Chapter 1 The Problem and its Background Rationale An attitude is defined as a general evaluation of a product or service formed over time

Chapter 1
The Problem and its Background
Rationale
An attitude is defined as a general evaluation of a product or service formed over time. An attitude satisfies a personal motive and at the same time, affects the shopping and buying habits of consumers (Solomon, 2008).Consumers behavioral intention is a result of a logical consequence of beliefs that reflects attitude towards cheapness and expensiveness of certain products such as food. (Solomon, 2008)

Moreover, according to (Perner, 2010), the attitude formed is a result of positive and negative personal experiences. It can also influenced by other’s opinion towards products. With this, every product and service is filtered based on different factors. Consumers’ attitudes lead marketers to develop marketing strategies which will promote their products in the market. In either case, it is important to understand why a consumer holds a particular attitude towards the prices. It is important to understand why a consumer holds a particular attitude towards the product and services. (Perner, 2010).

Consumer’s perception is the progress of making decision. Consumers make their own decision carefully, yet it may take some time when it comes to product. It is a stimulus where a consumer makes a decision based on what they perceive. A consumer will recognized their own interest in matter of deciding on their own.
Individuals furthermore act and react on the basis of their perceptions, not on the basis of objective reality. With this in mind (Schiffman et al, 1991), it is important that marketers understand the whole notion of perception and its related concepts so that they can more readily determine what influences consumers to buy. The perception process is
also complicated due to the possibility that individuals may be stimulated below their level of conscious awareness (known as subliminal perception), ie they can perceive stimuli without being consciously aware of the stimuli in question. Individuals also experience a certain amount of risk when making a purchasing decision and have a limited capacity to process the different stimuli directed at them.

This leads to a selective perception process where individuals will expose themselves selectively to marketing stimuli, pay selective attention to these stimuli and then interpret it to conform with previous held beliefs and attitudes. Only messages conforming to held beliefs will be retained.

The researchers conducted this research study to determine on how the consumers behave towards food price. In other words, the researchers wanted to know why the consumers react towards the price of the food that they are buying and how will they deal
with it. In any case, the researchers wanted to know the reasons of the Consumers with their intention to perceive the prices of the food.

It is for this reason that the researchers will conduct a study on consumers’ attitude as well as their perception towards food prices that will aid the different food businesses to strategize on pricing. Thus, promote their product. The importance of this study aims to help the researchers to determine the different attitude and perception of consumers. It also determines the differences between attitude and perception of consumers. Thus, the problem of this study is that how does the students of Saint Mary’s University perceive the expensive and cheapness of the food.

In this case, the researchers have determined to interview some students in Saint Mary’s University about attitudes and perception towards food prices. As for the results, the specific aim of this study were firstly to know how does the students of Saint Mary’s University behave on the prices of the food and why does their attitude is focused on the

prices of the food. Secondly, is to know how the students of Saint Mary’s University will perceive the expensiveness and cheapness of the food.

Moreover, the importance of this study in determining the students’ perception and attitude towards food price is because that researchers wanted to why the students of Saint Mary’s University behave towards the food prices, and in any case it is also to understand the relationships of the students in perceiving the expensiveness and cheapness of the food.

Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the Senior High School Students attitude towards food prices in bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya.
Specifically, this study looks forward to answer the following questions:
What are the demographics of the respondents?
Sex
Age
Weekly Allowance
What is the respondents’ perception towards expensiveness of foods?
What is the respondents’ attitude towards Food Prices?
Is there a significant difference on the perception and attitude of the respondents when grouped according to profile variable?
Statement of Null Hypothesis
There is no significant difference on the attitudinal perception of the respondents when grouped according to profile variable.
Conceptual Framework

Figure 1. Paradigm of the study
As shown in the research paradigm, the main tasks were to profile the Senior High School Students according to their demographic background, to determine their attitude towards food prices when buying; the researchers have conducted a questionnaire that will be answered by the respondents. Finally, the researchers’ main goal is to find out Senior High School attitude towards food prices.
Specifically, personal and demographic background is very significant to determine people’s attitude when it comes prices. We can determine it by understanding their personal information. Given the points, the researchers’ main goal is to determine Senior High School attitude when it comes to food price.
Significance of the Study
This study will be significant as it reflects the attitude towards food prices.
Furthermore, the findings of the study will be significant to the following:
Canteen Owners.This study is important because this study will help them to know more if their product’s price is reasonable enough for the Senior High School to buy.
Senior High School Students. This study is important to the consumers because this study can help them to determine Senior High School Students attitude when it comes to food price and it can help them also choose food regarding its quality and its price.

