Facilities Management

Facilities Management (FM) is turn into an increasingly importance element in property and facility industry in Malaysia because it is one of the divisions that can fulfill the needs and the expectation of the humans. Generally, FM is the management of properties, facilities and services that includes the “hard services” & “soft services.” The first refers to the physical built environment, such as, the engineering or mechanical services, electrical services, plumbing services, water treatment management, energies and safety services. Then, the second services are including the housework, park or grass, insect control, waste management, vendor management, hospitality services, security services and others. FM is importance nowadays in life. FM is about managing the humans and spaces to reach the best value by balance the needs of the consumer and the needs of the business to achieve the best organizational effectiveness. Besides that, the importance of FM is to manage the health and safety requirements, increase the cost-efficiency of the business and increase the lifetime of the properties.

However in Malaysia, FM is still relative as new and not yet fully developed. According, to the IFMA defines that FM is “a profession or service that encompasses multiple discipline to ensure functionality of the Built Environment by integrating people, place, process and technology”. FM has been developed and evolved at the most advanced countries such as the America, United Kingdom now and then to support the best functions of the organizations. The Asian countries like Hong Kong and Japan, they also has been recognized and established the FM in their countries. But, Malaysia is still focusing in three main areas which are practice, research and education (Syed and Jusoff, 2009). In early 1967, the development of FM in Malaysia was started. The Factories and Machineries Act outlined safety and health standard was carried out to make sure best value of the workers. In year 1974, the rules were distributed for the maintenance of properties, public roads, infrastructure works, of properties as well as the role and responsibilities of the Jabatan Kerja Raya or Public Works Department. Following the government proposed the Guidelines for Total Quality Management in the Public Service at 1992. After that, Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, the Deputy Prime Minister had delivered his concern about the importance to increase the quality and the function level of public services such as asset and the facilities, which is to put a best effort on the development of FM in public sector.

Six year later, The Pekeliling Perbendaharaan Bilangan 5 Tahun 2007 delivered the Guidelines for the Management of Movable Assets and a new act, the Building and Common Property (Maintenance and Management) Act 2007 Act 663. But, the act focuses only on the maintaining and managing of the buildings, mostly are on the accountabilities on the management of the agents and the joint management organization and also on the maintenance funds. At the same year which is 2007, the first convention on NAFAM was organized in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Then, the government launched the Government Asset Management Policy at year 2009. This is guideline that more focus on the government asset management but then didn’t provide any standards or specification on the FM service. At the same year, mySPATA was recognized for managing the immovable assets, which is a system. Besides that, FM is one of the interests to Malaysia to achieve the Vision 2020. From the above, the Malaysia Government had strongly support the development of the FM industry in Malaysia by the numerous active engagements and initiatives.

Nowadays, Information Communication Technology (ICT) is a necessity in our life. ICT is not new in the 20th century compared to the earlier 19th century. Life will become easier and simpler with aided of all these complicated but useful ICT. The role of facilities management is not only included provide facilities and maintenance management. It is also included communication, finance, business, environmental sustainability, emergencies preparedness, property management, real estate, project management and technology. So, ICT will help a lot to manage all the things above. Building Information Modelling (BIM) modelling is presently being applied by the architect, engineer and also the construction industry in Malaysia. In 2007, PWD was the first presented the technology of BIM to diminish the cost of the construction and the design problems. BIM is a concept, not software. It is an idea that has turned into a set of practices with the assistance of technology. In an era that full of modern technology, BIM is established to offer a new level of functionality and the value for FM of a building as well as the property assets in it. There are many benefits of using BIM for FM generally. For example in building lifecycle management, better space management, building equipment management, streamlined maintenance, economical, easier modifications and others. BIM is the latest and current technology for FM. Thus, by integrating with FM and BIM, the higher benefit will gain but also the greater risk will be taken.

In conclusion, a suitable and more efficient managing and controlling of facilities is also the final fulfillment of the development of FM. Although BIM technology is good, but the early costs to implement the BIM technology and its hardware are very expensive and slightly high, only the large company that can have enough money to afford the high cost. In addition to this, the number of BIM professionals was very low in the Malaysian construction industry. The organizations have to send their workers to training to teach them about this BIM technology and the learning process was required time and also incurs the extra costs for the company. Above were the barrier and challenges of implementing the BIM into the FM. Furthermore, some FM company choose to save their expenses, they just provide the limited change for their employer for training and this will cause the lack of knowledge and new information of FM of the employer as well as unable to understand the functions of the FM between the strategic level management with well and there will caused the lacking of new FM professionals in the industry. All of these are the problem in the industry and affect the development of FM. Moreover with the principles of Satu Malaysia, which stated of “People First, Performance Now”, the improvement of facilities or services supply in Malaysia should be reserved into an important aspect in every sector. Everyone needs a better life, a good quality services and improvement of facilities can satisfy the users and the complaints from them also can be decreased. Furthermore, every sector encouraged for resolving the issues and problem of FM also importance for a better realization towards the successful of the development FM in Malaysia.

A Facilities Management (FM) practices is importance in the Malaysian organization, but there are several issues that occurred in development of FM in Malaysia. In year 2012, RICS showed a survey about the issues that involved in FM. There are 7 main problems that affect the practices of FM in Malaysia have been stated at the report, which are as follows:-

vary from one company to another, it is depending on what was the services had delivered or applied for the properties. The adjusting suitable FM standard is an element that needs immediate to take action.

In year 2015, the Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB) Chief Executive, Dato’ Sri Ir Dr Judin Abdul Karim commented that “The facilities management emphasizes the importance of managing the built environment and facilities to maximize its design purpose and functionality. However, looking at the scenario in Malaysia, the majority of FM contractor or companies are not trained to carry out the works awarded to them. As the result, the buildings or infrastructure now built are not well managed and maintained, and resulting the property in early deterioration”. The low service quality is another of the main issues that affected the implementation of FM in Malaysia. The reasons course the problem are lack of recognition in FM, lack of training and education, lack of qualified, lack of career pathways, limited of information standard, shortage of technical knowledges and lack of professional on handling the problem.

