English merchants participated in overseas trade in the 16th century and gradually increased their roles in this trade

English merchants participated in overseas trade in the 16th century and gradually increased their roles in
this trade. Joint-stock companies, which were sponsored by the Kingdom of England, were the greatest factor in
this increase. One of those joint-stock companies was founded in Russia in 1553 and took control of the Russian
trade in a short time. Meantime Anthony Jenkinson was appointed as captain-general of the Muscovy Company in
1557. His initial step was to make an expedition of discovery to Caspian Sea and beyond. He noticed commercial
potential of Persia during his expedition. Thereupon, he went to Persia as an envoy to convey a letter from Queen
Elizabeth I. His aim was to obtain some privileges for the English merchants from Shah Tahmasb. But his demand
was rejected by the Shah. However, Muscovy Company decided to maintain the journeys to Persia. So, it organized
five more journeys until 1581. Those journeys were the first diplomatic and commercial relations between the
Safavids and the England.