Name: Iqra javaid
Department: Microbiology
Registration number: 04051713037
Course: Islamiat studies/ ethics
Assignment no: 1
Assignment topic: Map making and Kaaba as center of earth
• Map making
• Steps for constructing map
• Early map making by Muslims
• Maps of different Time period
• Map projections and directions
• Conclusion
A map is a symbolic description highlighting connections between basics of some space, such as
objects, regions, or themes. Cartography is a term used for the study and practice of making maps.
There are many different types of maps. One of them is a geological map. A geologic
map or geological map is a special-purpose map made to show geological features. Geological
map shows not only the surface, but characteristics of the underlying rock, fault lines, and
subsurface structures. Among all maps the best is world map. A world map is a map of most or all
of the surface of the Earth. World maps form a distinctive category of maps due to the problem
of plot.
The first maps were made by hand, by paint on a parchment paper. But now scientific techniques
are used for making a map. Map-making is very old, and has been practiced by the most primitive
peoples for many ages. In South America, rude scratches on many rocks are now interpreted as
maps. East Greenland natives carve maps out of wood; American Indians make map-sketches on
birch and other barks; the Marshall Islanders recorded the sailing routes along their coasts long
before they knew of the white man; the desert nomad sketches maps in the sand to illustrate his
wanderings, and nearly every primitive had did that.
A map is made using a map projection, which is a method of representing a globe on a plane. All
projections change distances and directions, and each projection allots those distortions differently.
The most important projection is the Mercator projection. This projection is represented by two
models. One is spherical and other is cylindrical model. A number of previous Greek philosophers
presumed the earth to be spherical, Aristotle (384–322 BC) is the one to be ascribed with proving

the Earth’s sphericity. Whereas map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and
longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on the plane.
Maps cannot be created without map projections. The earliest known world maps date to classical
ancient times, the oldest examples of the 6th to 5th centuries BCE still based on the flat Earth
Anaximander (died c. 546 BCE) is credited with having created one of the first maps of the world,
which was circular in form and showed the known lands of the world grouped around the Aegean
Sea at the center. This was all surrounded by the ocean. According to him the earth was centered
by the cosmological material only.

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As early as the 8th century, Arab scholars were translating the works of the Greek geographers into
Arabic. The Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi produced his medieval atlas Tabula Rogeriana
in 1154. He incorporated the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Far East, gathered by
Arab merchants and explorers with the information inherited from the classical geographers to
create the most accurate map of the world up until his time. It remained the most accurate world
map for the next three centuries.

In the Age of Exploration, from the 15th century to the 17th century, European cartographers have
copied the ancient maps and using different tools and techniques like magnetic compass and
telescope etc altered the whole world map. North, South, East, and West are the four main
“cardinal” directions. On a map, North is at the top, South at the bottom, West to the left, and East
to the right. Every map has a Map Scale which relates distance on the map to the world. For
example, one inch equals one mile. Using the scale of a map, you can tell the actual distance
between two points for real. Maps use map symbols to represent real-world things, such as
buildings, trails, roads, bridges, and rivers. Maps use colors to share more information. Blue often
means water, green means forest, and white means bare land. A map has a Legend which lists the
symbols it uses and what they mean. A grid of imaginary lines wrap around and over the earth.
These lines are called Latitude and Longitude and can identify the exact location of any point on
A surface that can be unfolded or unrolled into a plane or sheet without stretching, tearing or
shrinking is called a developable surface. The cylinder, cone and the plane are all developable
surfaces. The sphere and ellipsoid do not have developable surfaces, so any projection of them onto
a plane will have to distort the image. One way of describing a projection is first to project from
the Earth’s surface to a developable surface such as a cylinder or cone, and then to unroll the surface

into a plane. While the first step certainly distorts some properties of the globe, the developable
surface can then be unfolded without further. relative to the globe: it may be normal (such that the
surface’s axis of symmetry coincides with the Earth’s axis), transverse (at right angles to the Earth’s
axis) or oblique (any angle in between). The developable surface may also be either tangent or
secant to the sphere or ellipsoid. The projections are described in terms of placing a gigantic surface
in contact with the earth, followed by an implied scaling operation. These surfaces are cylindrical
(e.g. Mercator), conic (e.g. Albers), and plane (e.g. stereographic).
According to above mentioned paragraph, earth is neither oval nor flat its elliptical. Which shows
that its direction can not be centered and moreover its rotation on its own axis changes within 24
hrs which causes change of direction of all places. So Kaaba’s direction remained questioned
because of different projections but the direction towards the Kaaba is almost done by an Arab
company by the mechanism of circle radius. A circle was drawn and whole part was considered as
360 degrees equivalent but later own it was superimposed on the globe which changed the direction
and projections according to new technique.