BACHELOR OF PSYCHOLOGY (BPSY)
SEMESTER 2 / YEAR 2018
HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF PSYCHOLOGY
MATRICULATION NO: 910225045262001
IDENTITY CARD NO.: 910225045262
E-MAIL : [email protected]
LEARNING CENTRE: PETALING JAYA LEARNING CENTRE
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Psychology is the learning of scientific study of the human behavior of the way we feel, think and behave. The opening of first psychology lab by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879, psychologist have done research on studies on aspects of human behavior, ranging from brain functions, personality and their influence towards socio-cultural. As psychology developed, it began to tackle the reasons why we react from different angles, including psychodynamic, cognitive, biological, behavioral and humanistic perspectives.
In this modern era, they are many different psychology perspectives from different well-known psychologists. However, most psychologists accept and understand that not all perspective theory is correct. Although each perspective has its own strengths and weaknesses, it brings some different value to the fundamental of the perspective especially in the section of understanding human behavior. Therefore, the aspect of psychology to have different perspectives on the understanding of human and animal behavior is crucial in daily lives.
The psychodynamic perspective is originally introduced through the work of Sigmund Freud. From his point of view, psychology and human behavior from this perspective should emphasize the role of the unconscious mind, through early childhood experiences and via their interpersonal relationships. It aims is to explain human behavior and treat patients suffering from mental illnesses. Psychoanalysis has become one of the earliest major forces in psychology. Credits to Freud’s work and upon his influences, he conceived the mind as being composed of three key elements which are ego, id, and superego. The id is the part of the psyche which includes primal and unconscious desires. Ego is the key aspect of the psyche and requires to deal with the demands of the real world. The last key element is superego, should task to manage all our standards, morals and ideas.
On the other hand, behavioral psychology is another perspective that focuses mainly on learned behavior and this behaviorism different from other perspectives because it is solely focused on observable behaviors. Early in the twentieth century, the school which dominated by psychology loses its hold. Today, the behavior perspective is stood strong and mainly concerned with behavior learned and the reinforcement. This principle often applied to mental health, therapists and counselors usually applied these techniques to explain and in their treatment of various illnesses.
During the 1960s, a new perspective was first introduced which is known as cognitive psychology. The main focus is on mental processes such as problem-solving, thinking, memory, language and decisions making process. There influenced by well-known psychologists such as Jean Piaget and Albert Bandura. This perspective has grown tremendously in the recent decade. This perspective hence often utilizes information, the focuses more on the processing model, compare the human mind with computer function, conceptualize information, process, and store information.
Biological psychology referred to biopsychology or physiological psychology. It plays a major role in the development of psychology as a separate science. The point of view emphasized the biological and physical bases of behavior. Researchers who take the biological perspective might examine how genetics influence different behavior or how specific function of brain influence behavior and personality. The nervous system, endocrine, and immune systems became the few subjects that interest biological psychologists and consequently develop it as their research target. With advances in the human ability in exploring and understand the brain and nervous system, it has grown rapidly over the last decade. Besides, the modern technology has allowed researchers to research deeply on brain function under a variety of conditions. With the usage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, researcher, can now look and examine on the effects and functions of drugs, diseases, and brain damage.
Another new perspective is cross-cultural psychology which has grown rapidly over the last two decades. Most researchers research deeply into human behavior across different cultures. By comparing these differences, we can learn about the cultural influences and how it relates to our thinking and behavior. As usual, they will examine individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Evolutionary psychology is the study of evolution involves the effect of physiological processes. This will apply the basic principles in evolutions and apply them to the outcome of psychological phenomena. Thus, the perspective stressed that mental processes exist because they are highly related to evolutionary purpose. This aid in survival and reproduction.
In the 1950s, the humanistic perspective was first introduced. Upon the work and theories of prominent humanists such as Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, the influences are huge. The perspective emphasized on the role in the motivation of behavior and thought. Self-actualization is an essential part in this perspective as it focuses more on the ways human behavior due to the changes in growing, personal potential and external changes. Positive psychology focuses on ways to make sure people live happier an healthier. The recent movement in psychology is to promote a humanistic perspective.