Future Researchers. This study will served as the baseline information regarding on Senior High School attitude towards food prices. This study will also served as their basis on their research in line with this study.

Scope and Delimitation
This study aims to determine the Senior High School Students attitudes towards food prices. The conduct of the study is limited to the Senior High School Students of Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong Nueva Vizcaya, specifically the Grade 11 students. For gathering of data, the researchers will be giving out questionnaire to 30 respondents, mostly the grade 11 students of Saint Mary’s University Senior High School, on how they will react towards the prices of the food . In order to help the respondents from answering the questionnaire, the researchers will be providing a sample photo to familiarize them about the questions
Definition of Terms
This study patterned its context to the definition of the following terms:
Price
A value that will purchase a Finite quantity weight or other measure of a good services. As the consideration given in excahange for transfer of ownership, Price foorms the essential basis of commercial.

Price perception
Perceived Value is the worth that a product or service has in the mind of the consumer.For the most part consumers are unaware of the true cost of production for the product they buy; instead they simply have an internal feeling for how much certain products are worth to them.

Attitude
An attitude is psychological contruct, a mental and emotional entinity that inheres in,or characterizes a person .They are complex and an acquired state through experiences. It is an individual predisposed state of mind regarding a value and it is precipitated through Responsiveness expression towards person

Price attitude
Pricing is a process where by a business sets the price at which it will sell its product and services.

Senior High School
Senior High School (SHS) covers the last two years of the k-12 program and includes Grade 11 and 12. In SHS, Students will go through a core curriculum and subjects under a track of their choice

