MTHOKOZISI DWAYISA, 64061140, HES4809, 661392, [email protected] and 0813355642
A cumulative environmental impact is defined by Castilla-Gomez and Herrera-Herbert (2014) as a combination of impacts, past – present – and foreseeable future impacts. Environmental – biophysical, social, economic. The impacts interact with one another to make the overall impact greater or worse. Connelly (2011), states that cumulative impacts can result from individually minor, but collectively significant, actions taking place over a period of time. An example of a cumulative environmental impact is the reduction of water flow in a watershed due to multiple withdrawals.
Multiple environmental impacts are defined as a number of impacts that do not necessarily impact on one another and do not necessarily result from one another i.e. many but independent (Castilla-Gomez and Herrera-Herbert, 2014). An example of multiple environmental impacts is the water scarcity and death of aquatic organisms.
Castilla-Gomez, J and Herrera-Herbert, J., 2014. Comparative criteria for a dynamic approach to environmental impact assessment and its influence in mine planning. In: Drebenstedt, C., Singhal, R. (Eds.). Mine Planning and Equipment Selection, Springer International Publishing, pp. 685–696. Doi: 10.1007/978-3- 319-02678-7_66.
Connelly, R., 2011. Canadian and international EIA frameworks as they apply to cumulative effects. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 31 (September), 453–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2011.01.007, ISSN: 0195-9255.
Humans are dominating the earth and with that have come the unprecedented loss of biodiversity and many environmental influences (Dick et al, 2016). Despite the dedication of most governments to reduce ecosystem degradation, population decline and species loss, problems inclusive of climate change, overexploitation of natural resources, habitat loss and alien invasive species nevertheless hold to undermine the purpose of environmental control, that’s to maximise benefits to the environment and to the humans continuously (Dick et al, 2016). A multi-disciplinary approach is when many different or diverse academic disciplines are drawn in to deal with environmental impacts. In such cases, these different professionals will work together as a team, to draw up a plan/solution to an environmental problem.
A multidisciplinary approach calls for environmental problems to be framed simultaneously in each of the natural and socioeconomic dimensions (Daily and Ehrlich, 1999). A multidisciplinary approach to solving environmental issues is essential due to the fact socio-ecological structures are complicated; very few of the environmental issues lie entirely within one discipline (Daily and Ehrlich, 1999). This approach is vital due to the fact multiple views are better than one (Dick et al, 2016). A multidisciplinary approach to solving environmental issues is essential because the outcomes of studies have to have an impact on practice, the heterogeneity of scale necessitates it and conservation involves compromise (Dick et al, 2016).
Daily, G.C and Ehrlich, P.R., 1999. Managing Earth’s ecosystems: an interdisciplinary challenge. Ecosystems, 2(4): 277–280. doi:10.1007/s100219900075.
Dick, M., Rous, A.M., Nguyen, V.M., and Cooke, S.J., 2016. Necessary but challenging: Multiple disciplinary approaches to solving conservation problems. FACETS 1: 67–82. doi:10.1139/ facets-2016-0003
In the wake of the Listeriosis outbreak in South Africa from January 2017 to March 2018, with 183 fatalities and 42% of which were neonates, it is no surprise that in December 2017 Listeriosis made the communicable disease list (WHO, 2018). There has been a vast difference in how Gauteng, Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal were affected by Listeriosis, therefore the food safety awareness method of approach would be specific to each province because they differ in terms of geography and diversity.
Gauteng is a small province that is highly urbanized with a higher income bracket. Therefore I would communicate the 5 keys to safer food to the people and inform them of the causes of Listeriosis. The 5 keys to safer food are keeping clean; separate raw and cooked; cook thoroughly; keep food at safe temperatures and use safe water and raw materials (WHO, 2018). The disease is caused by the bacterium listeria and it is found in soil, water and can contaminate foods like deli meats, sausages, soft cheeses, cold smoked fishery, unpasteurised milk, etc. Methods of communication will be through campaigns, social media, pamphlets, TV and Radio.
Western Cape is also a highly urbanized province with a high-income bracket. Therefore I would communicate the 5 keys to safer food to the people and inform them of the causes of Listeriosis. The 5 keys to safer food are keeping clean; separate raw and cooked; cook thoroughly; keep food at safe temperatures and use safe water and raw materials (WHO, 2018). The disease is caused by the bacterium listeria and it is found in soil, water and can contaminate foods like deli meats, sausages, soft cheeses, cold smoked fishery, unpasteurised milk, etc. I would also make refrigerated food distributors and farmers aware of the guidelines of the HACCP food management system. Methods of communication will be through campaigns, social media, pamphlets, TV and Radio.
KZN is not so urbanized the province is mostly dominated by rural areas with Durban being the only urbanized area. The province has a low to middle income bracket. KZN is dominated by Zulu speaking people. To communicate and inform the people of KZN in rural areas about Listeriosis would be to run food safety awareness campaigns in local clinics where people have medical practitioners for further information. Use Zulu radio stations and newspapers to inform people about the disease. Other ways to communicate with people of KZN will be through campaigns, social media, pamphlets, TV and Radio.
