Assignment

Assignment: Group assignment
Group Members
Ernest Mautso 201705396
Bakang Kgosintwa 201705452
Goitsemang Lechuti 201705371
Onalenna Mfuma 201705441
Evelyn Leburu 201705465
Course: LME 409
Course name: Governance in Education
Question: Financial embarrassment of a head of an organization is a serious offence. Discuss.

Introduction
The purpose of this paper is to discuss financial embarrassment by a head of an organization as serious offence. In approach we will define the term financial embarrassment and debt because they go hand in hand, causes of financial management, effects, implications and interventions. This will make the discussion of this case clearer.

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The growing demand for cash by most Batswana workers not only the heads of organizations provides big business for micro lenders and other financial institutions due to financial embarrassment (Gabotlale, 2003). Financial embarrassment is defined as debt or lack of money that causes problem for a person or an individual whereas debt refers to the sum of money that is owed or due (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). According to the Public Service Act (2008) financial embarrassment is regarded as one of the serious misconduct in the public service of which investigated and proved may lead to dismissal. It is an offence punishable by law. The law prescribes stiff penalties against any teacher found to have zero balance after salary deductions (Ontebetse, 2014).

Even though money plays such a significant role in the everyday life of an individual, it affects us psychologically, culturally and emotionally. It consumes vast amounts of psychological and emotional energy, because we think, argue and dream about it (Alsemgeest, 2014). Money is perceived as a private matter that has a strong link with self-esteem (Belk & Wallendorf, 1990).
Debt can cause serious emotional effects. Being in debt can lead to a number of other emotional and psychological issues such as depression and anxiety, stress, anger and frustration, regular absenteeism, conflict and misappropriation of funds (Alsemgeest, 2014). Once a head of organization is financially embarrassed, she has fewer resources to obtain food and medications which result in corruption practices. Due to feelings of embarrassment and shame, the elder may not report the incidents, which makes legal financial embarrassment interventions difficult if not impossible (Rabiner, 2004). Financial victimization can create serious problems for the aged” (Coker & Little, 1997). The below is the scenario which describes the embarrassment the head of the organization was in.

Case study
In a certain school in Kweneng District there was a school head who used to buy expensive cars one after the other. He was financed by the bank, micro lenders and also borrowed from individuals and some teachers. For the first four months he was a good payer to all his creditors. Things got worse after one lady reported him for child maintenance. He started skipping paying all his creditors. Every time a teacher visit his office for official purposes he will think otherwise and leave the office to the kitchen. He continued borrowing more money in the school PTA and fundraising accounts but he also continued defaulting in payments. One month, the bank deducted its dues with loan interest and remained with zero balance, having not paid his creditors.

One morning, he did not report for duty citing ill-health. The following day, he reported for duty and sat in his office with doors and windows closed and having unwelcoming face. Teachers decided to stay away from him and the next day, four men well-dressed came straight to his office. On their way back, three of his vehicles were impounded, his official house was locked by these men. That fateful day, nobody wanted to come closer to him as he was now frustrated with swollen face and had stress. His office was littered with papers, books, dirty cups and he was writing official letters in any book or paper. The school head was in a serious problem which ended up causing him emotional effects such as depression and anxiety, feelings of “guilt and shame, stress, anger, depression, a sense of betrayal and a loss of trust” (Deem, 2000).

Depression and Anxiety
Collard (2011) asserts that if a person struggle to pay off her debts and loans she is likely to experience a host of mental health problems, including depression and severe anxiety. Anxious feelings can arise with an array of triggers, such as constant worry about money, experiencing immense feelings of being overwhelmed with no end in sight, and hopelessness.

Stress
Debt and stress go hand in hand. A head of an organization with a mountain of owed money weighing on her mind, makes her to natural worry about how she is going to deal with that debt and whether she will ever get out from it (Michie, 2002). Stress caused by debt doesn’t just affect the way we work and our day-to-day activities, it also strip away the benefits of events that would normally be positive. The stress that comes from debt can eliminate all happiness you get from spending money which can lead to suicide (Michie, 2002). Another aspect of stress is that it tends to make a person react negatively to a positive event.

