Culture 1996) opinion is that “culture is
Culture can be described in various ways, It is not something we are born with, but is learned by interacting with people and incorporating it in our life. It can be visible in our language, food, Religion, tradition and so on. Each and everyone has a culture they call their own.
It is one of the things that defines us and makes us who we are. (Paul Voestermas and Theo Verheggen, 2013) opinion about culture is that “it is a misconception to believe that environment and cultures act upon people. It is only people who act upon other people.” That “culture itself needs to be understood”.
While (Edward Burnett Tylor, 1874) thinks that culture “is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.” (Meena S. Wilson, Michael H. Hoppe, and Leonard R. Sayles, 1996) opinion is that “culture is pattern of shared values reflected in the preferences of group of people for certain behaviors, attitude, and systemic practice in their ideal work situation” There is no doubt about the importance of culture in our life. The characteristics of our culture helped us mold our personality and demeanor. But in business culture it is a bit different, organization have to consider each country and how will they approach it in order to expand their businesses.
you can’t expect results if you conduct your business the same way you do it locally, it can cause miscommunicating due to the lake of understanding. For example, a company can market a product that could work in their country but if they decide to branch out they might face some challenges like the language difference and if it’s acceptable in their religion. For example, when Nike had to pull thousands of their shoes because “Some Muslims claimed that the logo resembled the word “Allah” written in Arabic script.” (Louise, 1997) therefore, it’s very important to understand every country and its need. Hofstede’s definition of culture is that “culture is the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from another”. between 1967 and 1973 Hofstede conducted an experience by analyzing a large database of IBM employees that covered more than 50 countries. He theorized that the world cultures vary along consistent, fundamental dimensions.
In his analysis he came up with five dimensions of culture. Power- distance, Collectivism vs. individualism, Femininity vs. masculinity, Uncertainty avoidance and long- vs. short-term orientation. Since then, it’s become a universally acknowledged Module for understanding cultural differences.
Power distance is the length of the less powerful members of a community are willing to agree and expect uneven power distribution. China for example represents a high-power distance at 80, as they believe the inequality amongst their society is a cultural normalcy. The United Kingdom on the other hand displayed a lower power distance at a 35, meaning that inequality should be reduced.