Physical-Children first learn to hold their head up. Later on by six month they begin to roll and sit. Kids then learn to creep and crawl, pick themselves up, walk while holding furniture, walk two or three steps usually by 12 months.
Cognitive-At this age they learn to start discovering with their hands and mouths. They throw, drop, shake, and put items in their mouth. Piaget (1936) theory suggests that children explore the world through their senses as they grow older as they are then able to understand complex information.
Emotional-Crying is the key means of communication when their needs are not met. They’ll smile and giggle if they want something or close their eyes when they want less of something. Separation may cause stress for a baby.
Social– You can suppose your child to imitate facial expressions and develop and social smile by 3 months. Babbling starts to begin then gradually learning to say simple word.
Physical- Children first learn how to hold a pencil with two fingers. At the age of 3 they have a full set of teeth therefore they be whined onto solid foods. Later on at the age of 5 they have an increased ability to show good balance also they can kick a ball or throw a ball. Writing also becomes more synchronized. Has good motor skills so they have the ability to colour and cut shapes using a line as a guide.
Cognitive-Their will be an upsurge of language and understanding. Solving problems counting to 20.They later on start to recognise ideas such as time and distance
Emotional-They will try to work out what’s right and wrong. Many children can show sympathy for friends who are hurt and grow perception of fairness and forgiveness as this matures in self-confidence.
Social-They start making friends. At the age of 4 they become independent as they can wash and dry their hands. They can also indicate their own friends because of their interest and personality. Enjoy team games and comprehend game rules.
Physical-the physical changes that come with puberty may cause misperception and anxiety. Anxious about their physical appearance. At 17 they start maturing and both physically and mentally becoming an adult
Cognitive-Advanced reasoning skills. Ability to think abstractly. Begin to think deeply about life. Expand their logic and reasoning aptitudes.
Emotional-Showing strong feelings and intense emotions at different times. Emotional ups and downs can lead to augmented conflict. Self-esteem often affected by appearance or by how teenagers think they look.
Social-Seeking responsibility at both school and home. Likely to be influenced by friends as when it comes to behaviour as sense of self and self-esteem. Thinking more about what is right and wrong becoming a stronger individual setting out values and morals. Teenagers may also have relationships and go on dates.
Early Adulthood 19-29
Physical– in early adult hood physical maturation is complete, although height and weight may increase. Changes in vision. Body reaches its physical peak and maximum of growth.
Cognitive– Early adulthood can be very stressful and a very critical point in a person’s life. Cognitive development is literally a person’s ability to perceive understand and reflect. Increase in ethical and moral decision making. Young adults set goals and intend accomplish them. Vygotsky theory (1934) claims that the role of social communication in the development of cognition as he agrees that the community plays a huge role in the procedure of “making means”.
Emotional– depression is a major concern for adults I the mid-20s as this then links to violence, suicide and eating disorders. Relationship stress.
Social-ability to create an affective and independent life. Divorce is more common now then it was 40 years ago.as most individuals get divorces at the age of 20 as their not mature enough to make good marriage choices or make the marriage last.
Middle adulthood 30-60
Physical– various physical changes such as wrinkles, organs don’t function as efficiently. Decrease in strength, coordination, sensation and fine motor skills. Body is weaker and immune system is fragile many genetic or non-genetic illness can occur from the slow function of the body such as dementia where the brain loses its mental capacity due to the age.
Cognitive– crystalized intelligence increases. Processing information becomes slower not by a lot. Memory declines.
Emotional– important life decisions are made about carrier and life arrangements. Intimate relationships are challenging. Anxiety and drastic changes in behaviour.
Social– retired from work. High unemployment.
Later Adulthood 60+ (intellectual)
Physical-sensory functions such as eyesight and hearing may decline. Arthritis may be current.
Cognitive-neurological changes. Decline In perceptual speed. Memory functional weakening.
Emotional– loss of parents as this may have an impact on one’s life and also lead to low self-esteem and confidence.
Social-less iteration with others. Personality natures, interest roles and skills that endorse life. Loss of family members.
2.1) Describe theories of human growth and development.
Cognitive theory-This study refers to the brain. It focuses its attention on learning, reasoning and language. Many psychologists agree that the brain can be tacit as a computing system. The three psychologists for cognitive are Piaget, Vygotsky and Kohlberg
Piaget’s (1936) theory suggests that children go through a number of stages in their cognitive development. Piaget has a cognitive development chart named sensorimotor, preoperational motor, concrete operation and formal operation. As he suggest that children explore the world through their senses as they grow older as they are then able to understand complex information. Simply psychology (2015) outlines that “what Piaget wanted to do was not to measure how well children could count, spell or solve problems as a way of grading their I.Q.” but what he agreed on was the fundamental concept like the idea of numbers, quantity, time and causality as this is the main thing that focuses its attention on the brain and how it works. He had refused to measure how children could solve problems or count to test their I.Q.
Vygotsky cognitive theory – Vygotsky theory (1934) claims that the role of social communication in the development of cognition as he agrees that the community plays a huge role in the procedure of “making means”. He also highlighted the importance of people around the child and the social group. He advised a term called ‘zone of proximal development’ as this suggests that the distance between the real development level as resolute by independent problem-solving and level of potential development which is determined through problem-solving under adult guidance. He also points out that there is a balance between activities that some children may find easy and some may find hard. Simply psychology (2014) outlines that “Vygotsky believes that young children are curios and actively involved in the own learning and the discovery and development of new understandings/schema” as this suggest that young children are energetically learning new things every day and discovering new things in their day-to day life and understanding what’s going on around them.
