Impact of contemporary transport on Heritage landscape in LamuAbdilatif Hussein This research project is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Sustainable Urban Development

Impact of contemporary transport on Heritage landscape in LamuAbdilatif Hussein
This research project is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Sustainable Urban Development (MSUD) from the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT).

July 2018DECLARATIONThis research project is my original work and has not been presented for consideration for an award of any degree in any other university.
Sign Date
Abdilatif Hussein
Reg No ABU 341 – 3005/ 2016
Declaration by Project Supervisors:
This research has been submitted for examination with our approval as the University Supervisors:
Sign Date
Dr. Mugwima Njuguna
Project supervisor
Centre for Urban Studies
Jomo Kenyatta university of Agriculture and Technology
Sign Date
Professor Gerryshom MunalaDirector
Centre for Urban Studies
Jomo Kenyatta university of Agriculture and Technology

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DEDICATIONThis research work is dedicated to the strongest people I know: my parents!

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3” h z u DEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc526071131 h IIIACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PAGEREF _Toc526071132 h IVABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc526071133 h VLIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc526071134 h IXLIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc526071135 h XLIST OF PLATES PAGEREF _Toc526071136 h XIAPPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc526071137 h XIILIST OF ACRONYMS PAGEREF _Toc526071138 h XIIICHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND PAGEREF _Toc526071139 h – 1 -1.0Background to the Study PAGEREF _Toc526071140 h – 1 -1.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc526071141 h – 2 -1.3 Purpose of the Study PAGEREF _Toc526071142 h – 3 -1.4Objectives of the Study PAGEREF _Toc526071143 h – 3 -1.5Study Significance PAGEREF _Toc526071144 h – 3 -1.6Study Assumptions PAGEREF _Toc526071145 h – 4 -1.7Scope and Limitation of Study PAGEREF _Toc526071146 h – 4 -1.8Study Organisation PAGEREF _Toc526071147 h – 5 -CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc526071148 h – 6 -2.0Introduction PAGEREF _Toc526071149 h – 6 -2.1Legal and regulatory aspects of transport and mobility planning in Urban heritage landscapes PAGEREF _Toc526071150 h – 6 -2.2Transportation planning in Historic Landscapes PAGEREF _Toc526071151 h – 8 -2.3Impact of Tourism on Historic Urban Landscape PAGEREF _Toc526071152 h – 12 -2.4Transport and Visitor management in some Heritage urban landscapes PAGEREF _Toc526071153 h – 12 -2.4.1Venice PAGEREF _Toc526071154 h – 12 -2.4.2Rome PAGEREF _Toc526071155 h – 13 -2.4.3Vigan PAGEREF _Toc526071156 h – 13 -2.4.4Georgetown PAGEREF _Toc526071157 h – 14 -2.4.5Lund PAGEREF _Toc526071158 h – 14 -2.4.6York PAGEREF _Toc526071159 h – 15 -2.5Urban morphology and transportation in historic landscapes PAGEREF _Toc526071160 h – 15 -2.6Theoretical Framework PAGEREF _Toc526071161 h – 16 -2.6.1Sustainable Development Theory PAGEREF _Toc526071162 h – 16 -2.6.2 Conservation Development Theory PAGEREF _Toc526071163 h – 18 -2.7Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc526071164 h – 19 -2.8Discussion PAGEREF _Toc526071165 h – 21 -CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc526071166 h – 22 -3.0Research Site PAGEREF _Toc526071167 h – 22 -3.1Research design PAGEREF _Toc526071168 h – 22 -3.2Target Population PAGEREF _Toc526071169 h – 22 -3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique PAGEREF _Toc526071170 h – 22 -3.5Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc526071171 h – 23 -3.6Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc526071172 h – 24 -3.7Validity and Reliability PAGEREF _Toc526071173 h – 24 -3.8Ethical Considerations PAGEREF _Toc526071174 h – 24 -CHAPTER FOUR: STUDY AREA PAGEREF _Toc526071175 h – 25 -4.1Location and Size PAGEREF _Toc526071176 h – 25 -4.2Demographics PAGEREF _Toc526071177 h – 25 -4.3Economic activities PAGEREF _Toc526071178 h – 25 -4.4Physiographic and Natural Conditions PAGEREF _Toc526071179 h – 25 -4.5Legal and institutional framework PAGEREF _Toc526071180 h – 26 -APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc526071181 h – 29 -I.APPENDIX I: CITIZEN SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE PAGEREF _Toc526071182 h – 29 -III.APPENDIX III: FOCUSED GROUP DISCUSSION GUIDE TOOL PAGEREF _Toc526071183 h – 36 –

LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURESLIST OF PLATES
APPENDICES
LIST OF ACRONYMS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUNDThis Chapter is divided into four sections. The first section provides an introduction and background of the study; the second section states the problem statement while the third section provides the objectives that guided the study while the last section highlights the significance of the study.

Background to the StudyThe pressures of urban growth pose a signi?cant threat to historic urban landscapes and especially in optimizing their production and consumption potential, while preserving and enhancing their cultural signi?cance.
The urban environment significantly affects people’s daily mobility by influencing the reach, efficiency and accessibility to various social and economic activities and services. Historical cities were built during an era where mobility was unmotorized. While increased use of motorized transport modes within urban environments has become synonymous with both physical and socioeconomic mobility, this has also brought about growth in transport-related challenges, including pollution, congestion, accidents, public transport decline, environmental degradation, climate change, energy depletion, visual intrusion, and lack of accessibility for the urban poor. Historic urban landscapes, due to their intrinsic environmental vulnerabilities have been particularly impacted by the transport consequences of urbanisation and have had to adapt, to facilitate the increased mobility of the population and visitors CITATION Poj15 l 7177 (Pojani ; Stead , 2015).
Lamu’s Old Town was designated a World Heritage Site, specifically because it is home to some of the best-preserved Swahili urban landscape and has continuously served as a settlement area and trading centre for goods between the Arabian Peninsula, Europe, Asia and East Africa for more than 700 years CITATION UNE13 l 7177 (UNESCO, Swahili Historic Urban Landscapes:Report on the Historic Urban Landscape Workshops and Field Activities on the Swahili Coast in East Africa 2011-2012, 2013). Lamu Old town is also unique because it constitutes an entire urban area, as opposed to just a single building or natural feature. Lamu’s designation and status as a World Heritage Site has huge implications on the socio-cultural and economic development of Kenya as it supports both national heritage and tourism sectors of the economy.
The historic heritage of Lamu Old Town currently suffers from an invasion of motorized mobility modes that has not only limited pedestrian mobility, but also contributed to damage on the fragile infrastructure and architecture of the town, as shown in figure 01. This apparent proliferation of motorized mobility within a conservation and heritage zone is not compatible with the urban layout and does not conform to the existing townscape which is characterized by unique but fragile architecture, meandering, narrow streets. This phenomenon constitutes a challenge not only to the usual circulation and parking of an automobile, but also to the mobility requirements of residents and workers and visitors (tourists). Ultimately, the type, convenience, availability and interaction of different modes of mobility within this fragile urban environment not only impacts the quality of urban life therein, but also the architectural structures and forms of appropriation of urban spaces. The sustainable planning and management of the town’s transport and mobility needs would potentially contribute to its long-term viability not only as a cultural heritage, but also as a functional socioeconomic environment.
Attempts have been made to regulate motorized transport within Old Town including through the 1991 Conservation Plan for Old Lamu Town, both the the 1999 and the 2013-2017 Lamu Old Town Management Plans. Studies have, however, established that the condition of buildings, streets and the urban network in Lamu had progressively deteriorated despite these management and conservation interventions. Lamu Old Town was in 2013 placed on the list of World Heritage Sites in Danger and is currently at risk of losing its World Heritage Site designation.
1.2 Problem Statement(Campos, 2000) avers that many urban historical landscapes are not prepared to support their respective current volumes of motorized traffic because the majority of them were built during an era where mobility was on foot or by animal traction.

