Ground beetles

Ground beetles:
Are an oversized, cosmopolitan family of beetles, Carabidae, with quite 40,000 species worldwide, around 2,000 of that square measure found in North America and a pair of, 700 in Europe B. (Kromp 1999). It’s one in every of the 10 largest animal families, as of 2015.(Gomes Gonçalves, Marcos Paulo December 2017.

They can be found in virtually any terrestrial surroundings on Earth. Ground beetles are recognized by their long legs and glossy black or brown elytra (wing covers), that is embellished with ridges and should be united along on the sheet. In several species the hind wings are reduced or absent. Ground beetles like dampish cool areas and frequently run instead of fly once disturbed. They emerge from underneath rocks, crevices, or litter in the dark in search of insects, worms, or snails. The long, slender larvae are largely carnivorous, though those of a couple of species go after seeds. They need sharp projected mouthparts and a try of bristly tail appendages. Several ground beetles secrete a funky liquid that daunts potential predators like birds.

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Scientific classification:
Kingdom:AnimaliaClade EuarthropodaClass InsectaOrder Coleopteran
Sub orderAdephagaUnranked GeadephagaSuperfamily CaraboideaFamily carabidaeLatreille, 1802
Description and Ecology:
Although their body shapes and coloring vary somewhat, most area unit shiny black or bimetal and have ridged wing covers (elytra). The elytra area unit coalesced in some species, significantly massive Carabinae, rendering the beetles unable to fly. The genus Mormolyce is thought as fiddle beetles thanks to their peculiarly formed elytra. All carabids except the quite primitive flanged bombardier beetles (Paussinae) have a groove on their forelimb tibiae bearing a comb of hairs used for improvement their antennae. (John L. Capinera. Encyclopedia of Entomology. p. 1746)
Defensive secretions:
Representatively, for the traditional beetle taxon Adephaga to that they belong, they need paired pygidialglands within the lower back of the abdomen. These square measure well established in ground beetles, and manufacture unhealthy or perhaps caustic secretions usually deter would-be predators. In some, unremarkably called bombardier beetles, these secretions square measure mixed with evaporative compounds and ejected by a little combustion, manufacturing a loud sound sound and a cloud of hot and acrid gas which may injure little mammals, like shrews, and is at risk of kill invertebrate predators outright. To humans, obtaining “bombed” by a ground beetle may be a definitely unusual expertise. This capability has evolved independently double because it appears – within the flanged bombardier beetles (Paussinae) that square measure among the first previous ground beetles, and within the typical bombardier beetles (Brachininae) that square measure a part of a additional “modern” lineage. The Anthiini, though, will automatically squirt their defensive secretions for stretched distances and square measureready to aim with a surprising degree of accuracy; in Afrikaans, they’re called oogpisters “eye-pissers”. In one in every of the only a few few cases of a vertebrate mimicking associate invertebrate, juvenile Helioboluslugubris lizards square measurecoloured just like the aposematic oogpister beetles, and move in a very method that creates them look amazingly just like the insects at an off-the-cuff look.(R. B. Huey & E. R. Pianka1977)
A people story claims that Charles Darwin once found himself on the receiving finish of a bombardier beetle’s attack, supported a passage in his life. Darwin explicit in a very letter to Dutch Leonard Jenyns that a beetle had attacked him on it occasion, howeverhe didn’t recognize what kind.

A Cychrusrostratus once squirted into my eye & gave Pine Tree State extreme pain; & i need to tell you what happened to Pine Tree State on the banks of the Cam in my early zoological science days; below a chunk of bark I found 2 carabi (I forget which) & caught one in every hand, once lo & see I saw a sacred Panagaeus crux major; I couldn’t bear to allow up either of my Carabi, ; to lose Panagaeuswas out of the question, so in despair I gently condemned one amongst the carabi between my teeth, once to my unspeakable disgust ; pain the tiny inconsiderate beast squirted his acid down my throat ; I lost each Carabi; Panagaeus.(Charles Darwin (1846). Letter to Leonard Jenyns, October 17, 1846)
Ecology:
Common habitats square measure beneath the bark of trees, under logs, or among rocks (Gomes Gonçalves, Marcos Paulo Gregorian calendar month 2017) or sand by the sting of ponds and rivers. Most species are carnivorous and actively seek for any invertebrate prey they’ll overpower. Some run fleetly to catch their prey; tiger-beetles (Cicindelinae) will sustain speeds of nine km/h- in relevance their linear unit they’re among the quickest land animals on Earth. in contrast to most arthropod family that square measure nocturnal, the tiger beetles square measure active diurnal hunters and infrequently brilliantly colored; they need giant eyes and hunt by sight. Ground beetles of the species Promecogna thuslaevissimusare specialized predators of the cyanide arthropod Harpaphehaydeniana, countering the chemical compound that makes these millipedes toxic to most carnivores.( Cornell Chronicle”)

