OF NOSE PART ( ) = DF = 1.7*5.64 = 9.58m? LENGTH OF TAIL PART ( ) = * DF = 3*5.
64 = 16.92m2.3.
3 DETERMINATION OF TAIL UNIT PARAMETERSThe area of the horizontal and vertical surfaces are determined accordingly by such dependence. S is wing area. Values for are taken from table 3. Wing area S = 446 , is from wing parameter calculation.? AREA OF HORIZONTAL TAIL SURFACE = 0.2 * 446 = 89.2 ? AREA OF VERTICAL SURFACE = 0.
12* 446 = 53.52 by completing Chapter Two I was able gather enough necessary data for my hypothetical aircraft and those values will be used in the drawing . Though calculations were not very hard understanding what I’m supposed to do in chapter two was bit tricky.
I had to gone through General Arrangements of Airplane – Project Manuel quite a few times even before thinking how I’m about to start calculations.About Environmental Substantial Modeling Numerical Emulation System Exploitation Abstracts Research purposes, significances, methods, and contents.Results and main conclusions Keywords: N.
C. machining, NC verification, working environment, Help files The development of …… Abstract A new kind sandwich structure (approximately 300 words).CHAPTER THREE ESTIMATION OF PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR THE CARGO AIRCRAFT3.1 INTRODUCTIONEstimation for freighter is basically done by selecting comparative performance indicators like Range, Take-off weight, Maximum speed, cruising speed etc. The calculation is based on statistical data and selected indicators by which to assess quality. I followed methods down below for the calculation;I.
For define aircraft to compare absolute values of particular indicators of quality, selection these labels,? Numbers of indicators i = 1,2….,n(not smaller than 5)? Numbers of aircraft j = 1,2….,mII. All the quality indicators divided into two groups depending on their impact on the improvement of aircraft parameters:? Indicators which maximize – speed, range, cargo mass etc.
? Indicators which minimize – take-off weight, landing ground roll etc.III. Justifying the hypothetical aircraft, with best particular quality indicators from the number of compare variants.
IV. The method of expert estimations to determine the weight factors of particular quality indicators based on the conditions that the weight factor of is positive , and in the amount of weight factors to equal to 1. > 0; = 1 calculate the specific values of particular indicators of quality: = , at i= constant Where, – value of i particular indicator of quality at j aircraft – value of same particular indicator of quality for hypothetical aircraftV.
Quality indicators are summarized for each each competing aircraft by equation below: 3.2 EXPLANATION FOR THE CALCULATIONVmax,kmh L km m , ncrew , kgM0max, km P0982 960 296 9254 1500 800 2 70000 347815 492.2? MAXIMUM SPEED (Vmax,kmh )How fast aircraft can fly, the maximum speed of an aircraft. This is very very crucial when it comes to cargo aircrafts, why? Because cargo aircrafts carry extremely time sensitive cargos like biological and healthcare cargo, medicine, live cargos like animals, chemicals, sports cars and other equipment’s for word wide events etc. In order to battle with extremely tight time schedules aircraft has to be able to travel fast. This saves lots of times as well as its profitable for airlines. In the end it directly correlates to customer satisfaction which is essential factor for growth of the air cargo business.
Due to facts I mention above I have given 0.1 of weight factor in my estimation, I believe it’s fair and speed is everything what customers care about. ? CRUISE SPEED ( )There are four acting forces on flying airplane Lift, Weight, Thrust and Drag. If the size and direction is balanced in these four forces, then there is no net force acting on airplane, it’s called equilibrium position. In deal equilibrium flight lift equal to weight, thrust equal to drag it’s called equilibrium flight/ cruising. Even though weight decreases due to fuel burned, that weight loss is very small relative to the total weight.
In this situation the constant speed that aircraft maintains is cruise speed. This speed is always slightly lower than aircrafts maximum speed. This phase normally consumes the majority of the flight at constant speed and altitude. It is usually the most economical phase of flying due to good fuel consumption and the effects on the range of the aircraft as well. The aircrafts I selected in my thesis have cruise speed in range of 630 – 960 km/h.
In the calculation I gave it 0.15 point weight factor because it is extremely important for cargo aircrafts due the profitability of that phase. As this phase consumes majority of flight I think it’s fair that I kept that into 0.
15 the second highest weight factor value in my thesis. whoever runs an airline is always focus on speed, economical and environmental factors. When aircraft at cursing speed it does best in fuel and its good for the environment as well.? TAKE OFF SPEED ( )Whether it’s a small bush plane or super heavy freighter, the definition for take-off speed stays same. Take of speed is always correlates with lots of other factors like take-off weight, environmental conditions etc. In take offs there are three main speed levels called V1, VR, and V2. Here, the V1 speed is defined as the speed beyond which the take-off should no longer be aborted.