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature and Studies
Related Literature
Consumers buying behaviour is the total sum of a consumers attitude, preferences, intentions, and decisions regarding the consumers behaviour in the marketplace when purchasing a product or a service. The study of consumers behaviour draws upon social science discipline of anthropology, psychology, sociology and economics.(Grimsley, 2008)
According to (Grimsley, 2008), there are five standard behavioural model; problem recognition, information search, evaluation, purchase and post purchase evaluation. First, problem recognition, the consumers have realized that they have an unfulfilled need or want. Second, information search is to gather information relevant what the consumers need to solve the problem; Third, evaluation is to evaluate consumers needs, wants, preferences, and financial resources available for purchase. Fourth, purchase, at this stage the consumers will make a purchasing decision based on the price or availability. Finally, post-purchase evaluation; the consumers will decide whether the purchase actually satisfies their needs and wants.
Understanding and consumers behaviour and purchasing decisions is a powerful marketing tool. Some purchase decision are spur of the moment and involve little thought, whereas others takes months of deliberation, personal decisions can be made for personal reasons.
Others are socially influenced, such as wanting to buy the same brand of product other consumers buy. Moreover, consumers buy a product for economic reasons.(Gartenstein, 2018)
Price
When it comes in purchasing foods in the market, it is important to know the role of price whether if it is expensive or not, According to Merriam Webster, price is the amount of money given or set as consideration for the sale of a specified thing and other measure of a good or service, as the consideration given in exchange for transfer of ownership, price forms the essential basis of commercial transactions and to decide the amount required as payment for the product that is being sold. (Merriam Webster)
In fact, the prices determined by what a buyer is willing to pay, a seller is willing to accept and the competition is allowing to be charged. With product, promotion and place of marketing mix, it is one of the business variables over which organization can exercise some degree of control. On some occasions, the buyers as in the case auctions can set the price. In this research, the concept of a price is not investigated from a seller’s point view. Rather, price is an actual market price, which buyers can perceive. (Merriam Webster)
Price Perception
We use the term “Price Perception” to describe how Consumers perceive the price level, but the term make makes an important distinction between the actual price and the one that the Consumers perceived; it is also one of the leading variables when it comes to Consumers buying process, also defined as the consumer’s subjective interpretation of the subjective price; price perception is the degree of understanding the psychological process of consumers’ price perception.
As price is the amount of money expected, price perception is used to increase the total sales of the product being sold in market; price perception could work against an organization if a costumer feels deceived; for instance, bait and switch is another marketing tactic that businesses can use when performed ethically, it is the practice of advertising an inexpensive item but later attempting to sell inquiring customers a higher-priced item. According to the definition of price perception, a food price perception is defined as a Consumers subjective evaluation of the objective food price. (www.mbaknol.com)
Consumers Attitude
Is a composite of Consumers beliefs, feelings and behavioral intentions toward some objects within the context of marketing, a Consumers may hold both positive and negative beliefs towards an object, in addition some beliefs may be neutral and some may be differ in valance depending on the person or the situation.
In fact, the consumers have their own opinions and their own decision when purchasing in the market; which simply means on how they act or behave towards the prices of the product either they act positive or negative towards it. However, the hierarchy of effects is the results of all three components working together.
The standard-learning hierarchy, low-involvement hierarchy, and experiential hierarchy are the three hierarchies of effects. Dr. Jill Novack, from Texas A;M University, includes a fourth member of the hierarchy of effects. Novack states that behavioral influence should be included and represented by the component order behavior, belief, and affect (Novack, 2010). In the standard-learning hierarchy, also known as the high-involvement hierarchy assumes that the consumer will conduct extensive research and establish beliefs about the attitude object. After wards, the consumer will then establish feelings regarding the attitude object.
Then, low-involvement hierarchy consists of a cognition-behavior-affect order of events. A consumer with an attitude formed via the low-involvement hierarchy of effects bases the purchase decision on what they know as opposed to what they feel. The consumer establishes feeling about a product or service after the purchase. Lastly, experiential hierarchy of effects is defined by an affect-behavior-cognition processing order, in this hierarchy the consumer is influenced to purchase based entirely on their feeling regarding a particular product or service.( www.consumerpsychologist.com)
Related Studies
In a research study about Subjective norms, attitudes and intentions of Finnish consumers in buying organic food, Anssi and Sanna (2007) conducted a study to test the extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in an organic food buying context. The results of the study have shown that the modified TPB model predicts intention to buy organic food better than the original model. Based on the results, it can be said that consumers intentions to buy organic food can be predicted with their attitudes (R2=0.558), which can further be predicted by subject norms (R2=0.374), and that behavioral intentions reliably predict self-reported behavior (R2=0.824).
