Clinical Teaching for Learning
Clinical Teaching for Learning
Task 1: Factors to consider when planning and implementing learner experiences in the clinical setting
The primary objective of a learning activity or process if to equip learners with intended knowledge and skills that are relevant and necessary for success or development in a particular field. In nursing, leaners have to be provided with knowledge and skills that would enable them overcome challenges and perform successfully in their nursing or clinical practice journey. Incorporating learners experience is the first integral determinant of the intended outcome of the learning programme. However, there are certain factors that need to be considered while planning and implementing learner experiences in the clinical setting teaching.
Environment that is created in the clinical setting plays an important role in the learning process and outcome amongst learners. The environment would require being adequately conducive and supportive to the learning process and practice. According to Dale et al. (2013), there is a need to consider the environment around the clinical studies from the perspectives of the key players; student, the clinical setting, educator, and student-educator relationship. Based on the students’ side of consideration, it is imperative to understand what students expect and how ready they are regarding the clinical studies (Dale et al., 2013; Phillips eta al., 2017). Heidari ; Norouzadeh (2015) argue that there is a need to consider student’s competence and confidence regarding the contents of the study, which would inform implementation methods. In this regard, it would be better to improve supervision and evaluation of student practice in a responsive and directive manner to their expectations and needs of the learning activities.
The environment that is created by the student-mentor relationship is also a vital determinant of the outcome of the intended learning. In this perspective, it would be preferable to consider a constructive relationship that allows open and effective communication between the key players in the teaching and learning programme (Heidari & Norouzadeh, 2015). Braine (2009) argues that many nurse teachers find understanding the perspective of the learner relatively informing regarding methods and tools to employ during the teaching and learning practice. In the same aspect, Spencer (2003) argues that a constructive and effective communication which characterises feedbacks and guidance between the leaner and the teacher is one factor that creates a conducive and supportive clinical environment for teaching and learning. Therefore, it would be important to consider the student-mentor relationship when planning and implementing student experience in clinical setting.
Another perspective of factors to consider in this case, as mentioned earlier in the previous paragraphs, is such aspects that related to the educator. An educator’s preparedness and expectations, motivations and attitude, and competence are some other factors in this perspective that would influence the plan and implementation of learner experience in clinical setting. According to Conn et al. (2012), to plan and implement learner-oriented clinical teaching and learning successfully, concentration, attention and skills are required. Dale et al. (2013) explain that educators need to skilful and competent, as well as motivated, to be able to successfully plan and implement student-oriented teaching and learning in clinical setting. Therefore, it would be necessary to consider educator’s skills and competency, as well as motivation, with regard to the intended clinical setting teaching.
In conclusion, to achieve the primary objective of a learning activity or process which is to equip learners with intended knowledge and skills that are relevant and necessary for success or development in field in question, it would be necessary to consider the environment around the intended teaching and learning process. Therefore it would also be necessary to consider the clinical environment to be able to equip leaners with knowledge and skills that would enable them overcome clinical challenges and perform successfully in their nursing profession. Planning and implementing learners experience is a significant determinant of the intended outcome of the learning programme. Considering and creating a constructive and supportive clinical setting environment around the teaching and learning practice would need to consider the various perspectives, including students, the clinical setting, educator, and student-educator relationship as some of the key factors that would enable successful planning and implementation of leaner experience in clinical setting.
Task 2: Clinical learning need, rationale for education session, and teaching plan
Clinical learning need
Pain management is an educational need amongst nurses today. There is a need to comprehend the provisional and differential diagnosis of pain in a clinical setting before planning and administering management strategies. According to Tousignant-laflamme et al. (2012), despite the significant experience amongst nurses, there is still an educational need regarding pain management, especially its assessment. Therefore, pain management would serve as an important clinical educational need topic to improve knowledge and skills amongst nurses and enable them to administer effective approaches to management patient pain.
Rationale for education session
The prevalence pain in the contemporary health society cannot be ignored. It is significant tot eh extent that it consist of such common challenges that face patients today. Understanding its elements, including differential diagnosis and effective management approaches in each case is also a challenge to most nurses regardless of their experience (Tousignant-laflamme et al., 2012). Perhaps this challenge can be attributed to the fact that causes of pain are relatively vast and understanding every aspect of these causes can be a challenge. In this perspective, Polomano et al. (2008) argue that the 21st century characterises pain as a predictable consequence in many clinical activities and as a symptom for quite a number of illnesses. In this regard, it is arguable that pain management can be a difficult challenge to nurses, especially where differential diagnosis reveals various potential causes. Therefore, nurses need to comprehend the practice of assessing pain where it is consequence of a clinical process, such as surgery, and appropriate diagnosis when it is associated with certain illness. To enable these tow clinical response to pain, there is a need to train nurses on how to assess and management patient pains with regard to the situation at stake.