VR or Vrotate the speed at which pilot begins to apply control inputs to cause the aircraft nose to pitch up, after which it will leave the ground and the point where the main landing gear leaves the ground call lift off speed. V2 is the speed at which the aircraft may safely climb even with one engine inoperative. It is also referred as take-off safety speed.
It is the speed an aircraft with one engine inoperative must be able to attain in order to leave the runway and get 35 feet off the ground at far end of the runway.As my thesis I mainly focused on factors that directly effect on cargo aircraft operational proficiency so I had to managed to keep that 0.05 low weight factor value because even though it’s very crucial in aircraft performance and safety I had to considered it as a not very essential for the operational proficiency. Anyway the higher take off speed is better. ? RANGE (km)The range of an aircraft is the maximum distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing. Basically the Range is ground speed times time taken.
The fuel load and consumption are time limits for its time of airborne. Maximum range aircraft can fly also referred as Ferry Range is basically means maximum fuel load, it’s without any passengers or cargo. When aircraft flies in cruising speed it can reach to its maximum range due to its favorable fuel consumption. In cargo aircraft prospective the range is very critical in operations basically longer range is always better.
Longer range mean higher the fuel load particular aircraft carries. So it reduces the time stop for refueling and saves lot of money. Longer range is essential factor for intercontinental flights. The aircrafts I chose in thesis has 5000 – 9254km of flight range. When I looking at the performance data it quite clear that modern wide-body freighter always capable of flying longer ranges.
This factor is taken into extremely keen consideration by almost every aircraft manufacturing company due to its advantages. In estimation I gave that to 0.15 points one of the second highest values I gave in my weight factor value due to its importance. Range of a freighter has always been increasing factor over the time, I hope it continue in the future as well.
With adoption of hybrid technology, technologically advanced engines and better aerodynamics in next decade we will be able to see aircrafts that can fly much longer flights. ? TAKE OFF DISTANCE (LTO m)Take off distance consist with two parts the ground roll and the distance from where the aircraft leaves the ground to until it reaches 15m high in dry runway conditions. The sum of both of these is considered as the takeoff distance. There are lot more other variable also in effect on the take of distance an aircraft thrust, drag, wind speed and ground friction. In my calculations I only kept weight factor value into 0.05 because take of distance no longer puts considerable effect on the proficiency of a cargo aircraft. Due to the fact that most of the runways that used to operate these aircrafts around the world are in standard conductions.
Sometimes they actually exceed the standard requirements so I was able to kept that in to such a low level. ? LANDING DISTANCE (LL m)??????????????????????????According to FAA the landing distance starts to calculate once the aircraft 50ft above the runway, touch down then ground run and complete stop. There two categories of landing distance, Actual landing distance Required landing distance Actual landing distances are determined in flight test without using the thrust reversers.Required landing distances are used for dispatch purposes. (to select destination airport, alternate airports) Even though the study on landing distance is important fact on preventing landing overruns. In my thesis I rather focused on cargo aircraft proficiency I had to kept that into 0.05 of weight factor value due to its relatively less effect on my topic.
Modern day runways are always built in standards. Over the years of time runway distance has become less effective factor in cargo aircraft proficiency prospective. ? CREW (ncrew)Development of avionics and cockpit instruments number of the cockpit crew has been reduced 3,4 to 2 in modern day cargo aircrafts. In older cargo aircrafts there were crew of at least of 3 members, Captain, Co-pilot, Flight Engineer in some aircrafts a Navigator. There was also crew member Loadmaster in some older aircrafts. In order to accommodate large crew cockpits always were quite lager in space and also it was always expensive for maintain a larger crew.
Having a larger crew also increase the chance of human errors. So in modern day aircrafts always stick to 2 members of crew. Nowadays lots of the work done by computers which were used to do by crew in older aircrafts. MD10 is the best example for this and I have mention that whole process in chapter one. DC10 to MD10 was the largest conversion in aviation history and one of the basic aspect of that project is to install fully glass cockpits for older DC10 and that helped to reduce the flight crew 3 to 2.
Boeing could eliminate the flight engineer from MD10 by doing that. Smaller crew is always better. I have given 0.05 weight factor on this due to its relatively less importance compares with other factors.
? CARGO MASS (MC kg)We cannot basically talk about the cargo aircrafts without talking about the pay load which particular aircraft can carry, its important as that. Cargo mass of an aircraft is measured in terms of weight. Today’s air cargo spread in a very wide range biological cargo, mail to heavy machinery, engines and luxury cars. Extra fuel also counts as part of a payload when it optionally carried. Basically the cargo mass only refers as revenue generating cargo. The aircraft that I have taken into consideration in my thesis have range of 32000kg to 70000kg cargo mass.