The historic heritage of Lamu Old Town currently suffers from an invasion of motorized transport modes that have not only limited pedestrian mobility, but also contributed to damage on the fragile infrastructure and architecture of the town. The proliferation of motorized transport within a World Heritage conservation zone, is neither compatible with the urban layout, nor does it conform to the existing townscape. The unique setting of the town’s narrow streets and fragile urban environment, favours the original non-motorized mode and does not cater for motorised modes’ amenities including consideration for carriageways, parking bays and pedestrian pathways. The unregulated increase in number of motorized vehicles on the streets is also a major challenge as it not only impacts the quality of urban life therein, but also the architectural structures and forms of appropriation of urban spaces in this unique World Heritage Centre.
1.3 Purpose of the StudyThe purpose of this study is to contribute to the sustainable urban mobility in a historic urban landscape by assessing the changing motorized mobility landscape in Lamu Old Town and its influence, not only on the town’s planning and management, but also on its architectural, physical and cultural identity. Ultimately the study will add to the body of knowledge towards ensuring sustainability of unique and historic urban landscapes such as Lamu Old Town.

Objectives of the StudyMain Objective;
The main objective of the study is to formulate a sustainable motorized mobility framework towards the sustainable conservation of Lamu Old Town.Specific Objectives;
Specifically, the study aims;
To assess the impact of motorized mobility on the physical and cultural identity of Lamu Old Town;
To assess the challenges of transport planning and management in Lamu Old Town;
Study SignificanceThis study is significant because it will potentially benefit the residents and visitors of Lamu Old Town by contributing to more sustainable urban planning and management and improvement in the management of Lamu Old Town, as a World Heritage Centre for the benefit of all stakeholders. The study will also add to the body of knowledge on motorized mobility planning and management in historic landscapes and potentially assist scholars and policy makers towards addressing transport and mobility within historic landscapes.

Study Assumptions
This study is based on the following assumptions:
There will be increased pressure to introduce modern motorized transport modes in Lamu Old Town;
The proliferation of modern motorized transport modes does not sustainably complement the physical and cultural urban landscape and character of Lamu Old Town.

Sustainable urban mobility and transportation system cannot be separated from the prevailing sociocultural, economic and political system.

Scope and Limitation of StudyGeographic scope
This study will be based on Lamu Old Town in Lamu County, Kenya.
Theoretical Scope
The theories underpinning this study are two;
Conservation theory
Sustainable development theory
Time Scope
Time scope will be one month in order to collect the needed data.
Methodological scope
This study will be a descriptive study research that uses observation, interviews and structured questions and focused group discussion to obtain information and data. Both quantitative and quantitative information and data will be used to describe relationships, distribution and patterns of interaction to aid in inference and comprehension of phenomenons and implications.

Study OrganisationThe study is organised into six chapters.
Chapter One is divided into four sections. The first section provides background information of the study; the second section states the problem statement while the third section provides the research questions as well as the objectives that guided the study while the last section highlights the significance of the study.
Chapter two is divided into three sections. The first section examines literature relevant to the study. The second section discusses the theoretical framework of the study from which suggested conceptual frameworks are developed.

Chapter three is divided into three sections. The first section illustrates the methodologies and methods to be used in the study. The second section highlights the validity, reliability and ethical considerations related to the data and data collection methods.

Chapter four expounds on the study area; history, development of the area, legal and institutional framework, physiographic and natural conditions.
Chapter five will focus on presentation and interpretation of data collected.
Chapter six will present conclusions and recommendations that are drawn from the study including areas for future research, as will be identified and conditions for effective application of the findings were, where appropriate.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEWIntroductionThis chapter examines relevant literature on the topic, the theoretical and conceptual framework that will be adopted for this research.
Legal and regulatory aspects of transport and mobility planning in Urban heritage landscapesThe evolution of law protecting heritage sites has shifted from the protection of monuments as seen from a romantic and national point of view in the 19th century through the integrated conservation in the 60s and 70s of the last century to the goal of sustainable management of the cultural parts of the natural and historic landscape as a whole including material and non-material aspects CITATION Wer05 l 7177 (Werner , 2005).
UNESCO’s 1972 Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage embodies the idea that some places are so special and important that their protection is not only the responsibility of the States in which they are located but also a duty of the international community as a whole. Culture is considered as a key element in the humanization of cities and human settlements and plays an important role in rehabilitating and revitalizing urban areas, and in strengthening social participation and the exercise of citizenship. It is recognized as a priority component of urban plans and strategies in the adoption of planning instruments, including master plans, zoning guidelines, building codes, coastal management policies, and strategic development policies that safeguard a diverse range of tangible and intangible cultural heritage and landscapes CITATION Fra17 l 7177 (Nocca, 2017). A further enlargement of the concept of cultural heritage is internationally recognised by the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage of 2001 and by the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of 2003. The latter defines the intangible cultural heritage including; practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith- that communities, groups, in some cases, individuals recognise as part of their cultural heritage. This definition therefore includes oral traditions and expressions including language, performing arts, social practices.

On 10 November 2011, UNESCO’s General Conference adopted the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape. It is a ‘soft-law’, which Member States can include in their suite of legal instruments and implement on a voluntary basis. The historic urban landscape approach moves beyond the preservation of the physical environment, and focuses on the entire human environment with all of its tangible and intangible qualities. It seeks to increase the sustainability of planning and design interventions by incorporating the existing built environment, intangible heritage, cultural diversity, socio-economic and environmental factors along with local community values. The recommendation promote the historic urban landscape approach as a new way to include various aspects of conservation in an integrated framework, such as how cultural diversity affects values and approaches to conservation; the awareness of the link between natural and cultural factors in the conservation of the built environment; the new challenges brought about by rapid social and economic changes; and the need to ensure a sustainable future for heritage conservationCITATION UNE11 l 7177 (UNESCO, 2011).