The teaching plan to employ in for this educative clinical need is simulation method. According to Dufrene & Young (2014), simulation as a method of teaching can be defined as the imitation of the real-world practices, including processes and activities, in a safe environment that can allow understanding of a concept and its applicability in the real-world cases. However, the teaching and learning programme in this case would not use simulation alone but, with debriefing as supplementary method. This education practice would employ the use of high-fidelity simulation debriefing to facilitate learning experience amongst learners and improve the quality of the intended outcomes. When students are engaged in clinical scenarios that replicate the real or actual clinical situations, acquisition of knowledge or awareness and development of skills is enhanced and they would finish the learning programme with improved theoretical and practical competency regarding the subject under study (Neill & Wotton, 2011; Cant & Cooper, 2011). The following teaching plan illustrates how the method would be employed alongside the assessment and evaluation aspects.
Teaching (Lesson) Plan Template
Title: Pain Management in Clinical SituationsTarget Group: Nursing Students/nursesDate & Time:Duration: 60 Minutes
Aim of the session: To ensure optimal patient comfort through the use of a proactive pain management plan
Be able to differentiate different barriers to effective assessment and managements of pain
Recognise the different aspects in pain assessment in relation to patient’s pain experience
Identify and understand the role of nurses in patient pain management
Teaching ; Learning Actions:
Time in Minutes:
How will I focus learners’ attention? Use of simulation and debriefing as well as relevant presentations
What are the group/participant dynamics going on? Group-based learning How will I motivate learners?
Emphasise on the practical applicability of the topic and relate it to their experiences and perceptions How will I access prior knowledge?
Use of portfolio and topic knowledge checklist
Time: Key Points Teaching & Learning Strategies Resources Assessment Strategies
Importance of pain management 10 minutes Prevalence of pain
Effects of pain on health condition and outcome
Implication of pain and treatment administered Teaching: discuss and process with leaners the key points.
Learning: participate in the discussion based on experience and awareness Reading materials and online video clips with case studies Questionnaires regarding impacts of pain on patients and the benefits of its management
Pain Assessment and barriers 30
minutes Provisional and differential diagnosis of pain
Pain assessment approaches and tools
Barriers to effective pain assessment Teaching: direct, discuss and process with leaners the key points.
Learning: participate in the discussion based on experience and awareness Simulated practical case study
Possible pain assessment tools, such as rating matrix representations and guides to use them Questionnaires regarding implications from the simulated practice
Patient and nurse responsibility in pain management 20 Minutes Roles of patients in pain assessment and management
Roles of nurses in pain assessment and management Teaching: discuss and process with leaners the key points.
Learning: participate in the discussion based on experience and awareness Reading materials and online video clips with case studies Questionnaires regarding the key points
Braine, M. E. (2009). Exploring new nurse teachers’ perception and understanding of reflection: an exploratory study. Nursing Education in Practice, 9, 262-270.Cant, R. ; Cooper, S. (2011). The benefits of debriefing as formative feedback in nurse education. The Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29(1), 37-47.
Conn, J. J., Lake, F. R., McColl, G. J., Bilszta, J. L. C., ; Woodward-Kron, R. (2012). Clinical teaching and learning: from theory and research to application. MJA, 196(8).Dale, B., Leland, A. ; Dale, J. G. (2013). What factors facilitate good learning experiences in clinical studies in nursing: bachelors’ students’ perceptions. ISRN Nursing, 2013(2013).Dufrene, C. ; Young, A. (2014). Successful debriefing: best methods to achieve positive learning outcomes: a literature review. Nurse Education Today, 34(3), 372-376.
Heidari, M. R. ; Norouzadeh, R. (2015). Nursing students’ perspectives on clinical education. Journal of Advanced Medical Education and Profession, 3(1), 39-43.
Neill, M. A. & Wotton, K. (2011). High-fidelity simulation debriefing in nursing education: a literature review. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 7(5), e161-e168.Phillips, K. F., Mathew, L., Aktan, N., & Catano, B. (2017). Clinical education and student satisfaction: an integrative literature review. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 4(2), 205-213.
Polomano, R. C., Dunwoody, C. J., Krenzischek, D. A., & Rathmell, J. (2008). Perspective on pain management in the 21st century. Journal of PeriAnesthsia Nursing, 23(1), s4-s14.Spencer, J. (2003). Learning and teaching in the clinical environment. BMJ, 365(592).Tousignant-laflamme, Y., Tousignant, M., Lussier, D., Lebel, P., Savoie, M., Lalonde, L., & Choiniere, M. (2012). Educational needs of health care providers working in long-term care facilities with regard to pain management. Pain Research and Management, 17(5), 341-346.