Kohlberg cognitive theory- Kohlberg focused on the moral development and added to Piaget’s development to progress his ideas further. He decided that there are three levels of moral development and six stages. There were also many dilemmas regarding Kohlberg’s theory.
Maslow’s Humanistic theory- Humanistic discovers phycology by looking at the whole person. Maslow desired to know what motivated people and how it linked to human behaviour. He industrialised a five stage model that included basic, physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualisation needs. This theory conspiracies he human element (depending upon the individual) as it seems to never have the nee of all levels fulfilled at once. LinkedIn suggest that “it is a revolving door throughout the levels feeling completely satisfied as a whole person” as this points out that this particular theory detects the motivational aspects of the “whole person”. As the part of “whole person” consists of the humans spiritual, physical, emotional and mental wellbeing has a balance.
Skinner learning/conditioning- Skinner supposed that we do have such a thing as a mind and that is simply more productive to study noticeable behaviour somewhat then internal metal events. Skinner considered that the most vital factor is how rewards and punishment shapes ones behaviour. He also introduced and assessed the importance of reinforcement which can strengthen behaviour; however behaviour that is not reinforced is weakened and not likely to be repeated.
Erikson psychosocial-Erikson planned a psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial consisting of eight stages from infancy to adulthood. During each stage the individual experiences a psychosocial crisis which has a positive or negative result for personality development. Erikson pointed out that people develop through stages. If the individual successfully completes each of the life stages they will have a healthy personality and get along with people well.
Bandura social learning-bandura stated that role models are very important as their behaviour is learned. As children copying their parents. Behaviour is copied if there has been reinforcement. In society children are always surrounded by powerful models such as parents other children characters seen on TV and many more. Thy later encode their behaviour. According to Simply phycology “First, the child is more likely to attend to and imitate those people it perceives as similar to itself”. As this suggests that young children will observe and copy your behaviour then imitate those whose behaviour is similar to their own.
3.2) Analyse the impact that significant life events have on individuals.
Fine motor skills give the children the ability to control its coordination this results in in developed hands, palms, small muscles. This helps infants carry out specific skilful movements. These skills are crucial for a baby and toddlers development. Repetitive exercise helps equilibrium your baby’s nervous system and muscles to ensure that fine motor skills develop in sync with physical and emotional maturity. Gross motor skills involve stronger and larger muscles and give the ability to control and coordinate the movement of limbs.
At this age children start nursery and school as this helps them to interact with others and become more social as they widen their social groups and form friendships. Many at this stage have temper tantrums but gradually begin to realise that they will need to cooperate with others. As they grow older they start to adapt to their environment such as when they start their nursery and schools many children have sudden behaviour changes According to ABCs of mental health suggest that “At times a child may experience a sudden change in mood or display an unexpected change in behaviour” this suggest that as children grow older they are maturing but these different mood changes aren’t troubling as many turn sad because of what they have just experienced. At the age of 4 they become independent as they can wash and dry their hands.
Adolescent also have many exams mainly at the age of 16-17 as this is an age of stress and strain. This indicates that examination stress is very common in adolescents so it’s better to prevent the stress than treated and exam stress can not necessarily be treated. Many adolescence at the age of 15-17 have relationships which can lead to heartbreaks, stress and emotionally disturbed could also result in depression. Many also want independence as they may decide to leave home mainly due to relationships or if they have been told by parents. Mainly adolescent would follow their own perspective. Adolescence is a time for opportunities and risks. Puberty also play a huge role I the life events as according to NCBI (1999) “These hormones have powerful effects on many tissues of the body, including the brain, and lead to significant changes in social, emotional, and sexual behaviour.” As this suggest that physical change can result in hormonal change the physical change in girls is caused by oestrogen and in boys is caused by testosterone. These changes include the brain as the brain controls the emotions and change in sexual behaviour of the adolescence. Social behaviour can also be altered. Self-esteem is primarily affected
Early, middle and late adulthood.
Many in early and middle adulthood look for partner to build a relationship if they don’t work out this may lead to stress and emotional breakdown. According to Psychology today (2013)” too-much work of running a home clearly can create stress in relationships” this shows that to much work and staying away from your partner or family can cause stress and lead to arguments.it may be that you might want to spend time with partner or family but income is low and you need to work of running a home. Midlife crisis is also common which may lead to depression, remorse and anxiety. Many adults at this age would want to find a find employment and establish a carrier if not possible may lead to anxiety. Medical conditions can also play a huge role in ones emotions many may have diabetes, depression, anxiety disorder and many more as for depression may lead to fewer social activities and have a negative effect on the families. Loss of parents many adults in their 40s to 50s may lose their parents may have an effect on psychological wellbeing such as depressive symptoms and low-self-esteem. According to BTEC National Health and Social Care refers to Erikson theory “Erikson argued that the key task for early adulthood was learning to cope with emotional attachment to a sexual partner.” as this shows us that many young adults had a need to cope with their partners emotions not being self-centred, defensive or becoming emotionally isolated as you’ll also need to take care of the partner. This may lead to arguments or even breakups. I later adulthood If friends and family have poor mobility this may lead to reduced social contact as many may feel loneliness or isolated.