The change in FM development recently is the improvement in the technology sector. ICT started from email, Maintenance Management software, Computer Aided Facilities Management (CAFM), Building Energy Management (BEM), Agile software until BIM as the current technology. The improvement changes in the technology had increase and more new technologies being prepared available in Malaysia. However, the application or adoption of these new technologies frequently require the advancement in management system and IT system as well in facilities management. For example, Building Information Modelling (BIM) as the latest technology in FM. With this BIM, facility manager can choose the best and suitable software for higher job satisfaction this will also make the job easier and simpler and done faster and all of these will boost the development of FM in Malaysia.
The first objective is to review the development of the FM in Malaysia. The lack of understanding the roles, function and the concept of FM functions among the strategic level management in Malaysia. There are misconceptions of FM, FM is not concerned about the maintenance only, and it is also concerned about the value and the functionality of the property. In addition, FM also concerned about the needs and expectation of the people that need better quality life and better quality built environmental. The second objective is to study the current challenges of FM that needs to be taken in account. The problem had been mentioned at above. There are the problems in managing and controlling the financial cost, lack of strategic planning in FM, lack of new FM professionals in the industry, unable how to adapt to the latest innovation in working environment, the difficulty in managing environmental issues and low quality of the FM services. The third objective is to identify the opportunities for FM development in Malaysia. Where the FM development has facing a lots of challenges, there must have the solution to overcome the issues. At the same time, the process to overcome the challenge, will create more opportunities.

Nowadays, the demands of the upper standard and higher quality service had been increase in Malaysia. Thus, the FM companies or contractor need to plan and to design the most suitable management method that may fix the needs and the expectations of the consumer. So, the role of FM companies or contractor is becoming more challenging and major to meet the expectation. Besides that, the FM companies or contractor also need to develop more knowledge, skills and procedures to achieve the visions with the technological advancement and complexity of modern day built environment. Therefore, there is a need to research the priority issues that have high impact on the achievement of development FM in Malaysia and overcome it or make improvement.

This research was studied by Syahrul Nizam Kamaruzzaman (2010) and Emma Marinie (2010) about the development of facilities management in Malaysia. This research is to provide a better understanding about the practices of facilities management in Malaysia.

The paper discussed the current roles, issues and future challenges that will be facing by the FM in Malaysia. It also reviewed the better and more effectively managed of FM at others western countries. Moreover, the opinions on the future plans and strategies for the development of FM in Malaysia had been generated at this research. Besides, the culture of the maintenance and facilities in Malaysia was lacking. In order to satisfy both the public and private sectors in Malaysia, there were still many things that needed to be established. Out-sourcing is considered as one of the best selections for development of FM in Malaysia, which may involve more organizations, with more projects being tendered out. The development of FM in Malaysia started in the second half of 1990s said by the Pillay (2002). The government has played a key role in the development of FM in Malaysia. The Malaysia government had privatized the non-clinical support services in the government hospitals to three FM companies in 1996. This had been considered as the biggest FM contract by the government at that time and also the starting of the new era of FM in Malaysia. Since then, Malaysia has put great effort and emphasis on the development of FM in the public sector. Encourangement towards solvinng the FM isnsues and probnlem are being serionusly looked at for better realinzation. A proper and more snystematic monitonring of facilities are also in the finnal imnplementation. Holnistic apnproach towards integratning effort and collective responsibnility is now the main agenda for grenater perfonrmance of FM in Manlaysia (Syahrul Niznam Kamaruzznama and Emma Marninie, 2010).

In the futnure, the chanllenges facing FM in Malnaysia are those of findning new wanys of leanding, of cultivanting environnment for perfnorming and finding new ways of commnunication with clients, custonmers and staff (Prince and Akhlnaghi, 1999). Succesnsful FM teanms will be able to embnrace the langnuage of the core organnizations they serve, clarifny and serve their stratnegic contribnution in termns of businness relevnant outconmes (Hallnam, 200n0).
This research was studied by Norashikin Rahmat and Abdul Hadi Nawawi (2017) about the current issues of facil ities managenment in Malanysian local authonrities. This paper exnplores the FM issues in Local Authonrities (LA’s) particularly in Malaysian local authorities. FM covers many aspects of management in the organizations. The results of the study indicate that most of the Malaysnian LA’s are not effinciently and effectnively delivenred the servnices and provnide public facilitnies adeqnuately. As the LA’s invnolve with punblic, the problnems arise from the service delivery of LA’s becnomes an important issues. In order to ovenrcome the issnues reganrding FM in Malanysian LA’s, the perfnormance measurnement of FM mnust be conducnted in LA’s to idnentify the level of perfornmance in service delinvery of LA’s. Based on the fnindings, it can give an ovenrview to Malaysnian LA’s to impronve in their servnice delivery and facnilities provisnion as well as showning the importannce of FM in mannaging the facilinties in Mnalaysian LA’s effinciently and efnfectively. The findings will be of significance to Malaysian LA’s in improving the performance of Malaysian public sector entities, particularly local authorities (Norashikin Rahmat and Abdul Hadi Nawawi, 2017).

This research is to establish the understanding on the development, practice, challenges and the opportunities of facilities management in Malaysia recently. The implication from this research is to serve as the foundation for future studies in an updated research on developing a conceptual framework of facilities management in Malaysia.

To review the development of the facilities management (FM) in Malaysia.

To study on the current challenges of facilities management development that needs to be taken in account.

To identify the opportunities for facilities management development in Malnaysia.

It is recongnized that, in some ways, any resenarch work would have sconpe and limintations. There are varinous barrierns to the collenction, exchange and combine of infonrmation from the different facilities management company. There are so many facilities management (FM) company or contractor; private or public, singly or collectively owned. It is not ponssible in the fance of the varionus limitnations to covner all the conmpany. This resnearch focusned on 3 FM managers. Further, there is little pubnlished work relating to the currently devenlopment of facilities mannagement. Thenre are numerous obstacles to the collection, exchnange and combinne of infornmation from the different facilities management company. Facnilities mannagement is a new fineld internatnionally includning Malaysia as reflencted in the litenrature revniew. This stundy is particunlarly an exnploratory surnvey resenarch trying to estanblish the recepntivity of facilitnies mannagement princinples in asset mannagement and the development of FM in Malaysia within the country econnomy. In tnhis contenxt, the resenarch relied extennsively on reseanrch questinons and field intenrviews in achineving its ainm and obnjectives.