The 2030 Agenda adopted by the UN General Assembly integrates, for the first time, the role of culture, through cultural heritage and creativity, as an enabler of sustainable development across the Sustainable Development Goals. Cultural heritage is however, only explicitly mentioned only once in the Agenda 2030’s goal 11 which it refers to the need of making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable, through inclusive and sustainable urbanization, planning and management and to efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage.
UN-Habitat’s New Urban Agenda (a shared vision framework for more sustainable, equal rights and access to the benefits and opportunities that urban landscapes can offer), recognizes cultural heritage as an important factor for urban sustainable development and highlights the role of cultural heritage in developing vibrant, sustainable, and inclusive urban economies, and in sustaining and supporting urban economies to progressive transition towards higher productivity.

UNESCO and the International Council on Monuments and Sites, highlight the key role of culture in the achievement of sustainable development. The 2011 UNESCO Recommendation on Historic Urban Landscape recognizes the historic landscape as a ‘living heritage’, an ‘organism’ made of complex characters, relationships and multidimensional inter-relationships among economic, social, environmental, cultural aspects, and the complexity of the framework within which conservation policies lie.

The new Constitution of Kenya 2010 ushered in a paradigm shift in the management of natural resources and socio-economic development in Kenya. It introduced a devolved governance system aimed at bringing management of public affairs closer to the grassroots and provided a mechanism for leveraging public participation in identifying priority areas for development investments. The overall responsibility of managing Lamu World Heritage Site falls under National Museums of Kenya, with other government bodies such as the Lamu County Government, Provincial Administration also involved. The primary legislative and regulatory regime that has been relevant to urban planning and transport planning and management in Lamu Old Town includes the repelled Local Government Act of 2011; the 2006 Planning Act of Kenya and the National Museums and Heritage Act of 2001; National Environmental Management Act 2000. Several management and conservation plans have been developed to guide the continued existence and protection of Lamu Old Town. The first Conservation Plan for Old Lamu Town was published in 1991 by the then newly formed Lamu Planning Commission, an institution formed to advise development and conservation issues in the town. In 1999 a draft management plan for Lamu was published. The Lamu Old Town Management Plan for 2013-2017 was developed at a time studies had already established that the condition of buildings, streets and the urban network in Lamu had progressively deteriorated.
Transportation planning in Historic LandscapesTypical transport sector goals such as reducing traffic emissions, noise, and vibration to improve residents’ quality of life also have positive impacts on heritage areas. Pollution damages traditional surfaces and traffic vibration undermines ancient structural elements, while traffic noise detracts from the sense of history and quiet contemplation that many heritage sites offer CITATION Ebb09 l 7177 (Ebbe , 2009). Before the advent of motorized mobility, urban landscapes were planned mainly for pedestrian and animal-carriage use. In the context of rapid urbanization, uncontrolled urban development, unsustainable consumption of the resources, traditional mobility has changed and transformed into motorized traffic that has increasingly become a threatening issue for the historic urban landscapes. This is because historic urban landscapes, because of their intrinsic sociocultural and economic values, have attracted increased human traffic in the recent past CITATION Tie96 l 7177 (Tiesdell, Taner , ; Heath, 1996). This increase in human and motorized traffic has resulted in the widening of traditional streets and constructing new roads thereby increasing accessibility to them and within them and ultimately affecting the cultural assets and social life therein CITATION Ban12 l 7177 (Bandarin ; Van Oers, 2012). Increase in motorized mobility has put a pressure on the social, economic, and physical environment of these otherwise vulnerable urban environments especially because the transportation infrastructure of historic urban landscape is not appropriate to current motorized traffic loads. The insufficiency of historic street network in the traditional urban fabric has become a significant problem that should be solved without demolishing the physical and social environment.

The integration of modern transport infrastructure within these urban landscapes has not been effectively used to solve transport problems in these towns mainly because they continuously suffer from ever increasing levels of human and activity congestion characterised by overcrowded streets, traffic and parking pressures, and limited road infrastructure. While improving transport to some historical areas is supposed to enhance the area significantly, it can damage the cultural environment instead (Wheeler, 1997). The improvement of transport can increase traffic in the area, affecting the people living therein. In most occasions, the natives of such towns are treated as though they are part of museums and not people minding their own lives, living quiet lives. By improving transportation in order to make the tourism experience enhanced, it will in effect destroy the historical towns due to the high levels of congestion from the increased footprint from tourists. Historic urban landscapes are often only restored when needed for compelling economic reasons such as the surge of tourists irrespective of the other demographic changes that may occur within the city, over time CITATION Oto13 l 7177 (Oton ; Gonzalez, 2013).
(Campos, 2000) avers that many urban historical landscapes are not prepared to support their respective current volumes of motorized traffic because the majority of them were built during an era where mobility was on foot or by animal traction. Traffic congestion, parking, and access difficulties have been identified as some of the major challenges in historic towns, and at times a threat to the integrity and attraction of the historic environments (Civic Trust ; English Historic Towns Forum, 1993). Fumes not only blacken surfaces, but cause irreversible damage to surfaces (Brimblecombe, 2003) such as historical roads and buildings. Narrow streets, tight corners and low overhangs within the traditional urban environment are easily damaged, particularly when speed limits are ignored or oversized vehicles attempt tight corners (Watt, 2009). Service vehicles. Closely linked to traffic are the provision and location of parking space. Seasonalor peak-time demand on parking has to be resolved in designated areas as there is little space in historic towns for on-street parking (Page, 2015). Large parking garages are out of scale and character with the historic towns, while ground-level parking requires a large site, which may cause the loss of otherwise green spaces and be disruptive to the spatial and visual qualities of an historic town (Page, 2015). Frequently, available open spaces including town squares are given over to parking.
The urban morphology of meandering and narrow streets is frequently shared with an uneven topography, within a context of pedestrian mobility and scarce volume of economic activity, the existence of a flat topography was much less, all of which mean great difficulties for the circulation and parking of an automobile (CERTU, 1999).

In historical urban landscapes, the transition towards a society based on road traffic has not always been easy and has caused different conflicts especially due to the existence of narrow routes and the abundance of symbolic commons (Monheim, 2000). (Van der Borg; Gotti, 1995) Identifies the trend whereby residents of historic urban landscapes are much more mobile than before and frequently have to travel to their workplaces outside of the historical quarters. They also identify the challenge of tourism traffic which tends to take their automobile as close as possible to the part of the city which they want to visit. The historical centres also usually coincide with the physical centre of the city, being an obligatory passing place of the population for multiple journeys, which worsens the problems and impacts CITATION NIS08 l 7177 (NISSEN, 2008).

Historical landscapes are complex planning spaces because of the complexity of the adaptation process of the old and new functions. Whilst in the past the historical centres were characterised by their residential, religious and commercial functions, now they must adapt to a new function based on the importance of cultural resources and to tourism CITATION Ann12 l 7177 (Baeyens, 2012).

