Bone exhibits the highest efficacy and considered
Bone loss is a significant occurrence which resulting from many disease such as osteoporosis, genetic-related disorders, periodontal disease, bone tumor, etc. Interestingly, those diseases are all major concern of public health. In 2018, over 200 million people worldwide suffer from osteoporosis, 50% of the world population suffer from periodontal disease, and in America, approximately 3,500 new cases of bone cancer will be reported. In the present situation, the management of the diseases are focused on prevention.
But, when the diseases progress, bone replacement should be concerned. Bone replacement can be done by various techniques including artificial bone, allogeneic bone, and autologous bone. Among all provided grafts, autologous graft exhibits the highest efficacy and considered as the gold standard for the bone replacement, however there are limitation on supply and donor site.
Therefore, allogeneic grafts are used widely with the controversial issue on transmission and infection. Consider all of the issue, alternative way of bone replacement should be emphasized which is bone tissue engineering including stem cells, scaffolds, and growth factors. Moreover, several studies reported that tissue-engineered bone replacement is as effective as autologous bone replacement without limitation on supply and surgical site.
Currently, Various biomaterials, both natural and synthetic, are used to create scaffolds for bone loss management. Many polymeric scaffolds were fabricated in different techniques and materials. Both, PLGA and Bioglass are the synthetic scaffolds which were used individually in many applications. Still, the properties of polymer alone is not enough to exhibit the maximum efficacy, there are several studies claimed that with the combination of PLGA and Bioglass, it can maximize the advantages and reduce the disadvantages of each other. The composite scaffold were found to have improved ability to promote cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation, well adsorption/release behavior, properdegradation rate, reproducible along with the ability of Bioglass to help neutralize the acidic by product from PLGA degradation, all of which can help in bone tissue engineering with mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED) are characterized as mesenchymal stem cells which can differentiate into multiple cell types including osteoblast.
With SHED superiority in cell proliferation and multipotential differentiation and the fact that the stem cells are in a shedding deciduous teeth those can be collected in such non-invasive way, using with the PLGA-Bioglass composite scaffold, it is considered to be suitable for bone tissue engineering application.