This research addresses the current issue and challenges of FM that needs to be taken in account and providing a greater opportunities for FM development in Malaysia. So that, it will be of significance to the development of Facilities management (FM) in Malaysia for the Malaysian FM companies or contractor to improve the organization current practices of managing maintenance and monitoring the facilities to deliver their services and providing better facilities to the public.
Resenarch desnign for this thesis was shonwn at below to provnide readers a sumnmary on the study’s objecntives and the relnationship betwneen related infornmation and sournces of data in achineving the stundy’s objectinves.

The timetable plans for the completion of each stages of the research are revealed at below for semester 5 and semester 6. This plan is use to ensures the efficiency of monitoring the progress of the research.

Chapnter 1 is the intronduction, which highlinghts the overview of tnhe facilities management in Malaysia, problem statenment of the rnesearch, objecntives, scope and limintations, and the imponrtance of the reseanrch finndings.

Chaptner 2 is dedicated to the review of renlated literanture, whinch providned insignhts into the nature of facilities management (FM), the changing of the FM development in Malaysia during the recent years, application and practice of FM in Malaysia’s sector, the importance or benefit of FM, and the effects of FM to Malaysia, whnich is strucntured into a discunssion of the wnhole essennce of facilnities managemennt detailning its histonry, goals, and funnctions.

Chapter 3 is describing the research methodology. It is composed of the overall research strategy adopted, setting of the study, the research design, population of study, sampling design/sampling frame, sampling size, data requirements, the data-gathering instruments used, method of developing the conceptual framework of the development facilities management annd methnod of data annalysis.
Chanpter 4 presents the analnysis of datna and internpretation of resnults. The dnata obtainned from the personal interview are presnented, analnyzed and disncussed in this chaptner. The rensults of the analysis were discnussed in relantion with the reseanrch objecntives annd accordance with the literature review.

Chapter 5 focusens on the summnary of findinngs, conclusinon and discusnsion of implicantion for theory, pranctice and resenarch, as well as the recommendnations for furthner investigations.The eanrly set of penople who canme in contnact with wnhat is now refernred to as facilnities management restricted their view of the discipline to space management as againnst the otnher aspects. It was becanuse departnments or senctions of organnizations are onften charnged by manangement for spance which theny occunpy and thernefore they are bencoming mnore aware of the cost of spnace and are demnanding mnore effecntive qualinty and perfonrmance in their accomnmodation, as a result of factnors of supply and demnand in the mnarket for buinldings (Spedding, 1994). In recnent yeanrs, the area of space management has excited great interest on the part of real estate groups and facilities engineering departments of manjor corpornations as well as instintutions, govnernment and environnmental desingn disnciplines.

Recent the developments and research into the discipline particularly since the late 1980 year, have shown or revealed a wider and more embracing scope (Odiete, 1999). Facilities management has been promoted as the solution to most problems encountered by building occupants, owners, managers as well as architectural designers (Hamer, 1988). It combines all property management systems, occupancy consulting, planning, procurement, implementation and controlling service for space management, commercial management and technical management (Odiete, 1999). Facility Management is a process of managing or monitoring and maintaining the facilities in an organization or property. The facilities include office complex, physical resources at the company or site and any other mechanical and electrical utilities that can cause health or safety hazard to humans.
In 1989, a professional body of facilities managers was formed, the International Facility Management Association (IFMA), they model of a triangle of “Ps” and FM (Figure 1) concerns in today’s workplace, there are People, Process and Place. As Armstrong (1982) designated “we know there is a need to manage the physical environment in concert with people and job processes.” Since the people, process and place are the main factors of the organization, and FM involves in the whole organization. The position of FM at the center implies enhanced cooperation among the key factors in any organization. However, FM is most active with factors relating to place.

Besides that, FM also is a profession or service covers with different disciplines to make sure that the working place or staying place environment remains functional. There are some important services of FM (IFMA, n.d.). For examples, cleaning service (daily cleaning, periodic cleaning, special cleaning and segment cleaning), support service (front and back office, welfare facilities and labour supply), catering service (contract catering, vending services, events catering and confectionery services), property service (building, grounds and environment maintenance, energy and damage control), and security service (physical security, technical installations, consulting service and emergency management).
Moving into the 21st century, there are many significant changes and improvements in every industries. The modern of technology has impacted many businesses and industries, and changed the way to operate (Patrick Gleeson, 2018). So that, FM has gained importance over the last few years as the well-managed buildings or properties and utilities will help the building system function effectively and efficiently. FM consists of professionals involved in the day to day analysis, maintenance and repairs of the property utilities to increase the life span of the properties to prevent it demolition. FM now’s more about balancing the human needs and the business needs, and also achieving the effective management of place for the people.
This chapter attempts to identify the FM from professional perspectives on the development and practice of FM, the issues and opportunities of FM. Additionally, this chapter also will focuses on the where how FM is active and how FM is functions on organization. The explanation on the purposes, characteristic, key activities and the development and practice on FM as well as the current issue and the opportunities of FM in Malaysia will be provided.

Facilities Management appears to have spread into the industry in a short period of time. Over the years, researchers have provided many definitions that specify the objectives and the scope of FM. The divergence of its definitions has been so rapid and there is may not have firm root. The definitions and scope of FM remains a contentious issue and definitions depend on the local culture, people’s personal interest and organization’s interest (Anna-Lissa, 2005). Means different people have different perspective and different understanding then also came out with different definitions. To further understand the various definitions of FM, a list of definitions by various author are presented as below; Table 1.

With the increasing demand of energy efficient building, quality and comfortable way of life, green technology initiatives as well as others complicated construction environmental system, FM are playing an important role. Facilities Management (FM) is an instrument or service for sustainable and continuous improvements especially in property structure. The effect on the FM are quality of service and functional efficiency, cost effectiveness to extend the life time of the facility and also the life of the property building to prevent it deterioration or to avoid the early demolition. FM is the strategic management and adopts “knee-jerk” reactions to solve the problems of security, healthy, comfortable, operationally, safety, shortened facilities’ lifespan, and the reduced asset values that related to build environment.

