DNA in Forensic Science

DNA in Forensic Science.
DNA in forensic science is the application of genetic testing for a legal purpose.
The way forensic scientist identify people is they scan 13 DNA region that varies from person to person and use the data to make a DNA profile of the person. DNA profiling is also called DNA fingerprinting.
The most used form of DNA analysis is called (PCR) short for polymerase chain reaction. In the PCR from the process makes million of copies of very tine amounts of DNA. This enables the lab to come up with a DNA profile, which can be compared with DNA profile from the suspect. There are three types of DNA testing inclusion, exclusion, and inconclusive.
The University of Texas gives a good explanation of what the three types mean.
1. Inclusion: “When the DNA profile of a victim or suspect is consistent with the profile from the crime scene evidence, the individual is included as the possible source of that evidence.”
2. Exclusion: “When the DNA profile of a victim or suspect is inconsistent with the DNA profile generated from the crime scene evidence, the person is excluded as the donor of the evidence.”
3. Inconclusive: “Inconclusive results indicate that DNA testing could neither include nor exclude an individual evidence. Inconclusive results can occur for many reasons, for instance, the quality or quantity of DNA may be insufficient to produce interpretable results.”
In closing DNA forensic science allows investigators to successfully analyze evidence DNA samples of limited quality and quantity.
Population
A population is a group of individuals that can all interbreed, often distinguished as a species. The three examples of the population are Salmon, New York, and African Elephants.
Many species of Salmon are anadromous, which means they are born in fresh water to breed. Salmon tend to return to the same river that they were born in, in order to themselves spawn. Because of this strong desire for home, salmon usually do not stray far away from their native spawning site, although the dispersal distance depends largely on the species.
Because most spawning sites are separated by land or deep water, each group of salmon that are born in a certain spawning site makes up the local population within that site; although the conditions within the routes available for dispersal to other sites are not impossible for the salmon to withstand, they are rarely found to move between sites.
During salmons time spent at sea, salmon come into contact with salmon from other local populations, even distant ones. Although there are no barriers to mating between local populations of the same species, the tendency of salmon to return to their natal river greatly reduces gene flow between them. Nonetheless, some individuals do stray from the expected route, either by choices or in error, resulting in some gene flow between populations. Due to their life history cycle, salmon can be categorized with the metapopulation structure.
The population in New York is over 9 million people living in New York City.
Population of African Elephants are believed to have existed, on a continental -wide scale, numbering up to five million individuals in the early 1900. However, due to habitat fragmentation and poaching for their tusks, suffered severe declines. There are now to believe to be around 400,000 remaining African elephants.

