ME1030 – Engineering Skills Development Workshop Report Lathe Machine Name – Gunathilaka R

ME1030 – Engineering Skills Development
Workshop Report
Lathe Machine
Name – Gunathilaka R.A.C.K.

ID – EN18405514
Group – 8(D)
-5333-65989 Continuous Assessment Cover Sheet
Faculty of Engineering

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Module Details Module Code ME-1030 Module Title Engineering Skills Development
Program: SLIIT Course: BSc
Stream: Mechanical
Assessment details Title Lathe Machine Group assignment NO
If yes, Group No.
Lecturer/ Instructor Mr Garaka Date of Performance
Due date 29th August 2018 Date submitted 29th August 2018

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Details of the student/s submitting the assignment Signature
ID Number Name (As per the institute records ) EN18405514 Gunathilaka R.A.C.K.

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Marks: All marks are subject to external moderation and approval of board of examinations
Title
Introduction to Lathe Machine
Objectives
To familiarize the operations of the lathe machine
Introduction
Lathe machine is a complex machine which is used to grind, shape and sharpen metals, woods or any other applicable materials. This machine is operated under a supervision of a person. In this machine basically, one side is rotatable and not movable. Other side is movable. Work piece is fitted to the rotating side and other side is done the cutting or sharpening process. Lathe Machine has a long history and now it has been developed enormously.

Materials and Apparatus
Lathe Machine

150 mm long cylindrical metal rod with a 25 mm diameter

Goggles

Vernier Caliper

Procedure
Firstly, protective goggles were worn before start the practical.

Secondly, the diameter of cylindrical metal rod was measured by using a Vernier Caliper and the limit of the sharpening area was roughly marked.

Next the cylindrical metal rod was fitted to the chuck of the machine.

Then the apron was adjusted to the required space to reduce the diameter of the work piece.

After that, the cutting tool was touched with the work piece. This process was done by adjusting the cross slide hand wheel.

Then the cutting tool was initialized to the zero.

Next the feed selector was operated to get a precious reduction of diameter of the work piece.

As the next step the clutch was pulled upwards to start the machine. The machine was temporarily stopped when the cutting tool was at the end point of marked limit of the work piece.

At the temporarily stopping situation of the machine the diameter was measured by the Vernier Caliper and again feed selector was operated to reduce the diameter.

Above steps were done repeatedly until the cylindrical metal rod get the given shape with given dimensions.

Finally, machine was stopped after sharpening the metal rod according to given shape and given dimensions.

Discussion
1 Types of Lathe Machines
There are 4 main types of Lathe Machines
Speed Lathes
Engine Lathes
Tool Room Lathes
Turret Lathes
Speed Lathes
The design of the speed lathes is simple. This lathes have different speeds of operation. Usually speed lathes consist 3 to 4 speeds. The speed of the spindle of Speed Lathe is very higher than other lathe machines. This machine has a bed, tail stock, head stock etc. Specially, some components such as feed rod, lead screw and tool post are not contained in Speed Lathe Machines. Normally, this machine is used for wood working, turning or metal polishing and spinning.

Engine Lathes
This is the most common type among lathe machines. This machine is called as ‘Engine Lathe’ because in the past, steam engines were applied to run the machine. This machine contains a wide range of speeds. The components which are not available in Speed Lathe Machine such as feed rod, lead screw and tool post are available in Engine Lathe Machines. Furthermore, this type of machines is copiously used in industries because of their low and high power operation. Main parts of Engine Lathes are carriage, head stock, tail stock, feed rod, lead screw, tools post, gear selector, RPM selector etc.

Tool Room Lathes
Tool Room Lathes have similar components of Engine Lathe, but considering the accuracy, Tool Room Lathe more accurate than Engine Lathe. This lathe machine has a wide range of speeds. Some special features such as chuck, follow rest, coolant pump, electromagnetic footbrake are contained in Tool Room Lathes.

Turret Lathe Machine
Turret Lathe machines are mostly based on production works. Specially, Turret Lathe Machine is performed several operations and the time consumption is minimized by this machine. This is contained a tool named as ‘Capstan Wheel’. It’s used to position the next tool for the next operation. Convenience of the machine operating is highly provided by Turret Lathe Machine. This machine is commonly used for high speed manufacturing of mechanical components.

Operations of a lathe machine
Facing – At the end point of the work piece is cut as keeping a border.

Parting – At the end of the face is cut and unnecessary parts are removed.

Tapering – Tapering is cutting the end of the work piece as shaped as a cone.

Parallel Turning – This operation is done for reduce the diameter of a metal work piece.

Grinding – Removing unnecessary materials using an abrasive wheel.

Thread Cutting – Cutting threads by using a single point tool.

Knurling – Creating a rough surface as series of indentations by using a knurling tool.

Drilling – Making holes on a metal work piece.

Types of work holding devices used to hold a work piece in a lathe machine
Chuck – This is made for hold the work piece strongly during the machine operation. There are few types of chucks such as three jaw chuck, four jaw chuck, magnetic chuck etc. Chuck is shaped as flat cylinder. Jaws are on the flat surface of one side.

Face Plate – Face plate is made of cast iron. Face plate is shaped as a disk. This is consisted of holes and slots.

Driving Plate – This is made of cast iron and shaped as a disk. On the front side, driving plate is consisted a pin and the rear side it is consisted a boss.

Lathe Carriers – These are used to join with the driving plate. Lathe carriers are divided into two parts by considering tails of them.

Straight Tail
Bent Tail

CNC Lathe Machine
The meaning of CNC is Computer Numerical Control. This technology is an updated version of previous lathe machines. This is a computerized operating machine and the special features are high accuracy, high reliability and less time consumption. In the manufacturing fields of Automotive, Locomotive, Aircraft, Sports equipment are commonly used CNC machines to have a efficacious finish to their products.

Conclusion
In the industrial manufacturing process, Lathe Machines do an enormous part to give accurate, precise products with a fine finish. Lathe Machines are being updated rapidly to overcome every difficulty in manufacturing process. Future, there will be more accurate, fast and precise machines than today with minimizing errors of past lathe machineries.
References
Work holding devices used during operations on machine.

Available from: http://www.qhunt.com/2015/10/work-holding-devices.htmlAccessed on 27th August 2018
Types of lathe machines.

Available from: https://basicmechanicalengineering.com/types-of-lathe-machines/Accessed on 28th August 2018
Types of Lathe Machines
Available from: http://www.mechanicalbooster.com/2018/05/types-of-lathe-machine.htmlAccessed on 28th August 2018
Lathe operations, types and cutting tools
Available from: http://www.engineeringarticles.org/lathe-lathe-operations-types-and-cutting-tools/Accessed on 28th August 2018
What is CNC Lathe Machine and what it’s function
Available from: https://www.worthyhardware.com/cnc-lathe-machine-function/Accessed on 28th August 2018