A Lophyra sp. Tiger beetle from Tanzania
IMPORTANCE :The ground beetles are a large group of predatory insects in the family Carabidae. Adults and larvae are considered beneficial and will eat almost any type of insect, including: caterpillars, root maggots, snails and other soil dwelling insects. The ground beetles are a large group of predatory insects in the family Carabidae. Adults and larvae are considered beneficial and will eat almost any type of insect, including: caterpillars, root maggots, snails and other soil dwelling insects.

BENEFICIAL GROUND BEETLES : ROVE BEETLES:

They are closely resembled to the ground beetles. Adults and larvae are predatory and will consume almost any type of insect. Tiger beetle adults ofteusually show brightl colored like metallic blue, green, or orange,). Adults are quick runners due to long legs . Tiger beetles are considered ambush feeders and will seize prey with powerful sickle-like mandibles.The S-shaped larvae construct vertical burrows in dry soil and wait for prey to fall inside. Tiger beetles have one generation per year and commonly hunt during the day in gardens, stream edges, forests and deserts.

Tortoise beetles :They are a common group of leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. Adults are metallic and very colorful, ranging from gold to green to yellow. The larval and adult stages feed on common weeds, such as bindweed, thistle, horse nettle, and burdock. As they also eat sweet potato, tomato, eggplant and a variety of hardwood trees so they also look like pests.. Two tortoise beetles are used for biological control of weeds one is golden tortoise beetle, Metriona bicolor, on bindweed; and thistle tortoise beetle, Cassida rubiginosa, on musk thistle.

TWO-SPOTTED MELYRID, Collops bipunctatus, is commonly khnown as a softwinged flower beetle in the family Melyridae .The adult body is widest at the rear an Another large group of predatory insects is rove beetles. The larvae and adult of rove beetle is predator of other insectsthey also eaty the dead decaying vegetation . They can easilty differentiated from other beetles due to their short forewings. They have exposed abdominal ends .they can fly easily and can run on ground . rove beetles can be seen under rocks or wood, or around mushrooms or other decaying vegetation. . Some rove beetles display a defensive behavior, similar to scorpions when disturbed of raising the abdomen in a defensive posture.

Blister beetles: they belong to the family Meloidae, and more than 300 species are found in the U.S. A common species Utah is the spotted blister beetle, Epicauta maculata. Usually Blister Beetle Adults will have obvious “shoulders”that are wider than the head. Adults are relatively soft bodied and long legged compared to other beetles . Blister beetle adults range from 12-19 mm in length. Larvae are considered the beneficial stage often eating grasshopper eggs. Unfortunately, larvae and adults secrete Cantharidin, a poisonous chemical that can blister skin or cause painful swelling Blister. Beetles are of economic importance when they feed in alfalfa hay. Consumption of blister beetle larvae by cattle or horses can cause serious illness or death. Hay and forage fields that have significant blister beetle populations should be cut pre-bloom and/or avoid conditioning prior to baling.

Tiger Beetles:
Another group of predatory insects khnown as the tiger beetles belong to the family Cicindelidae. There are Almost 200 species of tiger beetles in North America and the forewings are relatively soft compared to other beetles. The possess slender legs along with antennae are saw toothed. These beetle voraciously feed on aphids. Adults show orange body with a dark green head and metallic green forewings.The orange”shoulders”have two dark spots.

Saltcedar leaf beetle,
Diorhabda elongata, is a leaf beetle belong to the the family Chrysomelidae.. This beetle is more common in China. To control saltcedar vegetation and tamarisk, it was introduced in Utah. Adults have alternating black and greenish stripes on the forewingsand are usually 5-7 mm long .Both the adults and larvae are beneficial,eating saltceda rvegetation.

Thistle-head weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus, is a weevil in the family Curculionidae . This beetle is most commonly present in to Europe, Asia and Africa . For the biological control most common examples include the cotton boll weevil and the many other species of rootworms. Following products incvluding meats, dairy products, flour, meal, cereals, stored grain, nuts, and fruits are being destroyed by beetle pests.

