In this project

In this project, we studied the non-invasive detection of jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia. The surveyed had been proposed regarding issue and challenges of jaundice detection by measuring bilirubin concentration using non-invasive techniques. The bilirubin concentration measurement was used to determine the levelled of jaundice among people. Hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice was commonly happened due to raising of the amount of bilirubin in the body. Invasive techniques need blood sample and the problem was the result delayed. According to the surveyed we studied non-invasive techniques devices which is Portable bilirubinometer diminish blood sample by not using any blood sample from the people for jaundice detection but there were some factors that affects the bilirubin detection. The factors that affects the bilirubin detection process were the issues and challenges of the non-invasive techniques

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

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1.0 Introduction
Presentation of the Portable bilirubinometer for measure bilirubin in blood can be explained in two major parts, which are to get the reading of bilirubin in blood (portable bilirubinometer ) and specimen that I will focused on. For the first important thing is to really know what actually bilirubin, about its specification, its risk and a few things more about it. For portable bilirubinometer, it will be explaining in term management of equipment and design the whole system

1.1 Introduction to bilirubin
Bilirubin was the yellowish pigment that was the by product of heme catabolism. Bilirubin was responsible for the yellow colour of the urine. 4 when the cell was died haemoglobin was released from the cell, which was breakdown into heme and globin. Heme was finally converting into bilirubin. For any reasoned if kidney was not capable to excrete the bilirubin through the body at rate at which bilirubin formed. Bilirubin accumulated in the blood and it causes jaundice.
The formation of bilirubin in the body was around 250 mg to 35-mg. The red blood cell died after 120 days of life so that the formation of bilirubin takes placed. The haemoglobin was releases from the dead cells. 5 heme was oxidizing to convert into bilverdine and globin was converting into the amino acids. The bilverdine was reductive to form bilirubin. There were two types of bilirubin formation occur i. e. indirect bilirubin and direct bilirubin. At initial stage of jaundice indirect bilirubin was formed. 6 bilverdine was converting into the indirect bilirubin then the water-soluble protein called as albumin carried the indirect bilirubin into the liver. In liver indirect bilirubin becomes direct bilirubin after react with the glycolic acids. 7 direct bilirubin was the water-soluble. Bilirubin combined with bile passed to the intestine and gallbladder from the liver, where it breakdowns into stercoblin and urobilinogen. Stercoblin mixed with wastes excreted through the body from intestine. In urobilinogen the waste was excreted in form of urine through the kidney

1.2 Project Background
The portable bilirubinometer for measure bilirubin in blood can be described as a project that involves a few of circuits and program code. How to make the portable bilirubinometer works as checking the level of bilirubin in blood and classify the level due to theory reading which are critical, mild and normal. Portable bilirubinometer that I trying to create is about system based on mechanical part, hardware and software part, how to get reading of bilirubin by using non- invasive method . This project soon will be test on adult people suspect hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice.

1.2 Project Objectives
To provide a device called portable billirunometer that can be used to measure the level of bilirubin in jaundice (user friendly and painless)

1.4 Problem Statement
The problem is to measure the level of bilirubin without any pricking needle

1.5 Summary
Portable bilirubinometer is new technology developed to avoid fricking needle. By the way this portable bilirubinometer is an device for screening bilirubin based on changes on skin tone. Portable bilirubinometer also a device that friendly user to people. Other than that based on previous research even thought this portable bilirubinometer is friendly user but the result is still needed confirm by blood test .

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
For this chapter, we will take a look on the existing product and previous research done by different parties that concern about the issue that I am focused. The system already build but there was advantages and disadvantages itself. I am trying to have a research to improve the system.

2.1 Jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia detection
Jaundice detection could be done to examine the low or high levels of bilirubin concentration. 7 jaundice should be detected at early stage so that neonates could be make safe to occur sever hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin concentration could be detected through various methods. These methods categorized into two categories. Invasive and non-invasive. In invasive detection methods the blood sample was taken from the vein punctured and the blood was collected for the laboratory test. 8 in non-invasive detection methods blood samples were not required for detection process its functionality was based on the light, which was reflected by the skin. It measures the concentration of the bilirubin by spectral reflectance of the skin. This project to find out the levelled of bilirubin,
Jaundice causes because of increasing the levelled of bilirubin in the body from the normal value. Bilirubin was of two types conjugated or direct bilirubin and unconjugated or indirect bilirubin. Indirect bilirubin was more harmful for the body because of insolubility with the water. Direct bilirubin was excreted from the body because of solubility with water.