Besides that, when FM applied professionally in the context of property building or industrial plants and machinery, it provide the safety and healthy, clean, business friendly, comfortable environment among each other. All of them are very vital but not only saving cost. Some owner would rather save money, so, they choose not to spend too much money on the FM. It is because they not really understand what FM is and what are the benefit and importance. Actually, FM can reduce the whole life cost of the building by water and energy efficiency; decrease the cost of repairs and maintenance and also the cost of replacement to help the owner to save money.

People spend about 90% of their time indoors (EPA, 2017). Therefore, the comfortability of the environment for human indoor should be concerned. At the business company point of view, it is the crucial to enable the high level of productivity and performance of the employees. For example, if the facilities in a company are well managed, the employee will be happier and their well-being will increase (EPA, 2017). Good facility management takes employee into account, and helps to ensure their workplace and workspace are maximized for productivity. This can enable greater their concentration, creativity, motivation and performance. By giving employee a high-quality environment to work will not only pay for itself through increased productivity, but will also increase job satisfaction. This shows that a good facilities management will provide a good living or working environment.

In Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore, they are based on three areas, which are education, practice and research (Adnan, Mustafa and Jusoff, 2008). Since 1994, FM at Hong Kong has been conducted by the local IFMA until current. The association has become strong enough and the concept of the FM was developed well, which is, the education and the research had complemented and matched the professional FM industry. Traditionally, Hong Kong was a place where East meets west. So, FM has been encouraged by the fact and this lead to more open and innovative minded along with the multi-cultural. The mixed signals in Malaysia and a clear signs of progress in Singapore and Hong Kong had been showed from a survey that carried out by Moore and Finch in year 2004. The little proof of real tangible progress is the main drivers that limit the development improvement of FM in Malaysia had been concluded. In Japan, the methods of FM are progressively used. FM had been complied as part of their organization by a few of companies such as Telephone Cooperation and Nippon Telegraph. In Taiwan, the section FM is much minor than Hong Kong. Hence, the overall trend in Taiwan is for an increasing the membership of IFMA. Based on the case above, this was shown that the interest of FM in Asian is improving.

Facilities Management organizations are integrated with some other dissimilar organizations in the real estate sector in Malaysia market. The activities of FM in Malaysia normally include the collection of rental, property agent as well as tenancy management. This shows that the idea, the concepts and the direction of FM had not fully and efficiency developed to provide the complete property management practices in Malaysia. From the study of Hamzah and Zakaria in 2007, the misperception and lack of the knowledge and the real concept of FM always caused a problem, which is, whether FM is the part of a real estate management, maintenance management, and property management or otherwise. The Malaysian Association of Facility Management (MAFM) had been formed in 2001. It was leading all the activities related to FM in Malaysia to help in the improvement of all the respects of FM. It is major to link between the academicians with industry FM players on the knowledge and experience sharing platform to strengthening all aspects of FM. Thus, there is no any significant result or key steps taken by them to promote the FM profession locally.
Generally, after delivery the building to the customer, the FM activities will only start. FM activities are including every respect of the performance, monito, manage and maintenance of the property buildings. To provide the efficient and sufficient service, there have three kinds of existing management system, which are, Environmental, Quality, Security Unit and Health Management System. All these existing guidelines will help to improve the performance and the function of FM service. (Asra, Nordiana and Syahrul, 2016)

Besides that, FM also has been practiced in the educational building. The responsibility of the facilities management team is to in charge the whole maintenance of the educational building, facilities and the surround of the campus. In Malaysia, there have thousands of educational buildings which have many assets and facilities that need to be maintenance to provide a good environment for students to studies. It is very important because good environmental achievements talent. The studies of the Syahrul Nizam and Emma Marinie in year 2010, they indicated that the office buildings are another case of FM practice in Malaysia. Normally, this type of office building would engage a facilities manager or maintenance managers to lead the FM management team to manage and to control the statues of the property building. The facilities manager or the building manager will deliver the services that included the landscaping, maintenance, lightings, cleaning, heating, air conditioning, ventilation and, mechanical and electrical, plumbing, lift and escalators, parking, signage, sanitary and, access, and others ( N.E.M. Nik-Mat et al. , 2011).

From the above, FM in the industry involves expertise knowledge, specifically from the management level. Besides, FM also involves in different industry, such as FSI & banking, hospitality, health care, government sector, manufacturing and real estate. It is because the purposes of facility management are varied. There included real estate management, finance management, human resources management, service maintenance management, management of contract or agreement, safety and health management, utilities supplies management as well as domestic services management (Syed Abdul Haris and Kamaruzaman Jusoff, 2008). The functions above all are the non-core activities of the organization. The functions of the facilities management that indicated by the Hammer (1998) has included the management of the inventory, planning of the maintenance, planning of the master and layout, programming, management of site, purchasing co-ordination, project administration and implementation and the coordination pf the overall systems. FM is really a professional that involves many multi-disciplinary functions. So, it is important to understand and identify the contribution and practices of the FM to upgrade its comprehension execution in Malaysia.

As mentioned before, RICS carried out a survey about the issues and challenges that involved in FM Malaysia in year 2012. From the report, there are some main problems that affect the practices and the development of FM in Malaysia. There are the problems in managing and controlling the financial cost and unable to understanding the function of the FM among the strategic level management and this also cause the lack of strategic planning in FM. Besides that, our industry also lack of new FM professionals to lead us, so, we unable to know how to adapt the latest innovation to the working environment. The level of good relationship with the outsourcing service provider is low. So, there are many researches about the benefit and importance of the outsourcing and how it work. The difficulty in managing environmental issues was also the problem that affected the growth of FM in Malaysia. It was because the importance of the FM practice always is ignored among the business strategies and business profit.

Other than that, the service quality in Malaysia is low (Ariff, 2007) and this is also supported by Nizam and Marinie, in 2010, they identified that poor service is one of the key issues affect the growth FM in Malaysia. It was because the FM players and its development have no a proper guideline and enforcement body to manage and monitor them. This had been proved by Zakiyudin, Syazli Fathi, Shuib Rambat, Tobi and Noraini Rejab in year 2014, which is, Malaysia’s FM industry will be lagged behind compared to others countries due to there is no standard service category introduced to ease the process of contracting facilities. Besides that, the supplier didn’t have the awareness that the high standard of services that needs to be provided to the customers or end users, which was one of the reasons that causes poor service quality in Malaysia. (Ruslan, 2007). The challenge that faced by the FM in Malaysia is lacking of the standards to measure and to quote the level of the quality and the level of the performance. From above, the FM in Malaysia still is practicing with a traditional way. So, the regulating a suitable FM standard is a main factor that needs immediately to be taken in account.