The displacement difficulties of persons and merchandise are common in all historical centres, and generate a group of specific problems, which are attentively treated by promoters and urban planners (Gutierrez, 1998).
Campos (2000), Corral (1998) and Gutiérrez (1998) identified the following as impacts of lack of strategic and integrated planning of historic urban landscapes;
Loss of living quality of the residents, due to the difficulties of transit through their own space of residence;
Difficulties in developing commercial activities owing to the need to supply these through mechanical traction vehicles;
Movement inconveniences that exists between the circulation of vehicles and pedestrians in narrow streets and squares;
Environmental and acoustic problems derived from the contamination generated by the traffic of motorised vehicles.

Gutiérrez (1998) recommended restrictions on the use of private vehicles and the creation of border parking areas as some of the solutions that managers and planners of historic urban landscapes can adopt. Other solutions identified include, road system re-ordering, temporary traffic blocks, the reduction of circulation or the improvement of public transport services.

CITATION Oto13 l 7177 (Oton ; Gonzalez, 2013) aver that, ultimately, sustainable urban motorized mobility in historic landscapes is a function of the way in which private vehicles are limited and spaces are created for the pedestrian, the way that the parking is regulated and organised, the characteristics of the public transport and the spatial distribution of the mobility flows within the historical landscape.

The pleasure of walkable spaces and the link to the human scale are spoilt by vehicular traffic and in many town centres pedestrianisation schemes are being introduced to rekindle pedestrian activity. Because of the influx of people, there is a lot of once available public places in these zones that suddenly become crowded. In some instances, automobiles such as motor cycles are introduced further taking up narrow roads that are already full of people (Orbasli, 2016).
Many historical towns still have roads and streets that were created hundreds of years ago still in use (Wheeler, 1997). When these roads begin to age and require maintenance, it comes at a high cost due to the special nature of the roads. Because of the relatively limited carrying capacity of existing services in historic towns, the increase in number of residents and visitors, over the years, has also meant increased pressure on provision of adequate infrastructure, superstructure, and other municipal services.
With more and more traffic in historical zones, there is a potential for increased motor vehicle accident. The narrow historical streets make it difficult to navigate for drivers, and motorcycles in most cases become the common means of transport. However, the need to go fast in the narrow streets often catch pedestrians unaware because they are not used to such modes of transportation. In addition, with advancements in technology, more and more people are getting distracted by their mobile phones, further creating chaos in the streets, which eventually lead to accidents (Gray ; Graham, 2012).

Impact of Tourism on Historic Urban LandscapeTourism has become a phenomenon and growing industry to the point that touring historic zones have become an important segment of heritage and culture. The landscapes serve to attract visitors because of their historic background, rich architecture, and art treasures (Dwyer, 2011). Tourism is a special challenge to urban planning of heritage landscapes especially because they are eroded and choked by mass tourism despite the fact that many of these towns were intended for use by far fewer people. For example, the Acropolis of Athens receives far more people in a week now than had ever set foot in it in a hundred years in antiquity (Orbasli, 2016). Congestion by tourists is caused in numerous historical cathedrals, including Coventry, Canterbury, Durham or St Paul’s in England, Chartres or Notre Dame in France, the last of which is visited by over ten million people each year (Orbasli, 2016). To make matters worse, in the Palace of Minos at Knossos, the restoration work shows signs of tourist erosion (Orbasli, 2016). Ultimately, the influx of people can become a threat to the fragile balance of nature and to the fabric of historic buildings and settlements. Therefore, while historical sites in urban areas have been conserved as a result of tourism interest, especially for cities or towns designated as historical sites, there has also been a considerable amount of sites that have negatively been affected or even destroyed because of it.

Transport and Visitor management in some Heritage urban landscapesThis section discusses transport in heritage areas in Venice, Rome, Vigan, Georgetown, Lund, and York.

Venice
Venice, a city made up of over 100 small islands, is severity geographically limited. Transport is mainly through canals, narrow streets and twisting alleyways. Because it is the only city in the world that is completely seen as an attraction itself, Venice receives an average of 200 million visitors annually (Hanley, 2016). The large number of tourist crowds in the city has stressed the transportation system within the heritage city. This is because Venice has narrow streets that do not support transportation other than walking. As such, over 70,000 tourists pour onto its streets daily, congesting them with human traffic. The alternative to walking around is to use the expansive water way which get overwhelmed as most tourists also use these in order to get around the city (Capua et al., 2012). The only efficient way to get to the historical sites and major landmarks in the heritage city is by using boats. The city’s residents (as opposed to its tourists) find their daily mobility routine not only challenging, but also frustrating, which has led to its citizens changing their daily routes to avoid the visiting tourist masses.
RomeRome is one of the most recognised historical and cultural site in the world as it contains the ancient ruins of the Roman Empire (the colosseum), is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as houses Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel frescoes (Garwood & Williams, 2017). In addition, the city has also suffered numerous invaders, with each invader adding to its complexity and history. The city has been impacted by governance and political challenges leading to the decay of its transportation sector (Nadeau, 2018).
The ultra-modern driverless line meant to ease existing transport challenges has not been completed in decades due to poor management (Giacomo, 2018). Another reason that this road has not been completed is because of the discovery of several archaeological sites, including an underground cistern, ancient barracks, among others (Giacomo, 2018).
Because Rome is a modern city and the capital of Italy, it has modern transport systems that ease movement. In addition, it has a geography that supports the expansion. However, its transport problems are not worsened by tourists, but by the government, which is not fixing the transport problems the city faces.
Vigan
Vigan is a city founded in 1572 and which retains the Spanish legacy through its culture and architecture, becoming one of the best remaining heritages in Asia that show the Spanish influence. Vigan, being a modern city experiences similar transportation problems that accompany highly developed cities. This includes traffic congestion. However, unlike other cities that have vehicle traffic congestion, Vigan has traffic congestion from paratransit modes of traffic (Amistad & Regidor, 2005). This is because, while the city can be assessed by land, the public transport allowed is limited to tricycles, which offer more flexible routes. The use of tricycles not only preserves the heritage, but they also reduce pollution, and people can move about freely. Though busses and mini-buses can go to the city, they are limited to operating on the major roads once inside the city. As such, scooters and motorcycles have become very popular private transportation means.

While using these forms of transportation certainly reduce traffic, the combination of the narrow street networks and ever-increasing number of scooters is making the roads unsafe for both the drivers and pedestrians. This is because the deficient pedestrian facilities and the increasing two-wheel vehicle traffic is increasing accidents between the tricycles, pedestrians, motorcycles, and scooters. Consequently, the city is facing transport challenges different from those of Venice or Rome.
GeorgetownGeorgetown is a Malaysian historical city characterised by Chinese temples, century old colonial buildings, and shop-houses. It is also the capital city of Penang, a Malaysian state, and the second largest city in Malaysia with over 708,127 inhabitants in 2010 CITATION ZAH18 l 7177 (Zubiri, Hao, Hussain, & Isip, 2018).
Georgetown uses modern public transport with buses being the backbone of its transportation system. The city also uses bicycles in its adaptation for greener transport and has dedicated cycling lanes clearly marked (Richmond, 2007).
While Georgetown does not experience the foot traffic of Venice nor the problems of Rome, it is facing congestion problems with increase in population. The government’s plan to build a public transport next to the heritage zone has been marred with protests from activists, who fear that the heritage status will be removed from the zone (Sawlani, 2016). Despite the row, the government seems set to build the transport hub so that it eases congestion problems that in the region.