Role of ground beetles in biological control of pests
Introduction:
Ground beetles or carabids can eat both the animal and vegetable food. In fact, studies on diet of carabids, which were captured in the field, proved phytophagous and often polyphagous character of the carabid feeding. Feeding on plant and the animal material and property to scavenge are perhaps more significant than recently acknowledged”. Carabid larvae are more carnivorous and hence restricted in the food range than adults. Carabids are found to feed on the agricultural pests. Feeding on animals is not to be associated with predation because most of the carabids dare not to attack healthy and uninjured prey i.e. response of the most carabids to the animal food is not exactly that of predator but relatively of a hungry scavenger.
2-Aphids in cereals: eaten on the ground in spring:
It was found that Trechus quadristriatus, Demetrias atricapillus, Bembidion lampros, Platynus dorsalis and some of the other carabids fed on aphids, present mostly on soil surface during day, whereas predation by the other polyphagous arthropods mainly occurred nocturnally on cereal vegetation. Aphids found to be the appreciable part of diet, Pterostichus melanarius (upto 16%), of P. dorsale (30-46%), H. rufipes (5-17%), D. atricapillus, N. brevicollis (upto 50%), C. fuse ipes, Notiophilus biguttatus and Amara familiaris.
Pure aphid diet, however, might not be much advantageous for the ground beetle nutrition. It was depicted that some of the carabid predators, (P. dorsalis), showed only low preference for Rhopalosiphum padi as food item and low tolerance limit to consumption of the aphids as a pure diet.

Fig. 1: Bembidion lampros feeding on aphids
Dipterans: egg predation:
Dipteran eggs, larvae and the pupae are found to be favoured food source for carabids. It is very difficult to measure influence of carabids on the field populations of the dipteran pests. The Gall-midge (Cecidomyiidae) larva is believed to be susceptible to predation while emerging from soil after the larval diapause and, then again, while migrating down from crop to soil to bury themselves.
Effect of the carabid predation on cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) and on the other anthomyiid pest flies had been examined since 1950s. In previous investigations, predation effect of carabids (mainly Trechus quadristriatus and Bembidion lampros) on the cabbage root fly mortality and was estimated to have exceeded 90% of eggs and the first-instar larval stage of first and second fly generations. However, recent research, showed that even though 90% mortality have occurred during lifecycle of cabbage root fly, but only round about 30% of it involves egg and the first-instar larval stages. Substantial mortality occurs during later larval stages because of the abiotic rather than the biotic factors.

Fig. 2: Trechus quadristriatus and cabbage root fly (Delia radicum)

Coleopterans: only scattered recent data:
In sufficient densities, large carabids, might be effective predators of eggs and the larval stages of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Carabus spp., on average, reduced the yield damage related to potato beetle to about one-third as compared to infested control plots without the Carabus. In Russia, it was reported that the Pterostichus spp., Broscus cephalotes and Harpalus rufipes are efficient predators of potato beetle.

In laboratory, number of carabid species (e.g. Poecilus cupreus, P. dorsalis, Asaphidion flavipes, Amara plebeja, H. rufipes, Harpalus distinguendus) fed efficiently on eggs and larvae of cereal leaf beetle Oulema melanopus. Important pests in the North America are corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. (Chrysomelidae). Influence of no-tillage, predators and soil moisture is also investigated on southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata, Chrysomelidae; SCR) in corn, trying to estimate the mortality rates of SCR in different systems. Bembidion spp. were also found to be efficient predators on the SCR eggs and the first instar larvae in the months of April and May, in spite of the cultivation system, while Amara spp. Were significant egg and the second instar larval predators when there is no-tillage only.

Fig. : Carabus granulates and Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

List of Species:. Ground beetles are a large group of family Carabidae. In Michigan there are about 450 species of Ground Beetles were known.

Beetles, under the class known as Coleoptera, make up at least quarter of the animal kingdom. They are the largest group of animals, representing one fifth of all known living organisms and one fourth of all animals. Almost half of all living beetles are known as weevils under the family known as Curculionidae. It is believed that the number of species of beetles range from approximately 250,000 to 350,000. Beetles are among the most fascinating of all animals. They differ in range of size, color, and form. Some beetles are as large as 16 cm while others are as small as 1 mm. Many tropical beetles have large horns and claws, making no attempt to hide themselves while others try to make themselves as little noticeable. horns and claws, making no attempt to hide themselves while others try to make themselves as little.