Inadequate guidance on the service standard may affect the growth of an execution of FM and the standards to evaluate the quality level and performance (Nik and Pit, 2014). Subsequently, Nik and Pit (2014) also proved that Malaysian Government has not been promoting and implementing FM. As mentioned before, in year 2015, the Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB) Chief Executive, Dato’ Sri Ir Dr Judin Abdul Karim also commented that the lack of noticeable in FM, employment chances, professional guidance, technical knowledges and expertise on handling the problem affect the FM implementation in Malaysia. It should be taken as a serious problem as FM is important to implement.

Besides that, FM also faces challenges such as lack of education, training needs; professional status, information standards, career pathways, performance benchmarking, cost value versus value in service procurement and corporate and community contribution of FM (Ballesty, 2007). It is a clear challenge for FM organizations to develop the managerial leadership that can build the organizational competencies needed to balance knowledge and skill requirements and improve as well as maintain them within the increasingly competitive FM market (Ismail, 2007). There is also a lack of technical knowledge and local expertise as well as the disaggregated deployment of specialists which do not have the expertise on handling the problems often occur, which caused the FM cannot meet the challenges in Malaysia at the present time. Thus, the need to design a flexible FM planning, and the need to manipulate the advantages and benefits of using FM and the need to provide the immediate responses for arising problem. Critical thinking to solve problem is very important.

Furthermore, Samad (2007) stated that the fundamental issue in coping FM is to identify the correct department responsible for the management of government buildings, as it includes public assets and funds. The sector which could not recognize the responsible department for full observation of FM requires tactical organization and scheduling. There is also a problem in of FM in Malaysian Local Authorities (LA) which is lack of ability in instant return to any frustration of service. Sadly, execution of FM is deemed to be not on time for some buildings especially for many old buildings that are degrading. Clearly that, there are many issued occurred in Malaysian LA particularly involving in FM. It is importance of LA to ameliorate the capability, productiveness and the standard of service delivery. FM may assist in systematize preservation allocation in the future and organize for the key preservation application (Norashikin and Abdul Hadi, 2017).
Nowadays, the Malaysia consumer demands an upper standard and high quality service from the FM companies or contractor because everyone needs a better life, a good quality services and improvement of facilities can satisfy the users and the complaints from them also can be decreased (Nordiana, Syahrul Othman, Aini and Asra, 2016). FM should be strengthen itself as an essential services at standard compare with other businesses or industry and the challenges and the issues should be solved to strengthen to become strategic FM. FM authority or department should have to stand on its own in Malaysia. Then, the purpose and roles and responsible of the FM will be more effective, efficient, focusing and better for value for money. This also would cause to be value added to the service quality for the community. FM organization should be leaded by the FM manager or maintenance manager that full enough with the required skills, ability and experiences. So that, the people specifically from the management level of the investor will be more willing and convincing to place more extra budget on FM. A suitable management method that need to be plan and design to suit the needs and expectation said by the Syed Abdul Haris, Haminah,and Kamaruzaman in year 2008. Thus, the role and the responsibility of the FM companies or contractor will become more challenging and significant to meet the needs and expectation of the consumer.

In business perceptive, FM has the great potential in earning money or making profit from the FM services. FM is not a maintenance works only; it can provide a better function and better value for money of the building property. So, the people especially by higher management should be emphasis the importance and the benefits of FM, which allocated much more budget on it. The issues and challenged that faced by the FM can be solved amicably by starting the transformation planning to the people to provide a better understanding about the roles and function of FM. This also had been agreed by the researchers which are, Zuhairi, Mohd Khairolden, Kamaruzzaman, Kamarul Anuar, Maria Zura, Ahmad Hazim and Mashita Abdul Razak. In conclusion, there is a must for the expansion of more advance knowledge, skills, and techniques to achieve the future with the advancement technology and the complicated of the built environment in this modern day that have high impact on the achievement of development FM in Malaysia and overcome it or make improvement.

2

The literature reviewed has delivered the concept for understandings to the Facilities Management (FM) and insights into the current development and practice, current issued and challenges and the opportunities in the field of FM. In relation to the research objectives, these are discussed as below.

The 2 objective of the study is to study on the current challenges of facilities management development that needs to be taken in account. The main issues in FM are show at the Table 6 and the challenges that facing in FM are show at the Table 7.

The third objective of the study is to identify the opportunities for facilities management development in Malaysia. Due to the subject of FM is getting importance in Malaysia and this offers better opportunities. Malaysia government has stimulated the professionals and contractors to get concerned in FM for maintaining the works and managing the services by allowed an amount of budget from for maintenance works for the public sector. In the city that considered high density and compact, the properties placed within these city centres are required to be well preserved because the cost of demolition of a building is very expensive. So, the needed of FM is high demand, and this creates the opportunities of FM in Malaysia. As mentioned before, “As long as buildings exist, there will be a demand for facility management”, this show that the opportunities of FM is forever.

Chapter 3 is describing the approach used to reach the research objectives of the research, the research design, including the research process, sampling design, sampling strategic, data requirements, and the data-gathering instruments used, the research conceptual framework of the development FM and the method of data analysis. The outcomes of the analysis will provide the information for the changes in the development of the FM, the current challenges of FM development and the opportunities for FM development in Malaysia.

In this study, exploratory research was carried out in an effort to review the development of FM, to study its current challenges and to identify the opportunities in Malaysia. Exploratory research is carried out when there is only limited quantity of knowledge and limited information exists on the subject (Naoum, 1998). Exploratory research is a continuance of descriptive research and also the major characteristics of this type of research task described by Collis and Hussey in year 2009. Besides, a qualitative method approach was adopted to conduct in this research, to collect the data which is text information.