2.1 Portable Billirubinometer
2.1.1 Type of portable bilirubinometer
Portable bilirubinometer was a new technology that developed to recover problems of invasive techniques detect hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice . Portable bilirubinometer was non invasive technique to detect hyperbilirubinemia at early stage . in addition this portabe bilirubinometer can be used friendly at home so the people can handle by their ownself. They just attach the portable on certain part of skin and get the reading of bilirubin in short time .

2.1.2 Categories of bilirubin measurement
There were 3 categories of bilirubin measurement in this project. Based on researched before the 3 categories were normal , mild and critical. A normal leveled was: direct (also called conjugated) bilirubin: less than 0. 3 mg/dl (less than 5. 1 µmol/l) total bilirubin: 0. 1 to 1. 2 mg/dl (1. 71 to 20. 5 µmol/l). For severe jaundice (when levels of bilirubin were high, usually above 25 mg) that was not treated could caused deafness, cerebral palsy, or other forms of brain damage. In rare cases, jaundice may be a sign of another condition, such as an infection or a thyroid problem. Other than that reading the people at mild leveled which were need to be carefull and started doing following checked up.
2.1.3 The important of portable bilirubinometer
The development of this portable bilirubinometer was important to support staff and nurse at hospital to handle hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice. Portable bilirubinometer was friendly user to all and avoided fricking needle. So by developing this portable bilirubinometer it could help to detect early stage of jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia without blood test.

2.2 Photodiode sensor
A photodiode was one typed of light detector, used to convert the light into current or voltage based on the mode of operation of the device. These diodes had a slow response time when the surface area of the photodiode increases. Photodiodes were alike to regular semiconductor diodes, but that they may be either visible to let light reached the delicate part of the device. Several diodes intended for used exactly as a photodiode will also used a pinned junction somewhat than the usual pn junction. Photodiodes were specially designed to operate in reverse bias condition. Reverse bias means that the p-side of the photodiode was connected to the negative terminal of the battery and n-side was connected to the positive terminal of the battery. Photodiode was very sensitive to light so when light or photons fell on the photodiode it simply converts light into electric current.
In this project I am applied photodiode sensor as main component to detect the signal from surface of skin toned. It less cost compared to other sensor. Moreover, the function of photodiode sensor is most suitable to this project.

2.3 Problem causes regarding this development
There were a major problem regarding this portable bilirubinometer development. The problem are blood test is needed to confirm the bilirubin reading . Because sometimes the skin tone will affect the reading. For example, the reading of people that have dark skin.

2.4 Comparison of Invasive and Non-Invasive Techniques
There were two types of technique through which bilirubin could be detect i. e. invasive and non-invasive. 20 these two techniques were:
Blood Samples
Invasive Detection Requires Blood Samples For Bilirubin Detection Frequent Withdrawal Of The Blood Samples For Laboratory Test Causes Blood Loss In The Infants. Whereas Non-Invasive Detection Has Not Requires Any Blood Sample.
Spectral Reflectance
In invasive technique, blood samples were requires for detection whereas the non-invasive technique depends upon the spectral reflectance of the skin.
Delay in Treatment
Invasive technique caused delay in the treatment due to laboratory test on the samples that took some times. In non-invasive there was no delay in the treatment because of less time consume during calibration.
Calibration
Invasive detections techniques were calibrating subjectively, whereas non-invasive detection techniques were calibrated quantatively.
Initial Detection
Non-invasive techniques were used only for initial check up to determine that was neonates affected by jaundice or not or to checked only initial stage of jaundice, whereas invasive techniques were used for conformation and also to detect sever hyperbilirubinemia.
Severe Hyperbilirubinemia
Invasive techniques were capable of detection of sever hyperbilirubinemia levelled correctly, whereas non-invasive techniques were not able to detect hyperbilirubinemia levelled correctly.
Factors Affect Detection
During non-invasive technique detection there were some factors that affects the bilirubin detection such as melanin, oxy-haemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, sex, age, dermal maturity because these factors varies from person to person and placed to placed whereas these factors has not affects the invasive detection of the bilirubin.
There were various factors on which these two techniques could be compared. Invasive techniques were able to detect jaundice accurately but these techniques required blood samples so that these techniques cannot be used for intial detection. Non-invasive detection techniques hasn’t required any blood samples but these techniques readings varied due to haemoglobin, melamine, 14 skin types and age so that cannot be used to detect severe jaundice.

2.2 Relevancy of Project
Particularly, due to how the staff in hospital and nurse take a look on patient that have jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia, they have problem with the fricking of needle. That can be substantial case to continue work on this project topic. It is relevant to developed and applied the portable bilirubinometer in real activity. So, the operation system on early detection of hyperbilirubinemia can be more effective.

2.3 Summary
From the previous project review, the problems and disadvantages of the project will be a good suggestion and consideration in my project. Any assumption and expectations for future will be reducing because I am already got the data from the previous discussion and research.