It is quite clear that cargo mass plays huge role in terms of cargo aircraft proficiency. I have given 0.2 points the highest value of weight factor in calculations due to its importance. In cargo airlines business every operator wants aircrafts to carry maximum amount of which particular aircrafts possibly can carry and it is directly proportional to the revenue of that particular operation.
Payload and the range is typically inversely correlates when an aircraft reaches to its maximum payload capacity the range dramatically drops down. However, the payload is always taken into consideration in every cargo mission as a critical factor because that’s where the revenue is made.? MAXIMUM TAKEOFF WEIGHT (M0MAX kg)FAA defines maximum take-off weight as “maximum allowable weight for take-off” M0MAX is determined by the manufacturer during the design and testing process based on required payload and design configuration. It’s a fixed weight and doesn’t change with temperature, runway available or altitude, usually measured by kilograms or pounds. it is simply the maximum mass at which aircrafts is certified to take off due to structural and other limitations. M0MAX sometimes also refers as MGTOW maximum gross takeoff weight.
M0MAX sometimes be exceeded slightly in the ground and aircraft should get rid of that excessive weight before its breaks are released on the departure runway. Since aircraft burns fuel during the startup and taxing weight will come down below certified amount before the takeoff. Due to structural limitations every aircraft has restricted to certain weight while taking off.
Aircraft should meet certain requirements before it takes off with particular weight these are ,? Structural requirements – to ensure that aircraft is capable of handling that particular in changeable atmospheric conditions and during maneuvering aircraft by the pilots. ? Performance requirements – to ensure that aircraft can climb while that particular weight onboard with all engine operating and also one engine inoperative. In any case if the M0MAX exceeds the limitation it could cause a fatal structural damage or fail to take off.
M0MAX is very important fact in cargo aircrafts because its directly proportional to the range that aircraft can fly. Higher M0MAX means aircraft can carry more fuel and more fuel means longer range. Having certified M0MAX doesn’t mean that aircraft can always take off with that maximum weight. There are some other important factors must be taken into consideration by pilots in order to determine the safest take-off weight in every particular takeoff. M0MAX mainly depends on following variables;? Elevation – The higher the airfield elevation, the thinner the air gets. Airfield altitude is always inversely correlates to the M0MAX . Higher elevation dramatically drops the performance of the engines.
? Temperature – higher temperatures and and deserted weather conditions also decrease the performance and as well as the M0MAX .? Runway length – shorter runway means aircraft has less distance to get takeoff speed once its fully loaded and nearly in M0MAX it certainly required longer runway to achieve takeoff speed.? Runway gradient – up- sloping runway is always required a longer takeoff distance than the down-sloping or flat runway.? Runway conditions – dry and paved runway is the ideal for normal takeoff but practically we don’t see that in each takeoff due to with weather and other unavoidable conditions.
As an example runway covered with snow creates more rolling friction which decreases aircrafts acceleration. ? Obstacles in departure – during the the take-off aircraft must be able to gain enough height to pass those obstacles around that particular airfield. Once it’s in M0MAX , the climbing rate decreases compared to normal takeoff weight. so it’s extremely important to calculate climb gradient ad rate for particular takeoff weight.It’s obvious that M0MAX is extremely critical factor in terms of proficiency of a cargo aircraft.
In my calculation I gave 0.1 weight factor value due to its importance. Aircrafts that I chose in my thesis have M0MAX in range of 110750kg to 347815kg. Every cargo aircraft operator would love to have aircrafts which are capable of taking off heavier loads but it’s clear that M0MAX is also depends on lot more other external factors even though the particular aircraft has capability of taking off with heavier loads. Modern aircrafts are manufactured with different M0MAX levels now operators have option of choosing M0MAX regarding to their requirements. It’s not only reduces the cost of the aircraft but also cuts off landing air traffic controlling fees. As landing and air traffic controlling fees are based on M0MAX.
? ENGINE THRUST (P0 KN)Thrust is a mechanical force generated by engines to move the aircraft through the air and thrust is used to overcome drag in aircraft. More thrust mean how faster aircraft can travel and heavier the load it can carries. Modern day aircraft uses turbo fan engines due to its good fuel efficiency and higher thrust. Engine thrust is usually measured by kilo newton’s. The aircraft I chose in my thesis have 103KN to 492KN range of thrust.Engine thrust is also one of the crucial factors in terms of proficiency of cargo aircrafts.