Qualitative research method is best suitable method to solve a research problem in which the problem have the unknown variables and need to explore more (Creswell, Wiley, 2012). For this research, the literature review only provides little information about the phenomenon of study and the overview of the facilities management and we need to explore more from the participants through the research. Qualitative data collection is more than simply deciding on which type of technique to use whether observe or interview. Therefore, based on this study, the data were gathered through interviewing.
This research was narrow to the opinion and views on FM voiced by the property and facilities managers that registered with the MIPPM, BOVAEA, and MAFM in Malaysia.

After identified the area of study of interest and the research title, research problem and objectives, at the initial stage of the study, the research process is focusing on the literature review.

In this research, provide an introduction of the field, more specifically, the development and practice of FM in others Asian countries and in Malaysia and also the growth and development in Malaysia. These include the concepts and the direction of FM that practice in Malaysia and the policies relate with FM that carried out by government Malaysia. Through this review of the literature, broad information about the current challenges of FM development that needs to be taken in account and also the opportunities for facilities management in Malaysia will be provided. A theoretical framework was developed from this literature to design the interview.

In phase two, the research methodology involved the collection of data to achieve the three objectives. So, in this phase, the qualitative methods were conducted. This phase involves the depth interviews for data validation to help towards developing the transformation framework.

This is an important phase in every research study. Its means the data that collected would gather together for analyzing to achieve the research objectives and to obtain the best results that would lead to the successful of the research. The data for the open-ended questions will be analyzed by using the qualitative content analysis technique. The similarities and the differences in the content would classified by using this method. The complexity and systematically of the qualitative analysis technique will required a large quantity of wordings.
This is the final phase that focuses on the summary of outcomes, the conclusion and the discussion of the suggestion and implementation for the theory, the practice and the research, as well as the recommendations for further investigations. This is also an important phase in the improvement of a suitable transformation model for FM that will contribute to the field of building and property industry. Furthermore, there is also contributes knowledge and information to many parties that involved in FM industry.

The timetable plans for the completion of each stages of the research are revealed at below for semester 5 and semester 6. This plan is use to ensures the efficiency of monitoring the progress of the research.

In this chapter, the data that obtained would present the findings and the discussion concerning the development and practice of FM to achieve the three research objectives respectively. It will report the results and the outcome from the qualitative methods that have been recommended by Creswell (2003). The qualitative data that were get from the interview that had hand out to the respondents from the practitioners that practice Facilities Management in their organization in Malaysia.
Purposeful sampling is a method that widely used in qualitative research to identify and select of information-rich cases for the most efficiency use of the limited resources (Patton, 2002). Purposive sampling also is a sampling skill in which researcher will relies on the own judgment when selecting members of population to take part in the research study. This also involves the identification and selection on the individuals or groups of people that are specifically experienced about or knowledgeable with a field of interest (Cresswell ; Plano Clark, 2011). Due to the limited number of interview can be conducted; this technique was the most suitable for this research study where this is one of the most time effective sampling technique for qualitative method. Figure 7 was showing that how the purposive sampling functioning. Besides that, Table 10 has listed down the coding and the summary information about the 3 respective interviewers from the FM industry.

-1085852315329Figure 7 Purposeful Sampling
0Figure 7 Purposeful Sampling

CODE Manger 1 (M1) Manager 2 (M2) Manager 3 (M3)
Name Mohd Azlan Abas Antony Vs Chenteral VeloDesignation
of the company Chief Operating Officer Facilities Manager Senior Manager of FM
Experience
in years 5-7 years in Malaysia 1-2 years in Malaysia 5-10 years in Malaysia
Ownership UEM Edgenta BerhadJLL Property Services (Malaysia) Sdn BhdSCM Property Services Sdn BhdLocation of the
Company
Bangsar South,
Kuala Lumpur Jalan Tun Sambanthan, Kuala Lumpur Jalan Dutamas 1,
Kuala Lumpur
Types of Project Done
Residential, Commercial,
Industrial. Residential, Office, Commercial,
School. Residential, Commercial, Industrial.

-1882264514850Table 10: Coding and Information of the Interviewer
00Table 10: Coding and Information of the Interviewer

-1066804288608Table 10: Coding and Information of the Interviewer
00Table 10: Coding and Information of the Interviewer

From the literature review at Chapter 2, there had a perspective overview on the development of the FM in Malaysia. This literature review had focused on the policies related with the FM that carried out by the Malaysia Government and its related concepts including the current practice of FM carried out by the industry in Malaysia. From year 1967 until todays, the development of FM industry is strongly supported by the Malaysia Government with the numerous proactive actions, activities and events toward the development of FM in Malaysia.
Other than that, three interviewers had described their view about the FM. M1 described that the FM is the services deploying People, Process and System to upkeep building assets and ensure occupant comfort experience within the assets. M2 explained that FM is a task to manage a facility to ensure (that) the safety, comfort and satisfaction of the occupant were sustained at all the time. It should also include the monitor and maintenance of the building and installation to make sure that the value of the building does not depreciate. Besides that, M3 said that the FM is to ensure functionality of the building are maintain well and managed the process with technology intervention for the effective operation for the customers or consumers satisfactory. Facility’s management was to enhance the operation standards of the buildings, in terms of environmental, security and safety, general services, maintain and up keeping the mechanical and electrical equipment of the building. So, the important word here is ‘Building Environment’, meaning that any kind of that is built, installed or fitted was to be managed and monitored in such manner that its functionality serves its compulsory purpose. In any built environmental, for examples, residential, commercial or industrial. There all are the shelf and essential of a base of the building and the building services. All the elements or facilities that structure the ‘property’ was necessary to work its full lifespan and extended it where possible. Thus, FM was very complex; it involves people, finance, technologies and management expertise to manage the building.
Besides that, M1 also said that the level of growth of FM in Malaysia during this recently years is around high single or low teen digits in line with economic growth of Malaysia and need to rejuvenate existing assets. Nowadays, FM is evolving beyond its traditional maintenance services to incentives for facilities management by integrating different multi-disciplinary activities in order to address changing property needs, business needs alongside the advancement of technology. Then, M2 described that the FM have transpired from ‘owner operated’ to ‘out-source operated’. Owner operated method is services that engaged by the organization under the direct relationship between the company and the own underling meaning that, the FM management team will employed by the company to carry out the maintenance work by using their own manpower. Out-sourced operated mean the company will engages the outside company or supplier to perform a function which to carry out the maintenance works. This also allows the owner to engage professional FM design team to manage the property or assets. According to M3, the FM services industry to have a continuous growth in the market in Malaysia due to the massive development become one center solution, such as properties like shopping malls, offices buildings, commercial, retails, food court, club house, sports facilities and others assets.
Furthermore, even though the level of growth had been rise, but the FM industry in Malaysia is still considered as not fully developed and this had been agreed by the three interviewers. M1 described that the general FM services in Malaysia is slightly behind the curve in terms of the reputable and sizeable FM companies. Then, M2 mentioned that FM industry in Malaysia is yet to reach the developed status as most of the organizations tend to operate at the lowest possible cost and usually FM operation will be the victim of cost reduction. That will reduce FM operation capability to upgrade system to latest energy saving systems, unable to invest in real time monitoring of facilities system, and many more system that reduces dependency on human. M3 also said that FM is still new in Malaysia and it’s much the wider concept of FM of building management is still in the process of improving its maintenance management structure. In the conclusion, the general FM services in Malaysia are slightly behind the curve by the reputable and the sizeable of the FM companies compared globally. The majority FM players in Malaysia are not up to the other developed countries.

