International law support the right of migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers no matter how and why they move to another country. They have the right to be protected as everyone else. These specific protection are included:
• The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 14), which states that everyone has the right to seek and enjoy asylum from persecution in other countries
• The 1951 UN Refugee Convention (and its 1967 Protocol), which protects refugees from being returned to countries where they risk being persecuted
• The 1990 Migrant Workers Convention, which protects migrants and their families
• Regional Refugee law instruments (including 1969 OAU Convention, 1984 Cartagena Declaration, Common European Asylum System and Dublin Regulation)
Refugee influx became a phenomena in the recent years. Starting from 2014 year the majority of developed countries prefer to flee to the European countries. I should underline that the number of refugees (220.000) arrived in Europe by boat last year was a record. The number of refugees increased in the recent years up to (900.000) people. According to statistics compiled by UN most of refugees are Syrian. This movement is because of Syrian civil war. The people encounter the unstoppable war so, the only way out the situation is to move to the countries with better life condition. The most preferable countries are Greece, Italy, Spain, Bulgaria, and Malta so on. But not all refugees are from Syria. Italy hosts the significant number of refugees are from North Korea because of dictatorship regime. The conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq also make people move to Greece. (https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/dec/09/what-caused-the-refugee-crisis-google)
War and civil war, human rights violations, environment and climate are the main causes for refugee crises. According to the UN refugee agency report wars and persecutions are the essential reasons of refugee crisis in 2015. Every 25 per minute have been obliged to be displaced from the homes in 2015 (https://currinfo.blogspot.com/2018/05/refugee-crisis.html)
Human rights violations
People are suffering from corruption by those who occupied political positions in some countries such as Uganda, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, South Sudan, Sudan, Eritrea are the top of the most corrupt countries in the whole world. The citizens are suffering by those in power who are grabbing their property. Almost all the resources are in hand of those few persons in political positions. This situation of discrimination and inequality leads to displacing of people from their origin country to the other.
Environment and climate
People displaced by the impact of climate change are called “climate refugees”. The environmentalists warnings that there is expected 1 billion people suffer from climate change in the next 40 years. But cases show that people suffering from climate change could rarely cross the border rather than leaving for short period of time. They mostly prefer to get accustomed to the new circumstances happened to them.
Following the effects of hurricane Katrina in 2005, the term “refugee” was sometimes used to describe people displaced by the storm. There was mentioned that the term should not be used to describe Americans displaced within their own county, and the term “evacuee” was substituted in its place. (https://currinfo.blogspot.com/2018/05/refugee-crisis.html; https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/what-s-driving-global-refugee-crisis)
Factors behind movement of refugees to Europe
Loss of hope
It’s almost 5 year since civil war happened in Syria and no solution is expected for many refugees. They are miserable, desperate and concerned about their future.
High costs of living
Refugees arrived in Lebanon hesitate whether to stay or go due to high cost of living factor. Egypt refugees cite that they cannot afford themselves to pay for rent and basic needs. Inability to provide for one’s family is the most common reason for the refugees left Jordan.
Limited livelihood opportunities
The lack of access to the labor market was one of problems for refugees relocated in Lebanon, Egypt and Jordan. The influx of Syrian refugees made a great competition for jobs in these areas. The jobs in construction sphere is more popular due to drop of oil prices.
The great deal of Iraqis have reported to UNHCR that they are feeling unsafe while their being in country. The population see the migration as the key for release from unsafety environment. (http://www.unhcr.org/news/briefing/2015/9/560523f26/seven-factors-behind-movement-syrian-refugees-europe.html)