Lund
Lund is a Swedish archetypal town with over 1000 years history, with cobblestone streets, surrounded by rolling fields and farms and an attraction of cultural events, restaurants, and other tourist attractions. Lund attracts tourists because of its ancient and modern history (Juskalian, 2011). It welcomes over 700,000 visitors a year. Lund has a motorway network, a cycling infrastructure and over 4,500 biking parking spaces. In addition, it also has a railway station that serves over 37,000 passengers a day (Svahn, 2013) and a bus network. Biking supports nearly half of its resident’s journeys (Juskalian, 2011).
To ensure the city does not have congestion for both tourists and residents of the town, a tramway network began construction in 2016 (Michal, 2016). In addition, long-term plans to extend the tramway have been made to connect the town to other areas. Unlike Rome, Venice and Vigan, Lund is far better managed, resulting in traffic free roads and traffic free streets.
YorkYork is a riverside city that is surrounded by ancient walls that stretch back to 2,000 years. Its rich history is also a testament to its transport networks that were established across that time. The city is surrounded on all sides by a 5km outer ring road which eases traffic and is able to ensure the preservation of its historical roads, which are not suitable for modern traffic. York also has routes that are designated as car free when the buses are operating and other routes that restrict traffic entirely.

York’s historical sites are therefore easy to access because it has been able to tackle its transportation problems to ensure less car and human traffic to congest both its streets and roads, respectively.
Urban morphology and transportation in historic landscapes
There is no existing environment that is purely a product of a single historic period (Oliveira, 2016). This is because all landscapes, however well planned, still experience change over time. Therefore, urban morphology can be defined as the period in which a leading style ‘type’ was created. The urban style gradually begins to feature more centrally as its details are adapted in alterations to existing or new buildings. However, as it continues to be adopted, it soon becomes a new leading type. Therefore, with growth and development continuously shaping urban towns new styles are continuously introduced CITATION ÇAL11 l 7177 (Caliskan ; Marshall, 2011). When towns are called historical, what that means is that there is a synthesis and overlap of style, which is frozen in time as ‘heritage’ in the present CITATION Mar09 l 7177 (Martin, 2009). European, Mediterranean towns have, for example, an underlying street pattern and urban morphology that can be traced back to a Roman grid plan. Many walled medieval cities are typically located on a hilltop or a riverside, built around a church or a cathedral in the centre, often with a market square and a narrow and winding street pattern (Conzen ; Conzen, 2004). As power shifted from the church to the bourgeoisie, trade was once again revived, and the urban centres adapted and new buildings, and town halls gained importance. Early Islamic rulers were also building on an existing and often sophisticated urban tradition established around the Mediterranean. The new urban population often came from a nomadic background, and so contributed new traditions to urban life. Urban form and location responded to the environment, with cities built on hillsides to allow sunlight into the houses or huddled together against desert winds. Markets and caravanserai evolved as international trade became more important in urban livelihood (Khirfan, 2014).

The narrow streets found in historic urban landscapes point to an important urban morphology in relation to transport, which is that pedestrian and walking were the preferred and most vital components of life. This lasted until the 20th century, when the streets predominant more of transportation was on foot. The introduction of automobiles changed the urban life and in the late 19th century and all of the 20th century, and more and more regulation has promoted urban modern forms of transportation that have favoured motorisation, leading to the segregation of street users from one another (Southworth and Ben-Joseph 2003). While regulation was initially meant to protect the pedestrian from automobiles, modernity has led to the predominant urban morphology of transportation to evolve from walking on the streets to reliance on automobile transportation, once again changing the landscape.
Theoretical FrameworkThis section describes the theoretical framework upon which this study is based. This research will be underpinned on two theories as presented below:
Sustainable Development TheoryThe 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development’s ‘The Bruntland Report’ defined sustainable development as a process of change that enhances both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations’. In addition to its intrinsic value for present and future generations, heritage can make also an important instrumental contribution to sustainable development across its various dimensions.

The sustainability of an urban system can be broadly defined as urban development and practices that should satisfy current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs CITATION Joh02 l 7177 (John , Antonio, ; Putu, 2002). The theory also applies to transport and mobility planning in that it potentially foresees a sustainable transportation system that satisfies current transportation and mobility needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet these needs.
CITATION Aki02 l 7177 (Akinyemi ; Zuidgeest , 2002) discuss a sustainably developed transportation system that meets the people’s mobility, accessibility and safety needs within the limits of available or affordable environmental, financial and social resources. The philosophy of their preposition is an urban environment that obtains and maintains maximum levels of people and goods mobility possible within the resources and environmental capacities in an area. Sustainable transportation development is accordingly defined as a process of improving a transportation system towards a sustainably developed system. An examination of transportation sustainability must include its impacts on the economy, environment, and social well-being. It must also consider the relative levels of influence that oversight agencies have with respect to implementing policies and procedures that impact sustainability and have a strong stakeholder component (Jeon & Amekudzi 2005).

The term ‘sustainable mobility’ was firstly used during the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development IN Rio de Janeiro, to refer to the conditions which allow for environmentally friendly transport modes and facilitate accessibility to urban space and integrates spatial planning with transport development, economic, social, and cultural issues CITATION Wo?12 l 7177 (Wo?ek & Decker, Bernd, 2012).

CITATION SáN10 l 7177 (Sá & Gouveia, 2010) described sustainable mobility as consisting of mobility, spatial accessibility, the social and the environmental aspects. Mobility includes the transportation services which determine spatial accessibility for the people and resources. The social aspect stands for the development of transportation services in a manner which does not disturb its accessibility for the various social groups, including public service obligation. The environmental includes the negative impact of transportation on the environment, as well as the issues of the renewable resources used in order to generate transportation services. There are three parameters put forward by Daly (1992) cited in Black (2010) that should be considered in defining sustainable transportation: the use of renewable resources should not exceed the rate of its regeneration; the use of non-renewable resources should not exceed the use of its substitute;pollution emission should be limited to the assimilative capacity of the environment (Black, 2010). Consequently, public transportation is one of the modes that can offer sustainable transportation. This is because it is able to carry a bigger number of passengers when compared to private vehicles. This type of transportation includes rail, bus, and tram. With the increasing fuel prices and air pollution, public transportation can help alleviate problems related to congestion and carbon emission. Congestion not only cost fuel consumption but also increases the level of pollution which can pose danger to the public.