In Malaysia, the current challenges of the FM is the understanding and believe of the clients about the good quality FM services will improve their asset or property in the mid-term and long term said by M1. The clients unable to understand the FM functions and caused them not believe that the good quality of FM services will provide a better value and better function for the property or assets. M1 also provided the recommend idea to overcome the challenges, there is providing a more active, focus and improve dissemination of information by societies or authorities relating to the FM industry. Besides that, M2 personally feel that the operating budget and the capital budget allocation by the clients are the biggest challenges that will affect the entire operation and efficiency of the FM of the property or assets. As mentioned above, this is because the clients or the building owner lack of understanding about the function, practice, effect of FM and also the benefits of implementation FM to the property. To overcome the challenges, the building owner must understand that facilities system and building is the core of their revenue generation. Any breakdown to it will affect their business and reputation. Hence the allocation of budget must not be compromised. All set-ups have Life Cycle and stretching it to operate beyond the Life Cycle will increase the operation cost (high maintenance, parts being obsolete, unplanned downtimes and drop in energy efficiency). So the ideal operation should allocate sufficient budget for Operating Expenses and Capital Expenses said by M2.

Furthermore, based on the experienced of M3, the current challenges of FM in Malaysia that needs to be taken in account are lack of local professional to provide direct response to solve the problem about the failure of service as well as lack of FM practitioners in the market that can be responsible for advising or assistance during the operation of FM and also non-existence of the standards to measure and quote the quality level and the performance level of the facility and this caused another issue that currently faced in Malaysia. That is the low quality service and poor quality maintenance said by M3. For example, the problem in the building design and improper maintenance carried out that caused the building services are in poor condition. To overcome the challenges above, M3 said that FM need to be a more professional carrier in the market in Malaysia and also create more awareness of the FM courses to develop the FM industry of Malaysia and also implement the ISO standards for the FM services.

In addition, M3 also mentioned that the property technical ability is important, but the local FM industry remains traditional and defensive means habitual thinking. The change in the mentality is needed and therefore more proactive events are needed to be carried out to change the perception view of the professionals that involved in the construction industry and property industry. It was because change is an essential aspect in nowadays and to future business success. Besides, changes are concerned about the generation of the ideas as much as possible and also create more innovative ideas when facing problem. So, the FM team should involve from the design stage the maintenance and design challenges, viewing the problem as part of an overall perspective but not only the specific part problems. Then, there is lacking in the respect of software development and the technology that specific to FM and lack of implementation of integrated FM in Malaysia. FM companies or clients should introduce the updated IT system and new technology for the effective operation of FM to overcome the IT problem.

The greater opportunities will be provided due to the FM industry in Malaysia is still not yet completely developed. M1 interviewer define that FM is definitely a “Money Making’ opportunity with the right application of technology and service provisions. The maintenance and service rates of FM are increase in Malaysia and the demand for FM will expectedly turn in to high demand. FM industry is the profession and structured industry, so, FM is a suitable management that can involve controlling and managing the whole property with the correct application of technique within the budget. Although FM in Malaysia is not at infancy stage but it is at a mature stage that is need to be move into a new phase for rejuvenation.
According to the interviewer M2, he said that FM is a necessity to operate and manage an asset to ensure the safety and comfort of the occupant. If FM is for a commercial outlet, than FM can maximize space and create more outlets and generate revenue by leasing the space. FM can engage interior design to enhance the appearance and interior of the building to attract more customers and visitors. Building owners are engaging service suppliers to manage their building. After that, the service suppliers will engage skilled staff to manage the premise efficiently. FM teams have to be well versed in all aspect to manage a building. Candidates with experience and knowledge will be able to manage the building in a more cost effective manner. So, such personnel will be in high demand as owners wants to sustain a building with the least cost and create the opportunities of FM in Malaysia.

FM is an important industry, with wide opportunity to grow. We really need qualified people in property management and able to do multi task to find a solution for the customers demand said by M3 interviewer. He identify the opportunities of FM are people can work as problem solution for the rental agent and create event for the retailers or a consultant team in all key FM technical area for the additional income or create own facilities management mobile team for the repair and maintenance work of the properties. Lastly, all of the three interviewers have fully agreed that the ‘As long as the properties exist, there will be a demand for FM. If there is building or property, and if the owner wants to increase its value, a good FM team with sufficient budget will be able to achieve that.

In this chapter, it will show the conclusions of this research study by studying the result of the findings, which are successfully, achieved the three research objectives. Which are to review the development of the FM in Malaysia, to study the current challenges of the FM that needs to be taken in account in Malaysia and to identify the opportunities of the FM development in Malaysia. The contribution of information to the FM industry will be emphasized as well as how it can be a tool towards supporting FM business success. Recommendations for the future research study in the field of FM also are proposed.