Categories EIA IEM
Definition Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is the process of assessing the likely environmental impacts of a proposal and identifying options to minimise environmental damage (WBCSD, 2005). IEM is a philosophical framework for assessing and managing each phase of any action at any level (be it in plan, policy, programme or project) that that affects or interacts with the environment which is universally applicable in society (DEAT 2004)
Purpose To mitigate adverse impacts, strengthen positive impacts, plan properly, and make better decisions. Prevent future environmental disasters. To encourage the integration of environmental management principles into decisions with the potential to significantly affect the environment
Tools The tools used in EIA are (DEAT, 2004): Checklists, Audits, Site visits, Matrices, Specialist reports, reports and engaging I&AP’s The tools used in IEM are (DEAT, 2004): Screening, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental Auditing, Environmental Accounting, Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA), Risk Assessment, Strategic Environmental Assessment, Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and Environmental Management Plan (EMP).
Advantages The advantages of EIA outlined by DEAT (2004):
Lessons environmental impacts; and
Increased accountability and transparency The advantages of IEM outlined by DEAT (2004):
Improved communication between all interested and affected parties involved.
Integration of knowledge from multiple specialist disciplines allowing better informed decisions,
Improved environmental quality and
Increased efficiency in implementation because potential problems are dealt with in planning.
Limitations The limitations of EIA outlined by (Weaver et al, 1999):
Not possible to completely predict impacts;
EIA’s can be politically manipulated ;
Reliant on the EAP’s expertise and experience; and
Environments are not the same. The limitations of IEM outlined by (DEAT, 2004):
The need to improve the quality of outputs, the focus being on rigorous analysis, responsive consultation and responsible administration (DEAT, 2004).
The need to improve the level of integration between the various IEM tools for application throughout the full development life cycle (DEAT, 2004).
Effective Integrated Environmental Management requires a strong co-operative government (DEAT, 2004).
The need for effective environmental governance (DEAT, 2004).
DEAT., 2004. Overview of Integrated Environmental Management, Integrated Environmental Management, Information Series 0, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), Pretoria.
Weaver, A., Rossouw, N. ; Grobler, D., 1999. Scoping and “Issues Focused” Environmental Impact Assessment in South Africa. African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, Vol. 1 (1): 1-11
World Business Council for Sustainable Development, (2005): Environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) guidelines. 54pp
80% of the world’s rhinos are found in South Africa and South Africa is viewed as the primary of custodians of Africa’s rhinos. There has been a decline in South Africa’s rhino population in the last decade because of the rhino poaching crisis (Gonçalves, 2017). Below is a graph showing the rhino poaching in South Africa over a decade:
Source: (Carnie, 2018)
Only 13 rhinos were poached in South Africa in 2007. In 2008 the tally rose steeply to 83 rhinos poached to 333 deaths in 2010 and then to a record death toll of 1215 in 2014 and it has remained over the 1000 death toll to date (Carnie, 2018). The 1,028 rhinos killed in South Africa alone during 2017 works out to be nearly three rhinos killed every day. It is evident in the above graph that South Africa is not managing rhinos sustainably.
The Department of Environmental Affairs in South Africa is considering potential solutions to address the rhino poaching such as dehorning the rhinos and legalising a trade in the rhino horn within South Africa (Carnie, 2018). With all these solutions being considered the killing of rhinos is still not stopping which is why I will argue that South Africa is not managing rhinos sustainably.
Carnie, T., 2018. Rhino poaching: Latest figures show a decade of bloodshed in South Africa. The Independent, 1 February 2018
Gonçalves, D., 2017. Society and the rhino: A whole-of-society approach to wildlife crime in South Africa. South African Crime Quarterly, 60, pp.9-18.Question 6
An environmental activist is a person who advocates and works for the cause of shielding the natural environment from numerous forms of destruction and degradation (Elliot, 2018). An activist can be strongly passionate about conservation of the environment, its improvement, preservation, pollutants manipulate and plant and animal diversity (Elliot, 2018). According to Funke et al (2012), an environmental activist works for numerous environmental problems and campaigns along with climate change, sustainable development, sustainable agriculture, waste control and renewable assets of energy amongst others. Environmental activists these days use the internet effectively to create cognizance about environment associated issues and release numerous environmental campaigns (Funke et al 2012).
Here are some examples of different environmental activists from South Africa and other SADC countries:
Miss Mariette Liefferink is the CEO of the Federation for a Sustainable Environment (FSE), she is an acid mine drainage activist who strongly opposes malpractice by big mining organizations and the South African government (Funke et al 2012).
Ground Work, the Vaal Environmental Justice Alliance, the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance, the Highveld Environmental Justice Network, the Centre for Applied Legal Studies, the Centre for Environmental Rights and Earth justice are all the environmental activists that called for an improved coal mining regulation because poor regulated coal mining and coal-fired energy generation in South Africa are held accountable for air and water pollution, destruction of arable land, biodiversity loss and violating the human rights of many communities (Funke et al 2012).
The Green campaigners are environmental activists from Zambia that opposed copper mining activities within the Lower Zambezi National Park by a mining firm from Australia (Sakala, 2014).