2.6.2 Conservation Development TheoryThe period in the aftermath of the second world war was characterised with increasing significance of the conservation and restoration of destroyed cultural heritage. It is the period that saw the establishment of UNESCO which marked an important step in the awareness of the moral obligation of humanity as a whole to respect and safeguard natural and cultural properties which are of outstanding universal value. First proposed Randall Arendt, Conservation Theory in Urban planning incorporates controlled-growth land use development that adopts the principle for allowing limited development while protecting natural environmental features in perpetuity, including preserving open space natural habitats and maintaining the character of the local communities. The theory attempts to link the concepts of ecological protection and preservation to those of planning and development. The Theory focuses attention on the need to understand a community’s environment, the impacts of development upon that environment, and the innovations in design that will allow built environments to develop in an ecologically friendly manner.

Giovannoni (1873–1974) advocated for the scientific restoration theory to be used in the restoration of historical towns and buildings, a theory that is very integral to the initial stages of the concept of conservation of a specific place (ICOMOS, 2013). Giovannoni’s theory is known for “thinning out the urban fabric” and utilises both conservation and modernisation in order to redirect traffic and keep it outside of historical areas (ICOMOS, 2013). This means that historical sites escape the need for new streets to be added, which serves the great purpose of not only keeping the historical sites in their original state, but also improves the lives of residents as well as helps to conserve historical buildings (ICOMOS, 2013).
This theory is important in this study because Lamu Old Town World Heritage site status faces the threat of activities associated with modernisation and economic development, including the proliferation of motorized mobility within the town, indiscriminate mass tourism. These threats have the potential to compromise the Site’s authenticity and distort its cultural value.
The study will analyse the state of urban planning in the context of the conservation activities and recommend appropriate measures to sustainable conservation of the site in the context of the existing socioeconomic activities therein.

Conceptual FrameworkThis research conceptual model highlights how the study aims at contributing towards sustainable mobility in Lamu Old Town through a comprehensive sustainable motorized transport framework for the historic urban landscape. CITATION SáN10 l 7177 (Sá ; Gouveia, 2010) described sustainable mobility as consisting of mobility, spatial accessibility, the social and the environmental aspects. Mobility includes the transportation services which determine spatial accessibility for the people and resources. The social aspect stands for the development of transportation services in a manner which does not disturb its accessibility for the various social groups, including public service obligation. The environmental includes the negative impact of transportation on the environment, as well as the issues of the renewable resources used in order to generate transportation services. The key components to sustainable motorized urban transport for Lamu Old Town are regulatory systems, transport infrastructure, people’s knowledge and attitudes and environmental (socioeconomic and cultural) factors. Lamu Old Town is already experiencing adverse physical, socioeconomic and cultural effects of the proliferation of motorized mobility within the town coupled with the risk of losing its World Heritage Site designation. A combination of sustainable development and conservation planning models will enable the balancing of heritage conservation needs of the town, with those of socioeconomic aspirations of its community. Ultimately, a sustainable urban transport and mobility framework for the old town will contribute to the ultimate goal of sustainable conservation of the World Heritage Centre.

Figure: A c conceptual Model for sustainable motorized transportation planning and regulation in historic urban landscape (Source: Author, 2018)
5562608614Impeding regulatory, infrastructure, economic, social, cultural and environmental factors
00Impeding regulatory, infrastructure, economic, social, cultural and environmental factors

1326543201902Proliferation of motorized mobility in historic urban landscape
00Proliferation of motorized mobility in historic urban landscape
235275864050
1698542281691Adverse Impact on urban heritage physical, social, economic, cultural and environmental landscape
00Adverse Impact on urban heritage physical, social, economic, cultural and environmental landscape
231418868470
47061774428877Environmental and sociocultural
00Environmental and sociocultural
29618604404029Public Knowledge and perception
00Public Knowledge and perception
12324514394090Accesibility
00Accesibility
7004055437864SUSTAINABLE MOTORIZED TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND REGULATION IN HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE
00SUSTAINABLE MOTORIZED TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND REGULATION IN HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE
1110284508416900-4929814374129Mobility
00Mobility
9340573705391007015652771996COMPREHENSIVE SUSTAINABLE MOTORIZED TRANSPORT FRAMEWORK
00COMPREHENSIVE SUSTAINABLE MOTORIZED TRANSPORT FRAMEWORK
3396887618567Conservation planning models
00Conservation planning models
484781688340Sustainable development planning models
00Sustainable development planning models
19230841260199023078938319050
DiscussionThe literature review reveals that while a lot has been done on conservation, transportation, mobility and accessibility in historical landscapes, not much has concentrated on motorized mobility on urban historical landscapes, and moreso in Africa. Whereas literature on transportation and conservation challenges may cut across various historical sites, there is none unique to the case of Lamu Old Town’s narrow streets and fragile urban environment which naturally favours non-motorized mode.
The reviewed do not also clearly indicate how motorized mobility is an issue to a resident and domiciled community. The studies done have mostly focused on mobility and accessibility to such sites by tourists and the disabled visitors.

Literature on planning theories and models do not also adequately prescribe ideal structures for delivering sustainable planning in urban centres. Additionally, the studies do not indicate to what extent the composition affects the sustainable urban plans. Generally, the studies available shows that much research has been carried out on general urban transport and mobility planning thus creating a gap for which the study intends to fill.

The transformation and performance of an urban landscape depends on its productiveness (provision of goods and services to its inhabitants), the inclusiveness, the organization and its sustainability. The inclusive urban landscape can be measured by the extent the residents share the social benefits of urban life. Mobility and accessibility in a safe and environmentally friendly mode of transportation is what sustainable transport system is aiming at. By evaluating how transport within historic urban landscapes is organized, it is possible to gain insight into what factors influence their shape and composition, and how these influences might be controlled or altered to achieve desirable urban environments.

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThis chapter presents the methodology for the study and discusses the study design, target population, sample size, sample and sampling technique, data collection instruments, data collection procedure, pilot testing, validity and reliability, and data analysis and presentation.

Research SiteThis study will take place in Lamu County, Kenya. Specifically, the study will focus on Lamu Old Town, a cultural town that is the oldest and the best-preserved living settlement among the Swahili towns on the East African Coast.

Research design
This study utilizes a comparative, qualitative case study methodology consisting of document analysis, review of institutional records and interviews with individuals. Descriptive research design will be used not only to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, but also to describe the findings and phenomenon in terms of attitude, values and characteristics. Qualitative data will be collected to triangulate both the individual survey and secondary data for the purpose of validating the results.

Target Population
The target population will comprise of the 21994 residents of Lamu Old Town and various individuals who undertake socioeconomic activities within the town on a day to day basis.
3.4 Sample and Sampling TechniqueThis study will adopt the simple random sampling technique. In addition, the study will use the following formula proposed by Using CITATION TYa73 l 7177 (Yamane, 1973) to determine the sample size;
Using Yamane (1973) formulae
n = No/ (1+N*) (e) 2
Where
n = sample size
N = the population size
e = the acceptable sampling error (5%) at 95% confidence level
Thus; 
n = 21994/ (1+40300) (0.05)2
n = 218
Therefore, the sample population size (n) will be 218 household respondents
Yamane Fomulae is used when dealing with a finite population. It is the most ideal method to use when the only thing you know about the target population you are sampling from is its size CITATION Mug03 l 7177 (Mugenda ; Mugenda, 2003).