And In a another research entitled An integrated research framework to understand consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward genetically modified foods, Chen, M.F. (2008), conducted an integrated research to shed light on the antecedents relating to the extent of both the adoption and the purchase intention of genetically modified foods. And  the results shows support to the use of the construct “attitude toward GM foods” as a bridge to connect the Attitude Model and the Behavioral Intention Model so as to establish an integrated research framework and to shed light on how consumers form their attitudes and make purchase intentions toward GM foods.
In another research study entitled Consumer attitudes and purchase intentions in relation to organic foods in Taiwan: Moderating effects of food-related personality traits, Chen, M.F. (2007), from which he proposed a research study that aims to understandwhat motives determine the consumer’s attitude to organic food in Taiwan,
which in turn influence subsequent purchase intentions. And the results have shown that it vindicates the use of Ajzen’s Theory of planned behavior (TPB) in explaining the consumer’s organic food behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that the food-related personality traits of food neophobia and food involvement exert moderating effects on the relationships between some of the food choice motives and the consumer’s attitude to organic foods.
At the same research study about Consumers’ perceptions, attitudes and purchase intention towards private label food products in Malaysia, Jaafar, S.N., Lalp, P.E., Naba, M.M. (2008), conduct a research that focuses on factors that may influence consumers’ intention to purchase private label food product in a state in Malaysia. And as the result shows that perceived value becomes prominent of consumer in purchasing of private label brand food product, as it is being followed by other factors. However, almost all of the independent variables have purchase intentions towards the private label brand food product.
In a study in The decision to buy food products in southern Italy, Magistis, T. and Gracia, A.(2008) proposed a research study that aims to investigate on how the consumers’ make a decision to process organic produced foods in Italy. The results shows the consumers’ attitude towards organic foods and has been found with a larger information on the organic food market, that drives into a higher consumers’ knowledge, as it positively influence consumers’ attitudes towards organic food products. And finally according to their results, those consumers who try to follow a healthy
diet and balanced life may have more positive attitudes towards organic food products and towards the environment.
An article Consumer behavior and purchase intention for organic food, Paul, J and Rana, J.(2012), the authors conducted the research study with the purpose of understanding the behavior ecological consumer and their intention to purchase organic foods, their study aims to determine the factors influencing consumer behavior towards organic food. The method of gathering their data was an interview, using a structured questionnaire, 463 respondents participated in the survey. The result after interviewing indicates that health, availability and education from demographic favors positively influence the consumers’ attitude towards buying organic food. The satisfaction of consumer towards organic food was greater than inorganic foods, but the satisfaction level varies due to different factors.
A research about Evaluating of food purchasing behavior of consumers from supermarkets, Sanlier, N. and Seren, S.(2010), they conducted a research to determine the food purchase behavior of consumers from supermarkets. With a total of 430 consumers participated in the study and was conducted to find out the criteria which consumers took into account while purchasing food. And the result shows that a significant relationship was determine between the scores of the consumers received from nutrition, it was also determined that women paid more attention to the nutrition and reliability criteria than men did.
In another research entitled Purchasing organic foods in US food systems: A study of attitudes and practice, Onyango, B. , Hallman, W. and Bellows, A. (2007) the authors conducted a research to identify and estimate the influence of consumers’ views of specific food aspects and personal attributes on demand for organic foods. The study contribute into emerging literature by broadening the list of drivers of organic foods purchases beyond socio-economic to include public opinions regarding characteristic of foods that are important in consumption decisions.
Similarly, a research entitled Consumer awareness, perception and attitudes towards genetically modified foods in Turkey, conducted the research to evaluate the awareness and perception of GM foods in Turkish consumers living in Instabul, turkey. There were 1,315 respondents that participated in the survey, as nonparametric test were applied in order to unravel demographic difference. As the results of their study shows that consumers generally know what genetically modified organisms are. However they do not have enough information about the genetic modification process. Although the consumers were concern about GMFs are their carcinogenic effects to humans.
In addition, corn was found to be the most concerned GMFs. Moreover most consumers disapproved with the use of genetic modifications in food applications.
For another research entitled Consumer Innovativeness and organic food purchase Intensions, Mangafic, J. , Martinovic, D. , Cinjarevic, M.(2017) conducted the research to explore the meadiating effect of consumers’ attitude towards purchasing organic food and moderating effect of consumer innovativeness on the intension to
purchase organic food. The results of their study revealed that organic food knowledge, subjective norm, personal norm, attitudes towards organic food have indirect effects on consumers’ intention to purchase organic food. Findings suggest that attitude towards organic food purchase mediates the link between the four factors and the consumers’ intension to purchase organic food.
Synthesis
To sum up, previous researches has conducted a research only on the Senior High School behavioral intentions in buying foods. (Chen, M.F. 2010). There are five standard behavioral model according to (Grimsley, 2018); problem recognize, information, research, evaluation. Purchase and post-purchase the five standard behavioral model may be classified as weakness of this study while understanding, consumer behavior and purchasing decision is the strength. These are difference and similarities of our research study to the related studies, the positive and negative effect on how we make decision to the food prices and it only focuses on senior high school attribute in buying organic food.