Anger and frustration
Debt is hard to accept regardless of our own personal journey into danger. It can be especially frustrating and annoying when it is somewhat beyond your control (Collard, 2011)
Effects of financial embarrassment in school or organization
Poor results
Financial embarrassment impairs the efficiency of a teacher and may result in disciplinary proceedings being taken against him (Public Service Act, 2008). If the head of the organization is in financial crisis, there is high possibility of the results declining because she might not be able to supervise the teaching and learning. The school will become laissez faire type of leadership because of poor supervision. The school reputation become tarnished and also the community start to loose trust and view it as (bad public image). Louis, Leithwood, Wahlstrom, Anderson, Michlin, and Mascall (2010) states that school leadership is a critical contributor to trust among teachers, parents and learners. Corruption practices also emerges because there is no effective supervision and even the head of the organization end up indulging in these practices.

Frequent absenteeism of both school head and teachers and a poor work culture and lack of commitment in both teachers and learners also causes a concern because teachers take advantage of not being supervised and they do not do their work effectively (Simanu, 2015). The difference in learners’ academic performance among schools is found in the broader context of how the school is managed. Where school leadership is ineffective, states Murphy (2013), it is not easy for teachers to be motivated to render quality teaching and learning. School leadership is central to learners’ academic performance.
The role of the school leader is to influence, convince, inspire and direct teachers towards the realization of school goals. He or she also creates an environment and circumstances conducive to teachers and learners to improve performance. School leadership practices contribute indirectly to school outcomes, which are mediated by teachers’ commitments, instructional practices and school culture, but where the school leader is financially embarrassed it is the other way round (Simanu, 2015). Schools that make a difference in student learning are led by principals who make a measurable contribution to the effectiveness of the staff and in the learning of pupils in their charge because he or she is emotionally free from debts which causes stress. He or she is able to think about improving results not how he or she is going to pay his debts (Simanu, 2015).

Intervention Strategies
Strategies should be put in place in order to help those affected by financial embarrassment so that they cope with life. Empowerment of staff through guidance and counselling sessions. Teachers need to be guided on how to manage and guard against their salaries. They need to be workshopped on how to be financially disciplined, how to manage their monies and also on how to invest in order to avoid bankruptcy (Heath & Sheen, 2005). Schools need to have motivational talks concerning financial management.

Conclusion
In conclusion, having being victimized by financial embarrassment, teachers and parents lose trust in the organization. Also, one can experience a range of psychological and emotional effects which leads to his official duties being inefficient because his time and thoughts are engaged in how to overcome his debts.

References
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Belk, R. W. & Wallendorf, M. (1990). The sacred meanings of money. Journal of Economic Psychology, 11(1), 35-67.

Coker, J., & Little, B. (1997). Investing in the future: Protecting the elderly from financial abuse. FBI L. Enforcement Bull., 66(1).

Collard, S. (2011). Understanding Financial Difficulty: Exploring The Opportunities For Early Intervention. Barclays and Money Advice Trust, London.

Deem, R. (2000). Managerialism and university managers: building new academic communities or disrupting old ones?
Gabotlale, B. (2003).Government workers suffer financial embarrassment. Business Week.
Heath, M. A. & Sheen, D. (2005). School-based crisis intervention: Preparing all personnel to assist. Guilford Press.

Heath, M. A., Sheen, D. A. W. N., Annandale, N. E. I. L. & Lyman, B. (2005). Responding to a crisis. School-based crisis intervention: Preparing all personnel to assist, 23-43.

Livingstone S. M., & Lunt P. K. (1992). Predicting personal debt and debt repayment: psychological, social and economic determinants. J. Econ. Psychol. 13, 111–134. 10
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2015). 6th edition. London: Pearson Education Limited.

Louis, K. S., Leithwood, K., Wahlstrom, K. L., Anderson, S. E., Michlin, M. & Mascall, B. (2010). Learning from leadership: Investigating the links to improved student learning. Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement/University of Minnesota and Ontario Institute for Studies in Education/University of Toronto, 42, 50.

Michie, S. (2002). Causes and management of stress at work. Occupational and environmental medicine, 59(1), 67-72.

Murphy, D. (2013). Professional School Leadership Ed. 2: Dealing with Dilemmas. Dunedin Academic Press.

Ontebetse, K. (2014). Zero balance not allowed for public servants .Sunday Standard
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Rabiner, D. J. (2004). Bridging essay to link two financial exploitation. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 16(1), 51-52.

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Republic of Botswana (2008). Public Service Act. Gaborone: Government Printers.

Schuneman, Molly. (2017). Financial Fraud on Elders and Interventions. Retrieved from Sophia, the St. Catherine University repository website: https://sophia.stkate.edu/msw_papers/785
Simanu, E.H. (2015). An investigation into the relationship between educational leadership and learners’ performance in the Kavango region, Namibia .Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University).