In my calculation I gave 0.1 of weight factor value by considering its effect on speed and payload that aircraft can carry. 3.3 ESTIMATION PERFORMANCE INDICATORS CALCULATIONSHere are my calculations for A300-600RF ,? MAXIMUM SPEED (Vmax,kmh ) Vmax = = 0.09745418? Cruise speed ( ) = = 0.134375? Take off speed ( ) = = 0.04676054? RANGE (km) RANGE = = 0.
12156905? Take off distance (LTO m) LTO = = 0.02798507? LANDING DISTANCE (LL m)?????????????????????????? LL = = 0.04081633? CREW (ncrew) ncrew = = 0.05 ? CARGO MASS (MC kg) MC = = 0.1571914? MAXIMUM TAKEOFF WEIGHT (M0MAX kg)M0MAX = = 0.
04936532? ENGINE THRUST (P0 KN)P0 = = 0.46681553.4 ESTIMATION BY MICROSOFT XL MACROS FORMULAFor rest of aircrafts I created a Microsoft XL spread sheet, formula to reduce time consumption of estimation. Formula of Microsoft XL spread sheet is down below;? Open Microsoft XL spread sheet and click on formulas ? insert function then click auto sum ;Select total column weight factor in order to find the total of weight factor.= SUM(B:K2) ? Click insert function again to find A300-600RFs Kij ? VMAX= B3 / B14In order to find other values – VCR , VTO, L, LTO, LL, M0MAX, MC , NCREW , P0 Select the first column and drag and drop on P0 column in order to find rest of the value.? To find Kij * bi click insert function to input the code below; = B15 * B2 in order to find other values – VCR , VTO, L, LTO, LL, M0MAX, MC , NCREW , P0 Select the first column and drag then drop on the last P0 column to find rest of the values.
? To find total value in column Kij * bi insert the below code= SUM (B16 : K16) P.S – for the values like LTO, LL, NCREW ;I had to get ( ) because for these values, lowers the value gets better. Because values are inversely proportional to the proficiency of the cargo aircraft. Microsoft XL Estimation spread sheet and graph will be shown in next page; 3.5 ESTIMATION RESULTS IN GRAPH 3.
6 CONCLUSION IN RESULTS OF THE ESTIMATION Results of the calculation show that Boeing B777F which took 0.93805978 points is the best cargo aircraft in terms of operational proficiency. Then Airbus A330-200F and Boeing, McDonald Douglas MD-10 holds 2nd and 3rd places by taking 0.852718529 and 0.
851731853 points.It’s obvious that Boeing B777F is one of the astonishing aircrafts ever built in aviation history. The B777F has proven its reliability over decades of time.
It’s also a one of the technologically advanced aircrafts ever built.? B777F is the world’s longest range freighter, capable of flying 16hours non-stop.? Lowest fuel burning aircraft in its class, consuming 18% less fuel than any other freighter.
? Includes advanced onboard cargo handling system which continuously monitors operational health of the system. ? A maneuver load alleviation system which is capable of distributing load while aircraft on flight? Equipped with the world’s most powerful commercial turbofan engine GE-90-110B1.? QC2 noise standard compliance, capable of operation from noise sensitive airports.? Fly-by wire system and advanced wing design.? 777 has largest cargo door (3.
7meters wide, 3meters high) in any wide body aircraft which allows loading and unloading oversized pallets and containers.? STANDARD ULD CONFIGURATION: Main Deck: 27 PMC (96″ x 125″)22 x 118″ Height (Contour) / 4 x 116″ Height (Contour) / 1 x 96″ Height (No Contour) Lower Deck: Total 10 PMC (96″ x 125″) Forward Hold: 6 PMCAFT Hold: 4 PMCULD Combinations are permittedBulk Hold: 15 cubic meters DOOR SIZES: Main Deck Door: 142″ X 120″ Lower Deck Doors:Forward Hold: 106″ x 67″ AFT Hold: 106″ x 67″ Bulk Hold: 35″ x 47″Cargo Tonnage: 68570-103,000 kg Cargo Volume: 550 cubic meters Facts I mentioned above and result of my estimation prove that B777 is the most reliable, flexible and profitable cargo aircraft from the aircrafts which I chose in my thesis. Most importantly B777 is praised by lots of biggest cargo airlines all around the world. In the end all what matters is customer satisfaction and B777 has earned that over decades of times for its reliable, flexible profitable and environmentally friendly service since it has been introduced to the commercial service. Airbus A330-200F holds the 2nd place by achieving 0.852718529 points in the estimation. I would say A330-200F is also one of the technologically sophisticated modern cargo aircrafts since its been introduced in 2010.
? It has an optimized fuselage cross section which facilitate to carry wide variety of pallets and containers.? A330-200F’s cargo bay offers 30% more volume than any other aircraft in its class. ? Capable of of flying up to 400 flying hours per month with 99.6% reliable rate. ? Operating cost is lower than other competitors.