Data Collection
Primary data will be obtained using three main tools; a questionnaire targeted at pedestrians along Old Lamu Town’s seafront street; a key informant guide targeted at public institutions whose respective mandates include urban planning and conservation of Lamu Old Town, and a focused group discussion guide targeted at Lamu Old Town transport providers.
Questionnaires will be semi-structured, divided into two sections: section A for capturing data on background information of the respondents and, section B with specific questions seeking to assess respondent’s knowledge, attitude and actions with respect to motorized mobility within Lamu Old Town. The questions will be both closed and open ended thus giving the respondents an opportunity and an insight of the research objectives. Key informant interviews will be conducted to capture specialised knowledge and information from strategic respondents.
Key Informant Interview Guides will be developed and structured to guide the interviews with identified key informants. Individual representatives from the following institutions will be targeted for purposes of participating in key informant interviews;
National Museums of Kenya
Lamu County
UNESCO
A focus group discussion will also be conducted, targeted at various segments of operators in the public transport sector of Lamu Old Town. This will include motor boat operators, donkey-cart operators and motocycle operators. Discussions therein will enable the researcher determine and understand their knowledge, attitude and practices as concerns urban planning and conservation of Lamu Old Town.
Data Analysis
Quantitative data collected will be coded, quantified and analyzed using SPSS version 24 and presented through percentages, means, standard deviations and frequencies. The data will then be presented in the form of tables, graphs and pie charts. This will provide for an easier analysis and interpretation of the data inputted.

Validity and Reliability
A study and tools pre-test exercise will be undertaken to enhance the validity and reliability of both the study structure and the data collection tools.

To gauge reliability, Cronbach’s Coefficient alpha will be used to compute the correlation co-efficient to determine the degree to which there will be consistency in providing similar response every time the instrument is administered. Cronbach’s alpha value of not less than 0.50 suggests an acceptable level of internal consistency.
Ethical ConsiderationsBefore going on the field/research work permission will be duly sought from the relevant authorities including from The National Commission for Science Technology and Innovation and from JKUAT. Before beginning any interview, introductions and comprehensive explanations about the research mission will be made to respective target informants/respondents and their consent and permission to participate, sought.
The researcher will also assure respondents on confidentiality of their identities and responses for purposes of the study.

CHAPTER FOUR: STUDY AREAThis Chapter describes the study area; location and demographics, economic activities, history, development of the area, legal and institutional framework, physiographic and natural conditions.
Location and SizeLamu County is located in the Northern Coast of Kenya bordering Kilifi County in the southwest, Garissa County to the north, Republic of Somalia to the northeast and the Indian Ocean to the South. It is part of the the Lamu Archipelago; a cluster of islands comprising of Lamu Island, Manda Island, Pate Island and Kiwayu Island, running for some 60 km parallel to Kenya’s northern coastline. Old Lamu Town is a small town on Lamu Island.
The County has a total land surface area of 6273.1 km². Old Lamu Town is located in Amu Sub County which is 99.7 km².

DemographicsThe Town is made up of a cosmopolitan population composed of indigenous Swahili, Arab, Koreni, Boni and Orma communities and migrant communities from the rest of the country. he county population as projected in 2012 stands at 112,252 persons composed of 58,641 males and 53,611 females. The population of Lamu town is projected at 21,994 (calculated at an annual growth rate of 3% from 12,839, as per the 2009 Kenya Population Census Report).

Economic activitiesDue to the physiographic climate and other natural conditions, the county is made of two broad economic zones covering the mainland for agriculture and livestock keeping and Islands for marine activities.

The Lamu old town’s economy is related to tourism and fish and waterfront related commerce. Fishing is the main economic activity for the residents of the Island. At the center of Lamu Old town is the town square, the Lamu Fort which are bustling and socially important places hosting a large market every Saturday and serving as a node which connects eight primary streets in the city. The waterfront is another key urban space, supporting commerce and the facilitating a constant movement of people, goods and money between Lamu and the surrounding region.

Physiographic and Natural ConditionsLamu County is generally flat and lies between altitude zero and 50m above sea level, making it prone to flooding during the rainy seasons and periods of high tides. The main topographical features include coastal Island and Dudol plains,sand dunes and the Indian Ocean. The county has four major catchment areas categorized as Dodori coastal zone, Duldul, Lamu bay drainage and Tana River Delta. The county enjoys two rainy seasons and temperatures ranging between 23 and 32 degrees centigrade throughout the year. The bulk of arable land is in Lamu West while Lamu East takes the bulk of water mass.
Based on the physiographic and climatic conditions, the county is classified into the following Agro-Ecological zones;
Coastal lowlands
Coconut Cassava zone
Cashew nut-Cassava zone
Livestock millet zone
Lowland ranching zone.

Legal and institutional frameworkThe new Constitution of Kenya 2010 ushered in a paradigm shift in the management of natural resources and socio-economic development in Kenya. It introduced a devolved governance system aimed at bringing management of public affairs closer to the grassroots and provided a mechanism for leveraging public participation in identifying priority areas for development investments. The overall responsibility of managing Lamu World Heritage Site falls under National Museums of Kenya, with other government bodies such as the Lamu County Government, Provincial Administration also involved. The primary legislative and regulatory regime that has been relevant to urban planning and transport planning and management in Lamu Old Town includes the repelled Local Government Act of 2011; the 2006 Planning Act of Kenya and the National Museums and Heritage Act of 2001; National Environmental Management Act 2000. Several management and conservation plans have been developed to guide the continued existence and protection of Lamu Old Town. The first Conservation Plan for Old Lamu Town was published in 1991 by the then newly formed Lamu Planning Commission, an institution formed to advise development and conservation issues in the town. In 1999 a draft management plan for Lamu was published. The Lamu Old Town Management Plan for 2013-2017 was developed at a time studies had already established that the condition of buildings, streets and the urban network in Lamu had progressively deteriorated.
REFERENCES
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Bandarin, F., ; Van Oers, R. (2012). The Historic Urban Landscape: Managing Heritage in an Urban Century. West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.

Caliskan, O., ; Marshall, S. (2011). Urban Morphology and Design:. Built Environment.

Davenport, A. (2008). Zanzibar: Ecotourism on a Muslim island. In M. H. (Ed), Ecotourism and Sustainable Development(2nd Ed.). Washington DC: Island Press.

Duvelle, B. G. (2013). Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development: A Rationale for Engagement. Paper presented at workshop on Introducing Cultural Heritage into the Sustainable Development Agenda organized by UNESCO. Paris: UNESCO.

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Girard, T. B. (2011). Sustainable City and Creativity: Promoting Creative Urban Initiatives. New York: Routledge.

John , B., Antonio, P., ; Putu, S. (2002). Sustainable Urban Transportation: Performance Indicators and Some Analytical Approaches. Journal of Urban Planning and Development.

