In offence committed, performer and punishment awarded.
In the past in criminal justice system attention was given mostly on the offence committed, performer and punishment awarded. Efforts were made only to understand the personality and behavioural patterns of the offender and the social, political and other factors which contributed towards his criminal behaviour but no attention was given to the victims of crime and they were completely out of picture in criminal justice system. But in last few decade impact of victimization on the affected persons drew the attention of the criminologists and criminal law systems across the globe so as to entice them that the victims needed to be treated with much compassion as well as their dignity and basic rights must be recognised and protected. In ancient human civilization in case of any wrong doings, revenge was only the aspect of punishment to be taken into consideration” and laws were designed in order to compensate the victim and not for punishing the accused. The penal law of ancient communities were related to wrong doings rather than crimes.
At that time there were not law of crimes but it was the law of wrongs. In ancient times, the person injured due to crime proceeds against the wrong-doer by an ordinary civil action, and recovers compensation in the shape of money-damages if he succeeds. But in ancient Hindu Law, punishment of crimes occupied a more importance rather than the compensation for wrong doings.