35% lower than other wide-body aircrafts.? It has fly-by wire technology.? A330-200F flies 20% further and cost per tonne is 13% lower than other freighter? technologically advanced RB211 engines environmental performance like reduce the CO2 emission and noise level. Eventually it is all about customer satisfaction, A330-200F has proven its efficiency and reliability all four continents and harshest weather conditions over the time and it’s also proved by the amount of order Airbus has been received. Airbus Global Market Forecast predicts that there will be demand of 800 more A330-200Fs in next 20 years.
Those facts certainly emphasize that result of my project is trustworthy and reliable. According to my estimation results MD-10 is the 3rd most efficient cargo aircraft in my list by taking 0.851731853 points. Even though DC-10 was not a very successful project, once they converted into MD-10s it had proven its capabilities as a cargo aircraft in many ways and that’s probably one of the reason they are being still in service to this day. FedEx operates 39 MD-10s alone.MD-10 is the modified variant of the older DC-10 which went through the biggest passenger-freighter conversional program in aviation history so far.
Even though MD-10 holds the 3rd position here I would personally recommend newer and advanced MD-11F in 2nd place due to the reliability that has been showed during operations. As passenger aircraft MD-11 was not so successful as DC-10. Due to the low efficiency and performance MD-11 had to under gone Performance Improvement Program which was conducted by McDonald Douglas in collaboration with NASA, Pratt ; Whitney and General Electric.
Results of this program were able to fix MD-11s draw backs and significant changes were added to the design and engines on later built aircrafts. This helps MD-11F to survive in the market and thrive form all the odds. After Boeing bought McDonald Douglas in 1997 they also wanted to continue the MD-11 production and MD-11s were built until to 2001. Almost every later built aircrafts were freighters and MD-11F was a very promising aircraft as a Trijet freighter and it was able to compete with twin engine B777F, A300-600F very well. Even though MD-11F is not very good at in fuel due to its Trijet design almost every major cargo airline still flies them to this day. UPS 37, FedEx 57 Lufthansa cargo 12 etc.
it’s quite much clear that there must be a very good reason to still keep those Trijets in their fleet in large numbers although the Trijet era has been ended long ago. Let’s check some of the features that make MD-11F one of the reliable, durable and technologically advanced aircrafts in the world.? Higher trust engines which are individually regulated by digital engine controlled unit called fedec. It reduces pilot work load on engine and increases efficiency.? Advance horizontal stabilizer which contributes to the lower fuel consumption in Trijet design.? Smaller and lighter tail compared to MD-10 which reduces weight and drag and improve cruise performance.
It also incorporates with tail fuel tank which not only increases fuel capacity but also enables center of gravity to be maintained during the flight.? It has smaller tail cone to decrease after body drag? Another major innovation was using carbon composite breaks which was a huge breakthrough in 90s. composite breaks providing shorter stopping distances, longer break life.? Landing gear has fully automated antiskid breaking system as a standard feature which performs pretty well at abort takeoffs.? MD-11F has extra main landing gear which allows to land in higher speeds and with heavier weights compared to DC-10.? One of the most distinctive feature of the aircraft is its brand new winglet which extents both above and below in horizontal wing surface. Winglet aerodynamically design to improve the range, speed and efficiency of the aircraft.
? Flight deck equipped with dual flight management system, auto throttle system, automatic center of gravity control system, automatic landing capability automatic stability augmentation system, traffic alert and collision avoid system Taking into consideration the facts that I mention right above I would choose MD-11F over MD-10 as 3rd most efficient cargo aircraft in my list. Dispute all the innovation and advance features customer satisfaction is the what all matters at last. I think customer satisfaction has already proven by the tendency of major cargo airlines still keeping those decades old aircrafts in their fleet in large numbers and there is no better proof more than that. According to the in results in estimation the Russian built TU-204C cargo aircraft which is very similar to the A320 in terms of characteristics was the most inefficient aircraft in the list by taking (0.624729655) points and the reason why I chose this aircraft in my thesis is, it is the only Russian built Non-ramp loading aircraft which has been in active service in major cargo airline. Back in the 2004 DHL added one of those aircraft TU-204C in their fleet. Another major operator TNT Express also had shown interest of buying large numbers of TU-204C in order to replace their older fleet.