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Okech, R. (2010). Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism on World Heritage Sites: Communities’ Perspective of Lamu (Kenya) and Zanzibar Islands. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 339-351.

Oton, M. P., & Gonzalez, L. R. (2013). MOBILITY MANAGEMENT IN A HISTORIC AND TOURISTIC CITY: THE CASE OF SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA (SPAIN). Santiago: Faculdade Letras Universidade do Porto.

Pedersen, A. (2002). Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: a Practical Manual for World Heritage Site Managers. Paris: UNESCO.

Pereira Roders, A. &. (2011). Bridging cultural heritage and sustainable development. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 5-14.

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APPENDICESAPPENDIX I: CITIZEN SURVEY QUESTIONNAIREHello. My name is ………………………………………………….. representing Abdilatif Husein, Post Graduate Student at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology who is conducting a research study as part of an ongoing study in Urban Mobility and Transportation within Heritage Zones. It aims at developing recommendations on sustainable mobility models in light of increased urbanization and motorized means of transport in Lamu Old Town.

Hello. My name is …………………………… and my colleague is——————— from
We have identified you as a member of this county and is seeking to solicit your feedback on various issues regarding motorized transport and mobility in Old Lamu Town. If you accept to be in the study I will ask you some questions and write down your answers.

We assure you that the information you share with us will be kept strictly confidential and
may only be shared on anonymous basis for the purposes of this survey, unless with
your sole permission. You are free to ask any question regarding this survey and you
may chose not to respond to any question you feel uncomfortable with without any harm
or undue disadvantage. The interview will take approximately __________minutes to
complete and your participation is entirely voluntary.

Date:
SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Gender of respondent
1 Male
2 Female
What is the highest level of education you have attained? (specify)
Primary secondary diploma Undergraguate masters Doctorate
What is the respondent’s age bracket
Below 25 years 26-40 years
41-50 years Above 50 years
Are you aware that Lamu Old Town is a World Heritage Centre?
Yes No If yes to No. 4 above, how has this status affected your day to day interactions within the town?
1 Very much
2 Much
3 Averagely
4 Little
5 Not at all
Which is your preferred mode of transport within Lamu Old Town?
Donkey Motorcycle (tuktuk/bodaboda) Motorvehicle On foot To what would you attribute your choice in No. 6 above?
Cost Convenience/flexibility Comfort Privacy Safety Reliability Time Environmental factors What in your opinion are the effects of various transport modes (e.g. cars, boda bodas) on the quality of the urban life in Lamu Old Town?
Very good Good moderate Bad Very Bad Don’t Know
Cars BodabodasDonkey Bicycles TukTuksAre you aware of any plans to improve on the quality of transport service delivery in the town?
1 Yes
2 No
3 Not sure
4 I don’t know
If yes to No. 9 above how satisfied are you with the plans?
Please rate your level of satisfaction with the following aspects of your trip:
Very Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5
Averagely Satisfied Neutral (neither satisfied nor dissatisfied) Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied
How satisfied are you with your current way of commuting?
Please rate your level of satisfaction with the following aspects of your trip:
1.Vey Satisfied 2. Satisfied 3. Neutral 4. Dissatisfied 5. Very Dissatisfied
Speed 1 2 3 4 5
Cost Comfort Privacy Safety Time Environmental factors Compared to two years ago how has the traffic amount changed
Increased
Same
Decreased
No opinion
Please rank the following according to the importance you attach to different components of transport situation in Lamu Old Town (Tick only one).

Improvement in movement from one place to another;
Very important
Important
Somewhat important
Not important
No opinion
Increase safety of the transportation system
Very important
Important
Somewhat important
Not important
No opinion
Faster transportation system
Very important
Important
Somewhat important
Not important
No opinion
Less destructive to the environment
Very important
Important
Somewhat important
Not important
No opinion
comfortable transportation system
Very important
Important
Somewhat important
Not important
No opinion
Less destructive to the Old Town’s Heritage
Very important
Important
Somewhat important
Not important
No opinion
To what extent do you think access of motor vehicles and motorbikes to the Old town has an impact on the town’s physical and cultural nature?
Totally agree Agree to some extent Neither agree nor disagree Disagree to some extent Don’t agree at all Do you think the Old town transport situation has improved has improved over the past six years years?
Yes it has improved It has neither improved or declined No, it has not improved I don’t know
APPENDIX II: KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEW GUIDE
(Targeted at NMK, County and UNESCO Officials)
Request for your Participation;
Hello. My name is Abdilatif Husein a Post Graduate Student at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. I’m conducting a resurch study as part of an ongoing study in Urban Mobility and Transportation within Heritage Zones. It aims at developing recommendations on sustainable mobility models in light of increased urbanization and motorized means of transport in Lamu Old Town.

Information from this interview will be kept strictly confidential and will be used by the researcher for academic purposes only. Your cooperation and participation will go a long way in providing useful information required to complete this research. Please answer the questions precisely and objectively.
You are free to ask any question regarding this survey and you may chose not to respond to any question you feel uncomfortable with without any harm or undue disadvantage.
What were the main transport problems in Lamu Old Town?
What are the existing plans (if any) to address them?
What mechanisms/systems/procedures do you have in place to get feedback on the transport situation and quality of services you deliver as a county government?
What avenues/mediums do you have in place for the sharing/dissemination of county urban plans and reports? What transport/mobility changes have you observed in the town following the implementation of the plan?
What Partners/ stakeholders have been involved in the transport/mobility sector and what was their role in the urban planning process?
APPENDIX III: FOCUSED GROUP DISCUSSION GUIDE TOOL
(tool targeted at three groups of transport providers in Old Lamu Town: Donkey-enabled, motorcycle-enabled and motorboat operators)
Request for your Participation;
Hello. My name is Abdilatif Husein a Post Graduate Student at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. I’m conducting a resurch study as part of an ongoing study in Urban Mobility and Transportation within Heritage Zones. It aims at developing recommendations on sustainable mobility models in light of increased urbanization and motorized means of transport in Lamu Old Town.

Information from this interview will be kept strictly confidential and will be used by the researcher for academic purposes only. Your cooperation and participation will go a long way in providing useful information required to complete this research. Please answer the questions precisely and objectively.
You are free to ask any question regarding this survey and you may chose not to respond to any question you feel uncomfortable with without any harm or undue disadvantage.
If you accept to participate, the exercise will last for 45 minutes. Your participation is voluntary
What is your opinion of the transport/mobility satiation in the town?
What in your opinion are the effects of motorized transport modes (e.g. cars, boda bodas) on the quality of the urban life in Lamu Old Town?
Are your representatives involved in the Old Lamu Town urban planning processes? (probe at what stage are they most involved in and the stage with the least involvement)
Have you as a group been able to raise issues on the impact of transport/mobility on Lamu Town’s heritage? (probe on how the issues were relayed, if the issues were resolved and timeline of the feedback and the methodology of giving feedback)
Finally in regard to our discussion that we have had, do you have any question to this team or recommendation to the Town administration regarding transport and Lamu Old Town’s heritage?