There are two theories at the beginning of modern science and philosophy. First, interactionism. Theories introduce by Rene Descartes (1596-1650) is that he did not believe in dualism in understanding the human mind-body relationship. Interactionism is a theory on the philosophy of the human mind which stronghold that body and mind are distinct and independent. Therefore, they exert causal effects on one another. Second, empiricism. John Locke (1632-1704) was the first to define the continuity of consciousness. He postulated that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. In general, it is a theory of knowledge that asserts that it arises based on the sense of experience. Knowledge is can be proven through observation and experiments based on events and data.
From pre-modern psychology era, it takes us back to many centuries whereas psychology was viewed as philosophy during the era. It was not a science at that era while transformation from the pre-modern to the modern era was slow in moving. As part of the history, a belief system must pass several tests to form. Psychology was acted as a natural tie-in with the times and intellectual elite of Greece and Egypt. Their school of philosophy took the identity from early on psychology. The discussions on the human mind were open subject to the role and function. Upon these dialogues, a human thought began to be mentioned as spiritual, duality and a bit of physiological. However, duality has not changed into a great deal other than to mention along with the secularization of spirituality. Philosophy theory has provided legitimacy and authority to the view, the questions raised were why it was affected by nature. More legitimate questions were how the science deals with things happened. The focus on human mind shifted from pre-modern view to current theory of conscious and unconscious levels in the functioning system around 1870. Herman Helmholtz’s experiments on the conduction of nerve impulses has contributed to the birth of experimental psychology and psychophysics. While WH Weber and GT Fechner evolved the method of psychophysics. Sir Francis
Galton’s book on heredity and individual differences led to the founding of psychometrics and testing on intellectual mental abilities and intelligence testing.
Nevertheless, all these roots have greatly influenced psychology and helped establish
psychology as a discipline and gave birth to the various schools of psychology.
Then, each of these schools sought to explain the behavior in diverse ways and have
contributed to the development of psychology as a science.
Upon the steady stream of ideas and theories began to appear around 1890, although there were pioneers before him, his acknowledged and as the father of modern psychology is Sigmund Freud. Developed since the last century, the world of psychology has witnessed with the huge development with approaches to multiple theory and practice in response to his piece of work. Along with his theories, some other modern framework such as Carl Jung and Erik Erikson contributed significantly as well. The ongoing development of the human mind not only based on the duality principle but is tasked associated with different levels of functions such as conscious and unconsciousness. These findings have been interpreted differently and seem to have shared acceptance with Freud’s hypothesis theory. The functioning of human thought with the structure and human perform maximum functioning or they will experience dysfunctional in relation accordingly upon their development personally. Psychotherapeutic approach for today by the clinician is applied using flexible in the application especially in a specific modality.
Beginning of the scientific era, psychology as a self-conscious area of experimental study in 1879. Following Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory, the contribution dedicated entirely to psychological research in Leipzig. Other important early contributors to the area comprise Hermann Ebbinghaus (a pioneer in the study of memory), William James (the American father of pragmatism), and Ivan Pavlov (who developed the procedures associated with classical conditioning).
It is true that modern psychology, the science proper of psychology, provides us not only a further interpretation. Since the modern psychology is based on sounder data, the method attained by broader induction and experimentation. Taken as a whole it sums up what we think and think we have a right to think about the soul or self, we apply he knowledge of science to speculate the pre-scientific opinions. Overall, it is an interpretation of the mind; a statement of what the human beings mind understands itself to be.
Some breakaway psychologists and physicians were dissatisfied with their treatment options in the early 1980s. They seem to believe an emphasis on the individual as the “root of the problem” was neither accurate nor fair. Whilst, others still work hard in searching for ways to include the holistic method in the treatment process. This group of psychologists found their patients remain severe suffering or not responding to modern approaches. Since the final goal was to treat person rather than presentation symptoms, they apply post-modern approaches. Unfortunately, it has received mixed reviews. The validity and additional methodologies in the approaches have begun the criticism of these approaches. They find it highly difficult especially with the lack of western world understand on the scientific method. This should refer to proper research, testing, laboratory and blindside comparisons.
Psychology is the research on people’s behavior, mental operations, and performance. The application of knowledge in understanding events, treatment of mental health issues, and improve on relationships, education, and employment. This subject lies in the intersection of educational, theoretical science and applied sciences. In addition, there are certain sub-areas of psychology which include sports, education, media physical conditions, human development and physical conditions. Thus, this subject involves another field of study including humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences.