Results of findings and analysis into the development of FM in Malaysia reveal that the growth of the FM is around high single or low teen digits in line with the economic growth of Malaysia. So, FM services industry has a continuous growth in the Malaysia’s market due to the massive mixed development; meaning that all kind of the properties. Besides that, the FM has transpired from in-house operated to out-source operated. Which is can allow the clients to engage the professional and expert FM team to manage the property. By the way, the development of FM in Malaysia is still not yet fully developed. FM in Malaysia still need the more expertise and qualified professional people to bring our standards to another higher level.

Results of findings and analysis into the current challenges of FM that needs to be taken in account is the understanding and believe of clients about the good quality of FM services can improving the property’s value and function in terms of mid-term and long term. So, building owner must understand that facilities system and building is the core of their revenue generation. Furthermore, the operating budget and capital budget allocation by building owner is the biggest challenge that will affect the entire operation and efficiency of the FM and this also will affect the development of the FM in Malaysia. Hence, the allocation of budget must not be compromised. The current challenges of FM include non-existence of the standards to measure the quality and performance level of facility management and lack of the local expertise and the professional to provide instant response to come out the solution to the failure of service. The lacking of FM specialists in the local market that can deliver the advice and the assistance in the carrying out of FM and it also lacking in the respect of software development specific to FM and implementation of integrated of FM. In addition, the FM industry in Malaysia remains traditional and protective. Change is an essential aspect in today and future business success. So, the change in the mentality and attitude is needed and therefore more proactive events should carried out to change the perception and the understanding of the professionals or participators that involved in the construction and property industry.

Results of findings and analysis into the opportunities for FM development in Malaysia are can work as problem solution for the rental agent, create event for the retailers or FM consultant team in all key technical area for the additional income or revenue or create own facilities management mobile team for the repair and maintenance work for the property. FM in Malaysia, which is presently at the relative new stage, so, it is an important industry, with wide opportunity to grow. This industry still really need a lots of professional and qualified people in property or facilities management and able to do multi task to find a solution for the customers demand. As long as the properties exist and there will be a demand for FM to manage the properties. So, the opportunities for the FM development in Malaysia are unlimited.

The importance of FM is to manage the building environment and the facilities to maximize the design purpose and the functionality of the building. Looking at the current situation of the FM in Malaysia, the common of the FM players are not trained to carry out the projects that have been awarded to them. The buildings or infrastructure now built are not well managed and maintained, and cause in early deterioration. Clients and stakeholders now request a higher standard and quality service from FM the players. So, the roles and the responsible of FM players are become more challenging and important. Thus, there is a need for the improvement of more complex skills, knowledge and techniques and with the advance technology tandem with the complexity of modern day built environment to meet the all those expectations and needs. So, the study recommends the consultative board that consisting of clients and stakeholders need set up to make sure the registration of the FM companies with the FM authorities, includes the significant skills and standard to improve the services of FM players in Malaysia.  It is also to ensure that the FM players in Malaysia understand the development, roles, concepts and the function of the FM.

This research study presents the development of FM performance in Malaysia, and the three objectives of the study also have been achieved. However, FM is still considered as new in Malaysia and there are some areas that should be focused in upcoming research. The suggested area that should be focus is the study to develop a framework of FM knowledge management. Knowledge management is a vital part in every industry. Nowadays, the FM in Malaysia is at a mature stage but not yet fully developed. So, it should to be more concentrated in order to give a better influence, provide more opportunities and evolve for the continuous improvement of FM in Malaysia. Therefore, the study to develop the knowledge management is a vital importance for the enlargement of greater efficiency and effectiveness among the FM companies in Malaysia.

FM is a task to manage a facility to ensure the safety, comfort and satisfaction of the occupant is sustained at all time. It should also include the maintenance of the properties or assets and the facilities and services to make sure that the value of the property doesn’t depreciate. FM is to ensure functionality of the building are maintain well and managed the process with technology intervention for the effective operation for the customers satisfactory. FM also is to enhance the operation standards of the buildings, in terms of environmental, security and safety, general services, maintain and up keeping the mechanical and electrical equipment of the building. The FM services is not only concern about the maintenance of the facility, it is about the whole functionality of the property and to ensure the occupant comfort experience within the property. Besides, FM also concerned about the better function and better value of the property.

The growth of the FM in Malaysia is around high single or low teen digits in line with the economic growth of the country. So, FM services industry has a continuous growth in the Malaysia’s market due to the massive mixed development; meaning that all kind of the properties. Besides that, the FM has transpired from in-house operated to out-source operated. Which is can allow the clients to engage the professional and expert FM team to manage the property. By the way, the FM in Malaysia is still not yet fully developed. So, there still need the more expertise and qualified professional people to bring our standards to another higher level.

The current challenges of FM that needs to be taken in account is the understanding and believe of clients about the good quality of FM services can improving the property’s value and function in terms of mid-term and long term. The operating budget and capital budget allocation by building owner is the biggest challenge that will affect the entire operation and efficiency of the FM and this also will affect the development of the FM in Malaysia. Besides that, the current challenges of FM include lack of standards that use to measure the quality level and the performance level of facility management and lack of local professional and knowledge to provide the instant response to solve the failure of service. The lack of FM practitioners in the Malaysia’s market that can deliver advice or assistance in the application of Facility Management and also lacking in the respect of software development specific to FM and lack of adoption of integrated facility management. In addition, the FM industry in Malaysia remains traditional and defensive. So, the change in the mentality is necessary and therefore more proactive events should be carried out to change the view and the understanding of the professional players that involved in the construction industry and property industry because change is an essential aspect in today and future business success.
The opportunities for FM development in Malaysia are quite high. As we can work as problem solution for the rental agent, create event for the retailers or FM consultant team in all key technical area for the additional income or revenue or create own facilities management mobile team for the repair and maintenance work for the property. In Malaysia, the FM is presently at the relative new phase, so, it is an important industry, with wide opportunity to grow. This industry still really need a lots of professional and qualified people in property or facilities management and able to do multi task to find a solution for the customers demand. In several cities, such as Kuala Lumpur, the cities are considered compact and dense. It is not allowing for any future development. So, the properties at there are enforced to be maintained. It is because the cost of the demolition of a building is very expensive and high. Thus, as long as properties exist, then, there will be a demand for FM. So, the opportunities for the FM development in Malaysia are unlimited.