But eventually that interest was faded due to TU-204C’s higher operational cost and some certification issues. TU-204C certified to AP-25 standard but it does not imply with JAA or FAA certifications I think that is one of the huge drawbacks for popularity of this aircraft. TU-204C also has an issue with PS-90 engines and aerodynamic design in terms of operational cost. TU-204C failed to compete with its direct competitors like A320, A321neo. It’s clear that the facts I mentioned above have proven why TU-204C ends up in last position. it seems that almost every major cargo operator has been sticking to older narrow and wide-body turbofan aircrafts despite all the odds those aircraft have. Even in my list majority of the aircrafts I have chosen were built in early 80s and 90s but they are still flying in all of those major cargo airlines, How come???Are not they concerning about the efficiency, reliability and profitability??? Capital cost for cargo aircraft;? Older aircrafts;Most of the cargo aircrafts are retired passenger aircrafts which have been converted into freighters. After 10 years of operations price of an aircraft decreases by 50% after 15-20 years of service it decreases by 65-70%. That dramatically reduces the capital costs compared to new dedicated freighter aircraft. As a result of that cargo airlines have more wiggle-room in direct operating cost due to the operation cost of a cargo aircraft is calculated by dividing the direct operating cost plus capital costs by number of hours aircraft operation. ? Safety, efficiency and reliability are just as important in cargo operation;? Fuel consumption and operational cost are just as important cargo operators;are no less concern with operational cost and maintenance of their aircrafts than passenger airlines. Changes in fuel cost affects them same as everybody else. When fuel price goes up cargo airlines always implement fuel surcharges on their pricing to make up the cost.? Keeping aircrafts in good flying conditions is just as important; flight delays extremely costly freighters as well. Operators don’t want break down to be happened any more than the passenger airlines. Being delayed as a passenger is obviously much more of an inconvenience than not receiving your Amazon or Taobao?? order but when passenger airliner delays you only have hundreds of unhappy customers when cargo aircraft delays you could be have thousands of unhappy customers some of those unhappy customers are very large shippers and companies. If you fail too many times of course they may choose another cargo operator. Loosing that kind of a customer can cause a huge impact in terms of revenue.? In cargo operation there is more than just airside; freight and package delivery companies there is an entire network depends on their supply chain and that is much large than the airside which cannot be left unproductive. One simple delay can cause huge panic in the whole supply chain and that can cause huge losses. Most importantly the it can damage the customer satisfaction and reputation which is very crucial fact in the business. For example; one hour delayed flight in FedEx super hub in Memphis, USA can cause huge congestion through the whole supply chain network from operational manager to worker who delivers packages home to home. The reasons why older aircrafts remain in service longer in cargo airlines are,? Longer lifespan due to the way of cargo operations;? Obviously cargo aircrafts spend more time on the ground than passenger airliners; Cargo aircrafts not in constant use they only fly when they needed. So it makes sense why they stick to bit older aircrafts. Operators can save lots of money from buying older used aircraft. In my research on this I randomly checked some flight history in fligtaware.com on FedEx freighters, compared them to similar passenger airliners and I found out as passenger airliner flies about 7-8 flights per day FedEx freighter only flies 4-5 flights per day. Here are 6 random flights similar aircraft B777 from United airlines and FedEx; ? If you do very scientific check on this, I’m pretty sure down time difference must be higher than this.In data from table above It’s very clear that cargo aircrafts spend more time in ground compared to the passenger airliners.? Fewer short distance flights; for a passenger airliner this is not possible they need to make several short hops to keep their seats full of passengers. For cargo airlines they can always use trucks for shorter distance deliveries. The wear out on an aircraft much less depends on the flight time and distance it travels. Longevity of an airframe rather depends on pressurization and depressurization cycles which happen on take offs and landings. Wear and tear on Breaks, Engines, Undercarriage, Landing gears etc. occurs in takeoffs and landings. So there is no doubt that longer the flight longer a plane will last. ? Passenger comfort;Passengers prefer comfortable and newer aircrafts but freight doesn’t;Passengers always seek for comfort during their flights, newer aircrafts are always comfortable. So passengers would rather fly on newer airliners but freight does not care about comfort at all.? Interior wear and tear; one of the places aircraft has lots of wear and tear is interior seats sag, overhead baggage carriage wears out, windows get scratch and yellowed. These things can be repaired in couple of times but there comes a point cannot be repaired anymore only options is to retired. Usually at this point the airframe still has many years left in and freighter