Hofstede’s level of importance placed on masculine work-related

Hofstede’s explanation of masculinity is the level to which the culture prefers traditional masculine functions, like success, power, and control, as against looking at men and women as equals. A high femininity ranking indicates the society sees little differentiation between male and female functions and considers women and men are equal in all respects.These values relate to the level of importance placed on masculine work-related objectives and purposefulness (quantum of pay, job progress, title, respect etc.), as against to more personal and humanistic aims (friendly atmosphere, cooperation, nurturance etc.) These objectives and values can describe how individuals are potentially inclined in societies with a feminine or a masculine culture.Characteristics:High MAS• A strong societal status relates heavily to self-pride.• Wealth and accomplishment are important.

Low MAS• Relationship with focus on unanimity.• Focus more on quality of life aspects.Long-term orientation vs. short-term orientation (LTO):It refers to the degree to which people need to explain the inexplicable, and is strongly related to religiosity and nationalism.

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People in a culture with long-term orientation tend to value thrift, persistence, and tradition. In a short-term orientation, people value the here and now; they accept change more readily and do not see commitments as impediments to change.The work-related values and behavior from this dimension has the following features:Long-term orientation:Acceptance of that business results may take time to achieveThe employee wishes a long relationship with the companyShort-term orientation:Results and achievements are set, and can be reached within a timeframeThe employee will potentially change employer very often.


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