Table: species of ground beetle shown in the table
Sub Family Carabinae Cicindelinae
Ctenodactylina Elaphrinae Nebriinae
Species Altagonum
AplothoraxCalosomaCarabusCychrusHomothesFortagonumLaemostenusNotagonumCoptolabrusAbroscelisAmblycheilaAniaraAntennariaApteroessaArchidelaBaloghiellaBennigseniumBrasiellaCaledonicaAlachnothoraxAmblycoleusAntipionychaAsakalaphiumCtenodactylaDinopelmaHexagoniaLeptotrachelonLeptotrachelusOileaBlethisaDiacheilaElaphrusLeistusNebriaNotiophilusPelophilaNippononebria
Association:
Predator Picture
Prey
Picture
Soricidae earthworms
Squamata Snails
Formicidae Grubs
Araneae Slugs
Major Consequences:
Effects on crops: Potato beetles will eat away entire leaves from plants causing plants to have reduced yields. …

Beneficial insects like lady beetles and green lacewing will feed on the eggs and larvae. General info: Colorado potato beetles are common pests for home gardeners.

Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control.
Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles.

Rove beetle adults and larvae are predators of other insects, but will also eat decaying vegetative
Matter.Unfortunately, larvae and adults secrete cantharidin, a poisonous chemical that can blister skin or cause painful swelling. Blister beetles are of economic concern when they feed in alfalfa hay. Consumption of blister beetle larvae by cattle or horses can cause serious illness or death. Hay and forage fields that have significant blister beetle populations should be cut pre-bloom and/or avoid conditioning prior to baling.

The ground beetles are a large group of predatory insects in the family Carabidae. Adults and larvae are considered to be beneficial and they will eat almost any type of insect, including: caterpillars, root maggots, snails and other soil dwelling insects.

Future perspective of Ground beetles.

Ground beetles are not harmful to the human (it might be possible they if they are mishandled they might pinch you at your skin) neither they are injurious to clothing,food or buildings they are nuisance only if they are found indoors ,they do not reproduce when they are indoors.

The response of beetles to Global Warming:
It is indicated by the Meterological records that there is a increase in the global warming since last century .Oceans have also got warm due to increase in the temperature during the last 40 years being detected in pacific ,Indian ,and Atlantic oceans to the depth of 3000 m, with the largest amount of warming,0.3 celsius, in the upper 300m (levitus et al.,200).

Effects of the global warming have been recorded on both of the polar regions .Beetles have survived in the past because of their small size ,population dynamics ,and their ability to disperse .In future , beetles will respond to climate chance by dispersal .Certainly the beetles would adapt genetically to difference in dinual and seasonal temperatures and to the day light. One of the quaternary fossil beetle record is that species extinction is not associated with the climate change .The rate of extinction would be greater in future than in past .the reason is that natural habitats have become increasingly fragmented by human activites.

Global warming potentially makes a bad situation even more pathetic .For many species, dispersal will mean abandoning the security of patches of natural habitat for disturbed areas where they will probably to more vulnerable to predators ,to disease, and to being poisoned by pesticide remaining in the soil and by chemicals ingested from genetically altered crops. Some individuals take this next to their next generation or natural habitat (lovejoy,1997).

Management:
Nonchemical:
In many of cases of any of us gets encountered by a minor number of ground beetles indoors.The one of the necessary control is physical removal ,e.g capture them in a container or remove them with a vaccum.

•We can also try setting out sticky traps ,such as those used for cockroaches.Place these traps in areas where ground beetles are most commonly found,especially along walls.

If we encounter a large number of ground beetles ,we can reduce their amounts by some of non-chemical steps:
•Seal and repair entry points such as cracks in the foundations ,gaps and spaces around doors,ground level windows and similar areas.

•Thin out or remove wood mulch or other organic mulch that is directly adjacent to the foundation.

•Stack firewood away from the home as far as is practical.

•Remove stones,leaves,boards,and other nearby debri.

Cut or remove tall grass and weeds around the home.

•Minimize the use of lights from bright white to yellow to minimize attracting ground beetles.

Few ground beetles such as carabid species play a vital role in agricultural systems by predating crops or feeding on the seeds of weeds .Such forms of natural biocontrol are important when considering future strategies for food production. There is considerable interest for example ,reducing dependence on pesticides by boosting predatory insects abundance using non-crop field margins.

Use of Insectides:
Insecticides are not necessary applied if the number is minor but if the number of ground beetles gets higher inside the buildings or in harvested areas then a n insecticide treatment around exterior of the particular area is an option .An appliance of the insecticides around the foundation is helpful in reducing the number of ground beetles that may enter buildings or cropy areas.

Common examples include products that have active ingredients like ,bifenthrin ,cyfluthrin, deltamethrin and premethrin purchased as liquid reay-to-use or occasionally as granular ready-to-use