Life depends on the ability of cells to harvest energy from importing, processing, and exporting molecules
This report will explain the differences between certain cells and will also explain in detail how cells use energy to perform very important processes to keep the organism thriving.
For something to be classed as a living organism, they must possess all of the seven characteristics that are shown in the table below.
Movement All living organisms can deliberately move their bodies or individual parts to change position.
Reproduction All living organisms are able to generate the next generation by reproducing organisms, that are the same kind as themselves.
Sensitivity All living organisms must be able to detect, and react to, the changing variables within their surroundings, internally and externally.
Growth All Living organisms develop and create adhering to particular directions coded within their genetics, allowing them to change size and shape.
Respiration The compound response that separates supplement particles in cells to produce energy.
Excretion All living organisms produce waste products.
Nutrition All living organisms requires energy. They take in nutrition to produce energy, to grow and repair.
The differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells
Examples of each cell Bacteria or archaea Plants or animals
Size of cells Around 0.2 to 2.0 mm Around 10 to 100 mm
Cell wall features
Normally present, chemically complex Normally not present, if present, chemically simple
Organelles Not membrane bound if any are present Membrane bound
Type of cell Single cell Multi celled
Binary fission Mitosis
Around 70s Smaller in size Around 80s Larger in size
Type of reproduction
Asexual Most commonly sexual
Double stranded, circular Double stranded, linear
No cytoplasmic or cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton with cytoplasmic streaming
No nuclear membrane Nuclear membrane
Carbohydrates absent Carbohydrates and sterols present
The differences between diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport
Below is an illustration which shows simple diffusion. Simple diffusion is when molecules travel from a place which has a lot of molecules to a place that either lacks or has low amounts of molecules. They do this by travelling down through the membrane until both places have, more or less equal amounts of molecules. Molecules that travel through the simple diffusion method must be nonpolar and they must be small in size.
Below is an illustration which shows facilitated diffusion. Facilitated diffusion is different to simple diffusion because the molecules can not travel directly through the membrane. In order to go from a place which has lots of molecules to a place which lacks or doesn’t have many molecules, it needs to use a channel. This channel is named a protein channel and it provides the molecules a way of getting through to the membrane.
Below is an illustration that shows active transport. Active transport is not the same as simple diffusion or facilitated diffusion because it requires adenosine triphosphate, which is also known as ATP. This is the energy that is used to assist the molecules to travel from a place which has a lot of molecules to a place that either lacks or doesn’t have a lot of molecules. Active transport molecules are also different because they have to move against the gradient, which is why they require the use of energy.
Cellular respiration is a process of how cells gain their energy and how that energy is used. It all starts within the mitochondria, which is a part of the eukaryotic cell. Glucose is taken from the food that is consumed and its then broken down to create energy for the cells to use. This process can be explained by using the equation that’s illustrated below.
Cells require energy to perform certain processes. The energy source that the cells require is known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is required to perform movement, growth, cell division and much more. Below is a brief description of how ATP is used to fuel cell division.
Shaft fibres and cell development is the consequence of cooperation’s among microtubules and engine proteins. Engine proteins are specific proteins, fuelled by ATP, that effectively move the microtubules. Some engine proteins, for example, dynein’s and kinesins, move along microtubules as the filaments either extend or abbreviate. It is the dismantling and reassembly of microtubules that creates the development required for cell division to happen. This incorporates chromosome development and in addition cytokinesis (the division of the cytoplasm toward the finish of mitosis or meiosis).
Below is an illustration that shows how ATP is used to contract muscles. Muscles would not be able to contract without the ATP energy source to assist it.
ATP also assists in a process called protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is the procedure by which proteins are shaped in organic cells. Proteins do all the critical elements of a cell, for example, transport, auxiliary help, synthetic responses, cell correspondence and assurance from destructive microscopic organisms and infections. Each protein particle is comprised of amino acids. Amino acids are natural mixes containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. There are just twenty amino acids that are normally made by living life forms yet there are huge assortments of proteins made from them. Below is an illustration that shows how ATP fuels the above-mentioned process.