In its primary form, psychology involves in the study on people. They look deeply into why and how human being do and how they could improve themselves. Everything a human does is connected closely to the subject and examine by the researcher. Indeed, psychology allows human to understand the functioning of body and mind work together. This branch of knowledge can improve decision making and avoid stressful situations. Indirectly it can help in improving time management, living quality and setting and managing goals.
This knowledge not only allows human to be more successful, as well its impact on health. This helps many people tackle their mental illnesses so they can continue with living their lives in a more comfortable way. Psychological studies have aided in drug development and there are to diagnose various diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Ever since psychology was well recognized as a distinct field of study, it has split into many specializations. Psychology as the science has been beneficial a lot to another field of human studies. Psychology learns about how the brain physically responds to habits and interactions, thus it has to measure the aspects of personality and behavior and this knowledge, therefore, help to improve schools, workplaces, and countries. The fundamental to discover the root of problems and treatment has helped a lot of people to recover from psychological problems.
Aviation psychologies are referred to all aspects related to pilot performance in order to increase safety; biological and physiological is the area of study focuses on the physical processes and correlations with psychology; clinical is the field treats mental illness and other psychological problems. Cognitive is the field of studies how the function of mind works; comparative psychology is the study of animal behavior; the consumer is the field of studies how consumers interact with products and services, often to help companies improve in selling products and services. Counseling psychology provides therapy to help human overcome health-related, emotional or social concerns; developmental psychology studies the way of human change or develops physically, mentally and socially. Educational which is known as school psychology is the field of work with the school system to improve student’s success and wellbeing in the understanding of their behaviors and psychological needs. Experimental is the field of study refers to scientific research in better understanding on behavior and human mind; family examines and seeks to improve family and marital relationships; forensic psychology is when psychologists use their expertise in legal or criminal cases. Geropsychology is the study of psychology regarding aging, something that is sure to grain importance with graying of America; industrial-organizational focuses on the questions on how to improve productivity in the workplace by cultivating the wellbeing of employees; psychometrics psychology deal with tests and experiments that measure personality and intelligence, social focuses on beliefs, emotions, behaviours on how it is affected by others and the causes of prejudices and other social conditioning; and lastly sports is the study of how psychology can be used to improve performance and motivation in athletes.
During the second half of the twentieth century, the psychology research expanded rapidly and this field is experiencing the era of “knowledge explosion”. As psychology has grown over the years, psychologists have found ways to contribute to their communities in many fields as you can think of. They consult with the organization to improve worker satisfaction and improve productivity. Whereas they establish programmes to improve relations and reduce ethnic tensions. Besides, they contributed to communities in solving pollution and noise issue that might affect mental health by creating awareness among the public. They do rehabilitation training for people who are mentally or physically disabled. Psychology educates judges and juries about eyewitness testimonies and they assist police in emergencies involving hostages or disturbed persons. A lot of organization conduct public opinion surveys, run suicide-prevention hotlines and educate the public about the importance of appreciating lives.
In conclusion, psychology allows your life to get better results and improving overall. By learning psychology, you may improve your leadership skills, become a better communicator as it involves much more than you speak or write. We have to consider non-verbal signals make up a huge portion of our interpersonal communications. By learning psychology, we learn the way to understand others better. We equip the ability to understand emotions and emotions of those around us which really plays an important role in our relationships and professional life. Research in cognitive psychology provided us with a wealth of information about decision making. We apply psychology in our daily lives as the useful tool. The field of psychology offers us beneficial strategies that can help us achieve a better and healthier life.
McLeod, S. (1970, January 01). Saul McLeod. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/perspective.htmlPsychological approaches. (2018, January 10). Retrieved from https://educheer.com/psychological-approaches/Bachelor of Science (Psychology). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.usq.edu.au/study/degrees/bachelor-of-science/psychologyLearning, L. (n.d.). Introduction to Psychology. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wsu-sandbox/chapter/psychological-perspectives/Author removed at request of original publisher. (2015, October 26). Introduction to Psychology. Retrieved from http://open.lib.umn.edu/intropsyc/chapter/3-2-our-brains-control-our-thoughts-feelings-and-behavior/