conversion is the best option.? Regulation, deregulation, growth and availability;? Regulation; until to 1970 airlines were highly regulated by authorities they controlled the routes and pricing. Authorities also controlled who could operate aircrafts and cargo airlines were no difference the only choice they had was to buy dedicated freighters like B747F those aircrafts were very expensive.? Deregulation; after deregulations happened in 1977 lots of cargo airlines were able to buy larger aircrafts. Due to limited numbers of airplanes could be manufactured in a year, supply did not meet the demand. There was no option but to bought those retired aircrafts from passenger airlines and converted them into freighter. This is how FedEx ended up with large numbers of B727s in their fleet at that time and they still fly some of them.? Rapid growth and availability;FedEx is the 5th largest airline in the world now by operating fleet of 659 all cargo aircrafts.During 80s and 90s industry expanded rapidly and exponential growth can be seen in the use of air cargo. In that time, we can see cargo airlines turned into brand-new aircrafts. FedEx was the launch customer of the MD-11F by getting first six aircrafts off the line. They were one of first airlines to order A380 later order was cancelled due to the economic crisis in 2008. They still have pending orders on B777, DHL also has pending orders for A330-300Fs and B737-400SFs. But the problem is aircrafts are built quite slowly and have higher demand. In order to keep up their operations cargo airlines used to buy retired passenger airliners and convert them into freighters. That’s how FedEx ended up with large fleet of MD-10s which is converted variant of DC-10 and this was named as the biggest passenger – freighter conversion in the aviation history. Actually these are the reasons why cargo airlines relay on older aircrafts still to this day and still it doesn’t affect the efficiency of the cargo aircraft. A new research shows that more than 1800 passenger aircrafts will be converted into cargo aircrafts over next 20 years predominately A320, 737 and 757. Hope these cargo aircrafts will conquer the sky many more years to come.Key Words ?NC machining; NC verification; Machining environment; Help files CHAPTER FOUR – CONCLUSIONAlthough much work has been accomplished in my thesis but there is much larger amount of work still to be done in field of “Analysis of Cargo Aircraft Operational Efficiency”. It’s always necessary to conduct an analysis on operational efficiency for every cargo aircraft operator in order to stay profitable in business. Air cargo industry is extremely competitive, challenging and unpredictable due to the fact that it directly correlated with global trade. According to Airbus’s and Boeing’s world cargo forecast; Picture above shows that significant amount of world cargo is carried by cargo aircrafts 80% in between Europe and Asia-Pacific, 75% inbetween USA and Asia-Pacific, 40% in between USA and Europe. It is cristal clear that doing “Analysis of Cargo Aircraft Operational Efficiency” is very essential to anyone who operate cargo aircrafts in order to choose right aircraft for right work.International trade is forecasted to double in next twenty years by volume and air cargo growth is also expected to grow at similar pace as international trade. There will also be some emerging markets which will help to drive up the growth dramatically even over the predictions. Here is the graph of air cargo growth over world GDP growth. though the air cargo growth much slower than passenger traffic growth the freighter aircraft fleet in service is expected to increase by 50% in next two decades. Mainly by Asia-Pacific which includes China. There will be demand for 1950 new aircrafts 730 of new build freighters 55% – mid-size, 45%- wide bodies. 350 new build freighter will be required only for USA and 300 new build freighters will be required in Asia-Pacific region plus China. growth of the Asia pacific e-commerce market provides enormous growth for in air cargo traffic. Particularly Chinese e-commerce boom has overtaken the U.S market to become the world largest e-commerce market. it’s obvious that china will require more freighters than anyone else in the next 20 years to tackle the exponential e-commerce growth. domestic air cargo traffic is growing 6.2 percent annually in Chinese mainland. It is 10.2 percent of world’s total air cargo value by tonnage. As china has become worlds manufacturing hub by producing apparels, electronics, light industrial products and telecommunication accessories. Most of the goods are exported by air cargo that was one of the reason why FedEx chose Guangzhou as its hub in Asia. e-commerce boom and Chinas rapid development in large cities are also another two important reasons. Chinas domestic air cargo market only second to the US about to be expanded more in next two decades. Once again it’s clear that doing proper analysis of cargo aircrafts operational efficiency is extremely important and it will help boost the industry and the revenue as well. My study about “Analysis of Cargo Aircraft Operational Efficiency” is great example for anyone who is willing to do a proper analysis on cargo aircrafts in terms of operational efficiency. As first thing in chapter one I had to gone through lots of articles, websites, forums in order to gather Flight performance, Flight mass, Power plant and Dimensional data in each aircraft which I took into consideration. I also add some kind of introduction