In Keller’s interpretation

In Keller’s interpretation (1993), brand equity is”the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand” given by the difference between consumer response to the marketing of the branded and unbranded product. Consumers give a more favorable response to marketing mix in the case of brands with high brand equity than in those with low equity. As a consequence, relative marketing costs decrease as the efficiency of marketing activities increase. “The productivity of brand assets comes from both the demand and supply sides.”

Jumiati Sasmita, The purpose of his paper was to examine the effects of brand association, brand loyalty, brand awareness, and brand image on brand equity among young consumers. Empirical results via multiple regressions authenticated that brand awareness predominantly affects brand equity among young consumers. These young consumers get input and awareness of the particular product or brand from the social media. They can clearly recognize the particular product or brand in comparison to competing products or brands and know how it looks and its characteristics from the social media.

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