Evolution
Evolution the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth. Evolution is changing the heritable populations over successive generations.
The three examples of evolution are Darwin’s Finches, Peppered Moth, and E. Cole.
The reason Darwin’s finches are part of evolution examples is because every year these finches are observed for changes in their body and how they change to fit their environment. The way they would changes there bodies is when there was only nuts to eat their beaks would be strong a the little finches had to get aggressive in their environment because they had to fight to live. And when a new flock would try to enter their area they would fight them to show that this was their area.
The Peppered Moth.
The Peppered Moth this is one of the classic examples of evolution, and if you study the Peppered Moth then you would know why they are one of the classic examples of evolution. Way back in the past, the majority of peppered moths were light in color in order to protect the moth for predators. There were some dark peppered moths but they made up 2% of the population. However, after the industrial revolution the numbers took a massive turn. Suddenly 95% of the moths were no longer able to hide in the pollution and thus they were targeted. This is one of the most of todays examples.
E. Coli
Natural Evolution in the wild isn’t the only evolution to be considered. There is a lot of research going on in a laboratory environment. The purpose of this research is to look at how pathogens become drug resistant. In a lab, scientists are looking at the evolution of the E. Coli bacteria, and it has shown real evidence of evolution, and it has shown just how quick it can happen, and how something can adapt to its environment.
In closing many people seem to think that evolution is something many years ago, and that it is tough to witness nowadays. However, if you look closely, evolution is happening constantly. Species are being naturally selected due to their genetic traits.
Microbial life
Microbe is a general term that encompasses almost any microscopic organism, including bacteria and archaea which lacks a cell nucleus or other membrane-bound cellular structures, and protists mostly unicellular organisms, that lack specialized tissues, and hence, are neither plant nor animal nor fungus.
The three examples of Microbial life are bacteria, fungi, viruses.
Bacteria-These cells are described as prokaryotic because they lack a nucleus. They exist in four major shapes.
1. Bacillus (rod shape)
2. Coccus (spherical shapes)
3. Spirilla (spiral Shape)
4. Vibrio (curved shape)
Fungi – has three examples of what is fungi. (mushroom, mold, and yeast).
Fungi are eukaryotic cells that have nucleus. These three fungi obtains nutrients by absorbing organic material from their environment (decomposers) through symbiotic relationships with plants or harmful relationships with a host.
Viruses- Viruses are noncellular entities that consist of a nucleic acid core (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat. Even though viruses are classified as microorganisms, they aren’t considered living organisms. They can’t reproduce outside a host cell and can’t metabolize on their own.
Evolution and biodiversity results from the interactions between organisms and their environments and the consequences of these interactions over long periods of time. Organisms continually adapt to their environment , and the diversity of environment that exist promotes a diversity of organisms adapt to them,
One of the examples of evolution and diversity is climate change. “Climate change poses one of the principal threats of the planet.” According to the National Institute Mathematical and Biological Synthesis.
As a postdoctoral fellow, Dr. Xavier Thibert-Plante examines the interaction between ecological and evolutionary forces and their impact in shaping the planets biodiversity.
Thibert-Plante says “Understanding the processes underling biodiversity can help direct our actions to minimize our impact on living organisms.” Thibert-Plante says “ultimately, we may save species from extinction and maintain the fragile equilibrium.”
Some of the process underlying biodiversity that Thibert-Plante studies are adaptation and gene flow, which can work in oppositional ways. For example, when the temperature rises, some species might expand their range, but this range expansion might be inhibited by movement of genes form one population to another, also known as gene flow.
The last example of evolution and biodiversity is species diversity.
Species diversity is the number of species and the amount of each species that life in a certain location. The amount of species that live in a certain location is called (species richness). If I was to measure the species richness of forest, I might find 50 plants, 10 mammal species, and 20 birds’ species.
People have asked why species diversity is important? The reason why it is important for species diversity is each species has a role in the ecosystem. Each species is like a tread holding together an ecosystem. If species disappear an entire ecosystem would fall apart.
Plants and animal Evolution.
The ancestors of many of today’s native plants and animals arrived after New Zealand went on its own and separated from Gondwana around 85 million years ago.
All plants and animals are classified as multicellular eukaryotes their bodies are made up of many cells and microscopic inspection. Animals and plants have a relatively recent evolutionary origin.
Population Growth.
In biology or human geography population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population. Population growth refers to change in size of a population which can be good or bad over time, depending on the balance of birth and deaths. If there are a lot of death, then the world’s population will grow every slowly or can even decline. Population growth is measured in both absolute and relative terms. To define both is as followed, the measurement and comparison of total growth per unit time is called absolute growth rate. An example of absolute growth rate is, two leaves X and Y have different size how exact absolute increase in the area in the given time. The growth of the given system per unit time expressed on a common basis is called relative growth rate. The example of the relative growth rate is one of the leaves has a much higher relative growth rate.
Consider both the leaves have grown by 5 cm in a single day, while that of leave Y was 40 cm. Though the absolute growth rates both the leaves are the same, the relative growth rate in leaf X is faster. So, with out the population growth we would not have enough live organisms to keep the population growth going. And without population control we would be over populated.
Biomes and Ecosystems.
A huge community of plants and animals that reside in a distinct region. Terrestrial biomes or land biomes typically defined by their climate and dominant vegetation.
There are five types of biomes that can be divided by the differences in their season or animal and plant species. The five types of biomes are, Aquatic, desert, forest, tundra and grassland.
The Aquatic Biomes: are grouped into two freshwater biomes (like lakes, ponds, rivers and streams). And Marines Biomes (like oceans, coral, reefs, and estuaries).
The Forest Biomes: haves three main biomes that make up Forest Biomes they are; (Tropical Rainforest, Temperate, and Boreal Forest also called the Taiga). The forest biomes are a broad term used to describe areas where there are many threes. Depending on the type of threes in that area forest can be further divided into five main categories. These are; coniferous, deciduous, mixed leaves forest, Mediterranean forest, and tropical rainforest.
The Grassland biomes: The grassland biomes have two main types the Savanna grassland, and the temperate grassland. Grassland biomes are large, rolling terrains of grass, flowers, and herbs. Latitude, soil, and local climates for the most part determine what kind of plants grow in a grassland. A grassland is a region where the average annul precipitation is great enough to support grasses, and in some areas a few trees.
The Tundra Biomes: There are two major tundra biomes: the Arctic tundra, and the alpine tundra. The Arctic Tundra Biomes is the coldest of all the biomes tundra comes from the Finnish Word Tuntonia, Meaning treeless plain. It is noted for its frost-molded landscapes, extremely low temperatures little precipitation, poor nutrients, and short growing seasons.
The Alpine Tundra. Alpine tundra is not a biome that traverses large expanses of terrain like other biomes. This biomes is not restricted to certain latitudes. It’s not determined by temperature or rainfall gradations either. Instead, this biome can be found at any latitude on earth. It’s only dependent on elevation.
To finish this part of the essay. Biomes paly a major role in sustaining life on earth. For example, the Aquatic biome is home to millions of fish species and the source of the water cycle. It also plays a major important role in climate formations. The terrestrial biomes provide food enrich the air with 02 and absorbs c02 and other bad gases from the air. Biomes also help regulate climate and so on.

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Ecosystem
An ecosystem consists of all organisms and non-living organisms in a specific natural setting. Animals, insects, rocks, soil, water, plants and microorganisms. There are two tpes of categories that fall into an ecosystem. Terrestrial Ecosystem are land-based, while aquatic is water based.
In biology the word biome may also be used to describe terrestrial ecosystems. Which extends across a large geographic area, such as tundra. Know remember, this within any ecosystem, specific features vary widely for example Caribbean Sea will contain vastly different ecosystem in the god of Alaska.
In closing my essay ecosystems maintain important balance in order that all the organisms within the ecosystem can live. Theses balance included food, water, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon.