Evaluate the notion that Zimbabwean organizations do not participate in corporate social responsibility for its sake.
This essay seeks to explore the Zimbabwean organizations and the reasons behind their non-participation in corporate social responsibility for its sake . This essay is to a greater extent revealing that the Zimbabwean organizations inline with the Corporate Social Responsibility poorly considers the social issues such as improving learning standards ,among other issues. Thereby showing their maximized attention on the financial matters ,this is as a result of the challenges that they face that draws them back from participating ,such as large government external debt burden among other reasons .However , this essay will also explore the organizations that carry out Corporate social responsibility thereby emphasizing on the environmental sustainability ,socially and economically
DEFINATIONOF KEY TERMS
An organization is an entity where two or more persons work together in order to achieve a specified goal or a common purpose. Zimbabwe consists of quite a large number of organizations and these can be classified into either profit making or non-profit making organizations .The Zimbabwean organizations are determined by strategy ,people ,technology and size of organization .
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
Corporate Social Responsibility is a business approach that contributes to sustainable development by delivering economic, social and environmental benefits for all stakeholders . A. D’Amato, S. Henderson and S .Florence (2009) , found that ‘ Corporate responsibility or sustainability is therefore a prominent feature of business and society literature ,addressing topics of business ethics ,corporate social performance ,global corporate citizenship and stakeholder management ‘.From the above definition one would take note that in as far as Corporate social responsibility is concerned the society is not just another stakeholder in the organization rather it is the very purpose of the existence of Corporate Social Responsibility.
IMPACT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
The Zimbabwean organizations have taken part in the Corporate Social Responsibility .Therefore managers of different organizations in Zimbabwe support the Corporate social responsibilities because they believe they meet wider social interests that can help meet economic responsibilities by enhancing their reputation with customers .The Corporate social responsibility has an obligation to the society other than only prioritizing maximization of profits. Each organization therefore encompasses the economic responsibility which is to make profit, the legal responsibility which involves obedience to the law ,ethical responsibility which is doing what is right and discretionary responsibility which is the expectations that the society has .Friedman ,(2011) argues that operating business without deception of fraud provided sufficient social benefit through the creation of wealth employment. For a business to give money to charitable purposes was equivalent to self imposed taxation .He argued that the board of directors in charge of a business should concentrate on generating wealth for shareholders and distributing it to them . In addition to the above statement shareholders would then make a decision to socially responsible purposes but unprofitable ventures .This obligation shows that the Zimbabwean organizations have to comply and the involvement of environmental sustainability which will be expanded in the passages below.
Enviromental sustainability can be defined as the maintaining and sustaining of the planet through biological and environment friendly practices on a long –term basis .The Corporate social responsibility helps to protect the environment and this means that it is to a greater extent that Zimbabwean organizations participate in Corporate social responsibility for its sake and on the other hand it does not participate due to the mounting reasons such as profit maximization. The Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association (ZELA) is a public interest environmental law organization that works to promote environmental justice in Zimbabwe . Its main objective is to help poor and disadvantaged natural resources dependent communities to participate effectively in environmental governance by enforcing environmental rights. It is estimated that about 70% of Zimbabweans live in the rural areas and are dependent on the primary extraction of natural resources for their livelihoods, follows that natural resources governance is critical to sustainable development, human welfare and good governance . Over and above this will ensure the society a better environment with balanced ecosystem and waste management. In addition ,Econet also assures environmental sustainability by participating in Corporate social responsibility for the sake of this society .Econet wireless believes environmental awareness is now more than just a factor ,this is evidenced by the pioneering investment in alternative energy this was the sale of the solar lamp thereby making the business ecologically friendly.
The ethical responsibility is that which enables the organization to do what is right to the society. This requires some moral theories these is therefore based on human rights ,labor rights and respects for environment .Organizations that are participating in Corporate social responsibility have placed a great benefit on the society. In addition Old Mutual is actively participating in setting concern faced by the society .A good example is the launch of 15 million dollars housing scheme will see the construction of housing units in Budiriro high density suburbs .This creates employment opportunities for the young people of Zimbabwe through the provision of funding for youth projects . In as far as ethical responsibility is concerned Econet believes its future success lies on the sustainable development in Zimbabwean societies . A company’s ethical behavior is the mirror image of its culture ,a shared set of values and guiding principles deeply ingrained throughout the organization (Paine ,1994). It participates in Corporate social responsibility to a certain extent as evidenced by how they prioritize the society through donations and scholarships .The fund is a Pan Africa scholarship called Joshua Mabuko Nkomo which was launched in 2005 and the Capernum launched in 1996 meant to transform the lives of orphaned children a which is relatively ethical .
From the social point of view the Corporate social responsibility should benefit the society as Zimbabwean organizations participate .The social responsibility behavior is important because it is complex in structure as it consists of individuals with various levels of control of resources physically and intangibly .Hence this shows that the Corporate social responsibility has a solid impact in the society. Organizations are called upon to take responsibility for the ways their operations impact societies and the natural environment .There are also supposed to apply sustainability principles to the ways in which they conduct the business .’Sustainability refers to an organization ‘s activities ,typically considered voluntary ,that demonstrate the inclusion of social and environmental concerns in business operations and in interactions with stakeholders (Marvewijk and Verre,2008).A good example that upholds this social responsibility in as far as participation in Corporate social responsibility is concerned is the National Health Care Trust Zimbabwe ,the trust implements a more sustained strategy for the rehabilitation and long – term maintenance of Zimbabwe ‘s health sector such as in 2008 .
Organizations can be involved in Corporate social responsibility in order to avoid government interference in their business through taxation or regulations .On the contrary the Zimbabwean organizations do not participate in Corporate social responsibility due to the amounting reasons that become drawbacks .The Corporate social responsibility makes organizations force themselves in adopting measures that go beyond financial returns and this is worsened by the state of the Zimbabwean economy. Despite the benefits offered it is also important to consider that it highly distracts the economic role of an organization thereby reducing shareholder’s value since a business in mostly interested in profit maximization . Friedman an economist ,(2011) argues that only people can have social responsibilities ,corporations are only responsible for their shareholders and not the society as a whole .The challenges that they face include weak operating governance in public and private sector ,limited engagement with