An environmental lawyer is a kind of attorney who deals with instances which are associated with the protection of nature and the natural world, in addition to the extraordinary problems that arise from pollutants and out of control business growth (Sive, 1970). In order to become an environmental lawyer, one has to study a Law diploma (LLB) with Environmental Law as an elective and an additional module in Botany, Zoology or Biology which is a benefit within the environmental lawyer career (Bodansky, 2006). An environmental lawyer works to represent clients in legal problems in clean technology, water regulation, climate change regulation and the management of land challenge to native title and other public land. Other areas of focus consist of environmental rights, international environmental regulation, law of the ocean and international resources law (Sive, 1970). An environmental lawyer can work for environmental advocacy organizations, non-profit organizations or the government and also can go into private practice, doing consulting work or representing various clients in court (Bodansky, 2006).
Here are a few examples of different environmental lawyers from South Africa and other SADC countries:
Cullinan and Associates – Environmental and green business attorneys
The Centre for Environmental Rights is a non-profit organisation and law clinic based in Cape Town, South Africa. They are activist lawyers who help communities and civil society organisations in South Africa realise our Constitutional right to a healthy environment by advocating and litigating for environmental justice.
Koep and partners form Zambia have environmental lawyers that regularly advise clients on environmental regulatory issues, especially in the mining and energy context.
Bodansky, D., 2006. Does one need to be an international lawyer to be an international environmental lawyer?. In Proceedings of the ASIL Annual Meeting (Vol. 100, pp. 303-307). Cambridge University Press.Elliott, L., 2018. Environmentalism. ONLINE Available at: https://www.britannica.com/topic/environmentalism. Accessed 1 August 2018.Sive, D., 1970. Some thoughts of an environmental lawyer in the wilderness of administrative law. Columbia Law Review, 70(4), pp.612-651.Funke, N.S., Nienaber, S. and Gioia, C., 2012. An interest group at work: Environmental activism and the case of acid mine drainage on Johannesburg’s West Rand. Africa Institute of South Africa.Sakala, C., 2014. Environmental Activists Protest Mining in Lower Zambezi National Park. Zambia Reports, 3 February 2014.
Stakeholder engagement is the process used by an organization to have interaction with the relevant stakeholders for a purpose to achieve accepted outcomes (Jeffery, 2009). Stakeholder engagement happens during planning, assessment, implementation and management of proposals or activities (DEAT, 2002). In DuPont’s case the stakeholders that the company should have engaged with are; the Tennants Farm, the people from Parkersburg and Little Hocking, Department of Environmental Protection, West Virginia Department of Natural Resources and Local Health Department.
Stakeholder Engagement in Integrated Environmental Management:
DuPont chemical company did not implement the Integrated Environmental Management philosophy. Integrated Environmental Management takes a holistic and strategic approach, not only looking at the job benefits a factory like Du Pont may bring, but also the effects on communities over a much larger scale (Margerum, 1999). Stakeholder engagement is part of the Integrated Environmental Management (IEM) philosophy (Margerum, 1999). Normally in the establishment of the landfill site an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) could have been conducted, which is a tool for IEM.
Almost the entire process of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) involves stakeholder engagement (DEAT, 2012). There are specific objectives of the engagement process for the different stages of an EIA (DEAT, 2012). In the screening stage the objectives are to identify stakeholders, inform stakeholders about the proposal, establish commitment to the stakeholder engagement process and establish boundaries for stakeholder engagement process (Canter, 1996). In the scoping stage the objectives are to ensure all relevant stakeholders have been identified and invited to engage in the process; provide opportunity for stakeholders to contribute issues of concern and suggestions for enhancing potential benefits; to agree on a plan and approach for future stakeholder engagement; identify potential issues of conflict and engage in proactive conflict management (Canter, 1996). According to Canter (1996), in the special studies stage the objectives are to inform stakeholders on what is being assessed and keep stakeholders informed during the course of the specialist studies to maintain interest and prevent alienation from the process. In the environmental impact statement/report stage the objectives are to provide opportunity for stakeholders to comment, test the acceptability of proposed mitigation measures and if trade-offs are required, identify areas of conflict and adopt a proactive approach to conflict management (Canter, 1996). In the decision-making stage the objectives are to inform (with reasons) stakeholders of the decision made, explain conditions attached to the decision (which will include the opportunity for involvement in monitoring of the construction and operational phases of the development) and assist in the selection of the most desirable alternative (Canter, 1996).
The lesson that IEM Practitioners can learn from the DuPont case is that it is important to engage with all the interested and affected parties in any activity or development involving the environment and the people. References
Canter, L.W. (1996) Environmental Impact Assessment, 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill Inc.
DEAT (2002). Stakeholder Engagement, Integrated Environmental Management, Information Series 3, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), Pretoria.
Margerum, R.D. (1999). Profile: Integrated Environmental Management: The Foundations for Successful Practice. Environmental Management 24 (2): 151—166.
Jeffery, N. (2009). Stakeholder engagement: A road map to meaningful engagement.