and history for each aircraft as I thought it was important have some back ground knowledge on each aircraft. Then I found out that the UDLs (Unit Load Devices) are very essential piece of equipment to run loading and unloading in an efficient manner. So in chapter one I added some basic introduction to the UDLs which have been using over long time. In the end I actually realized we cannot even talk about cargo aircraft efficiency without talking about UDLs. Imagine if we had no UDLs what would be loading and unloading an aircraft looks like. Our cargo is very much protected inside the UDLs and it makes easier the job for cargo handlers. Task in chapter two was to calculate necessary value for hypothetical aircraft for chapter three estimation. Here I calculated Mass parameters, Power Plant parameters and Geometrical parameters for the hypothetical aircraft which I was also going to create a CAD drawing on. All the calculations were done according to the General Arrangements of Airplane – Project Manuel which I was provided by my supervisor. All the calculations were also done by under the Russian standards.Contents Abstract ?Abstract ? Chapter 1 Preface 1 1.1 XXXXXXXXXXXX 101.1.1 XXXXXX 15Chapter 2 XXXXXXXXX 201.2 XXXXXX 20……Chapter XX Summary and Prospects XXReferences XXThanking Statement XXAttachments XX Chapter 1 Preface 1.1 XXXXXXXXX Full texts (12 font size)Full text is writer’s detail presentation of his or her experimental works. The contents include: observed problems, research purposes and significances, fundamental theories, standard point of view, basic and experimental methods in solving problems, design, main methods and contents of calculations, required data, figures, and tables, experiment conclusions and discussions, etc. It’s required to provide accurate, logical, clear, and brief information.Full texts1.1.1 Compound materials ?1?Standard point of viewTable1.1 International Applications (10.5 size, bold, triple-lined table, the three longest horizontal wires, without jib saw?Relative Theoretical Density?? Dimension (10.5 font size)?mm Error percentage??82 External tooth diameter Height Horizontal Vertical 50 12 1.9 18?Figure1.1 XXXXXXXReferences 1? Author (teaching material) Format: Serial number Author. Book titleM. Edition, Publication location: Publisher, Publication year. Page numbers.Examples:1 ???, ???, ???, ?. ?????????M. ?2????: ?????????, 1988. 24~27. 2 Isidori A. Nonlinear control systemsM. 2nd, New York: Springer Press, 1989. 32~33.Notes: First released books do not have editions, page numbers are optional.2? Journal articles Format: Serial number Author TopicJ. Journal title, Year, Issue (period): Page numbers.Examples:1 ???. ????????????J. ?????2000?21?2?? 155~158.2 Moustafa G H. Interaction of axisymmetric supersonic twin jetsJ. AIAA J, 1995, 33(5): 871~875.Notes: Foreign language journal titles can be written in short form; Please note that articles’ year, issue, and page cannot be omitted. 3? Dissertations/Thesis Format: Serial number Author. TopicD. Location: Unit, Year.Examples:1 ??. ???????????????????D. ????????1996.2 Sun M. A study of helicopter rotor aerodynamics in ground effectD. Princeton: Princeton Univ, 1983.4? Thesis collection, Conference articles Format: Serial number main responsible person. TopicC. Publication location: Publisher, Publication year.Examples:1 ???. ??????????????????A?C. ?????????????1994.2 Beijing Aerodynamics Institute. Ninth period of high-speed supersonic air dynamics conference collectionC. Beijing: Beijing Aerodynamics Institute, 1997.5? Published thesis documents Format: Serial number Author. TopicA. In: Editor. Thesis volume nameC. Publication location: Publisher, Publication year: Page numbers.Examples:1 ???????????. ??????????????A. ????????????. ???????????????C. ?????????????1997?9?14.2 Peng J, Luo X Z, Jin C J. The study about the dynamics of the approach glide-down path control of the carrier aircraftA. In: GONG Yao-nan ed. Proceedings of the Second Asian-Pacific Conference on Aerospace Technology and ScienceC. Beijing: Chinese Society of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1997: 236?241.Notes: Conference collection publisher may be not an official publisher; publication location indicates publisher’s location, not necessarily be the conference location.6? Science reports Format: Serial number Author. TopicR. Report title and serial number, Publication location: Publisher, Publication year.Examples:1 ???. FD-09????????????????R. ????????????? BG7-270??????????????1989.2 Carl E J. Analysis of fatigue, fatigue-crack propagation and fracture dataR. NASA CR-132332, 1973.Notes: NASA Reports, AIAA Paper, and other astronautic and aeronautical famous reports, publication location and publisher can be omitted.7? International and national standard industrial specifications Format: Serial number Standard serial number, Standard titleS. Publication location: Publisher, Publication year.Examples:1 MIL-E-5007 D, ??????????????????S. ?????1973.2 GB 7713-87, ?????????????????????S.Notes: For Chinese Standard GB, etc, publication location, publisher, and publication year can be omitted.8? Patents Format: Serial number Designer. Patent titleP. Patent country: Patent number, Announced date.Examples:1 ???????. ??????P. ?????ZL85100748?1986?09?24.9? Other unspecified documents Format Serial number Main responsible person. Document titleZ. Publication location: Publisher, Publication year. Acknowledgements This time, graduation thesis can be fully completed, …. Appendix1?XXXXXXX2?XXXXXXXXXXX3?XXXXXXX