BACHELOR OF PSYCHOLOGY (BPSY)
SEMESTER 2 / YEAR 2018
HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF PSYCHOLOGY
MATRICULATION NO: 910225045262001
IDENTITY CARD NO.: 910225045262
E-MAIL : [email protected]
LEARNING CENTRE: PETALING JAYA LEARNING CENTRE
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Psychology is the learning of scientific study of the human behavior of the way we feel, think and behave. The opening of first psychology lab by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879, psychologist have done research on studies on aspects of human behavior, ranging from brain functions, personality and their influence towards socio-cultural. As psychology developed, it began to tackle the reasons why we react from different angles, including psychodynamic, cognitive, biological, behavioral and humanistic perspectives.
In this modern era, they are many different psychology perspectives from different well-known psychologists. However, most psychologists accept and understand that not all perspective theory is correct. Although each perspective has its own strenghts and weaknesses, it brings some different value to the fundamental of the perspective especially in the section of understanding human behaviour. Therefore, the aspect for psychology to have different perspectives on the understanding of human and animal behaviour is crucial in daily lives.
The psychodynamic perspective is originally introduce through the work of Sigmund Freud. From his point of view, psychology and human behavior from this perspective should emphasized on the role of the unconsious mind, through early childhood experiences and via their interpersonal relationships. It aims is to explain human behavior and treat patients suffering from mental illnesses. Psychoanalysis has became one of the earliest major forces in psychology. Credits to Freud’s work and upon his influences, he conceived the mind as being composed of three key elements which is ego, id and superego. The id is the part of the psyche which includes primal and unconscious desires. Ego is the key aspect of psyche and requires to deal with the demands of real world. The last key element is superego, should task to manage all our standards, morals and ideas.
On the other hand, behavioral psychology is another perspective that focuses mainly on learned behaviour and this behaviourism different from other perspectives because it is solely focuses on observable behaviours. Early in the twentieth century, the school which dominated by psychology loses its hold. Today, the behaviour perspective is stand strong and mainly concerned with behavior learned and the reinforcement. This principle often applied in mental health, therapists and counselors usually applied these techniques to explain and in their treatment of variety illnesses.
During 1960s, a new perspective was first introduced wwhich is known as cognitive psychology. The main focus is on mental processes such as problem-solving, thinking, memory, language and decisions making process. There influenced by well-known psychologists such as Jean Piaget and Albert Bandura. This perspective has grown tremendously in recent decade. This perspective hence often utilizes information, the focuses more on the processing model, compare human mind with computer function, ceonceptualize information, process and store information.
Biological psychology, referred to biopsychology or physiological psychology. It plays a major role in the development of psychology as a separate science. The point of view emphasized on the biological and physical bases of behavior. Researchers who take the biological perspective might examine on how genetics influence different behaviour or how specific function of brain influence behavior and personality. The nervous system, endocrine and immune systems became the few subjects that interest biological psychologists and consequently develop it as their research target. With advances in the human ability in exploring and understand on brain and nervous system, it has grown rapidly over the last decade. Besides, the modern technology has allow researchers to research deeply on brain function under variety of conditions. With the usage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, researcher can now look and examine on the efffects and functions of drugs, diseases and brain damage.
Another new perspective is cross-cultural psychology which has grown rapidly over the last two decades. Most researchers research deeply into human behaviour across different cultural. By comparing these differences, we can learn on the cultural influences and how it relate to our thinking and behavior. As usualy, they will examine on individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Evolutionary psychology is the study of evolution involve with effect of physiological processes. This will apply the basic principles in evolutions and apply them to the outcome of psychological phenomena. Thus, the perspective stressed that mental processes exist because they are highly related to evolutionary purpose. This aid in survival and resproduction.
In 1950s, humanistic perspective was first introduced. Upon the work and theories by prominenent humaniststs such as Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, the influences is huge. The perspective emphasized on the role in motivation of behavior and thought. Self-actualization is an essental part in this perspective as it focus more on the ways human behave due to the changes in growing, personal potential and external changes. Positive psychology focuses on ways to make sure people live happeir an healthier. The recent movement in psychology is to promote humanistic perspective.
From pre-modern psychology era, it takes us back to many centruries whereas psychology was viewed as philosophy during the era. It was not a science at that era while transformation from the pre-modern to modern era was slow in moving. As part of the history, a beliet system must pass several tests to form. Psychology was acted as natural tie in with the times and intellectual elite of Greence and Egypt. Their school of philosophy took the identity from early on psychology. The discussions on human mind were open subject on the role and function. Upon these dialogues, human thought began to be mentioned as spiritual, dualtity and a bit of physiological. However, duality has not changes into a great deal other than to mention along with secularization of spirituality. Philosophy theory has provided legitimacy and authority to the view, the questions raised were why it was affected by nature. A more legitimate questions were how the science dealth with things happened. The focus on human mind shifted from pre-modern view to current theory of conscious and unconscious levels in the functioning system around 1870.
A steady stream of radical ideas and theories began to appear around 1890. Although there were pioneers before him, he acknowledged and father of modern psychology is Sigmund Freud. Over the past century, the world of psychology has witnessed the development of approaches to theory and practice in response to Freud’s work along within the modern framework such as Erik Erikson, Carl Jung, and others. The ongoing development of the human mind not based on duality, but tasked associated with conscious and unconscious levels of functioning. Their findings interpreted differently seemed to be a shared acceptance of Freud’s hypothesis. The human thought functioned within their own structure and people achieved maximum functioning or they are dysfunctional in relationship consequently from their development. Psychotherapeutic approach for today by a clinician is apply using flexible in their application of specific modality.
In the early 1980s, some breakaway psychologists and physicians were dissatisfied with their treatment options. They believed that emphasis on the individual as the “problem” was neither accurate nor fair. Whilst, others were searching for ways to include the holistic methods of treatment. This group was not we found that severe suffering of their clients was not responding to the modern approaches. The final goal was to treat the whole person rather than presenting symptoms. It involved in the post-modern approaches have received mixed reviews. They see the validity and additional methodologies in their approaches. At the same time, they are those who are highly critical of these approaches. They find it difficult with the lack of western world understanding on the scientific method, including proper research, testing and extended to blindside comparisons.
Psychology is known as the study of people’s behavior, mental operations, and performance. It was referred to the application of knowledge, which can be applied in understanding events, treatment of mental health issues, and improve on relationships, education, and employment. This subject lies in the intersection of educational, theoretical science and applied sciences. Besides, there are certain sub-areas of psychology which include sports, education, media physical conditions, human development and physical conditions. This subject involves another field of study including humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences.
In its primary form, psychology involves in studies people. They look into why and how human being do and how they could improve themselves. Everything a human does is connected closely to the subject and examine by the researcher. Indeed, psychology allows human to understand the functioning of body and mind work together. This branch of knowledge can improve decision making and avoid stressful situations. Indirectly it can help in improving time management, living quality and setting and managing goals.
This science not only allows human to be more successful, as well its impact on health. This helps many people tackle their mental illnesses so they can continue with living their lives in a more comfortable way. Psychological studies have aided in drug development and there are to diagnose various diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.
Ever since psychology was well recognized as a distinct field of study, it has split into many specializations. Psychology as the science has been beneficial a lot to another field of human studies. Psychology learns about how the brain physically responds to habits and interactions, thus it has to measure the aspects of personality and behavior and this knowledge, therefore, help to improve schools, workplaces, and countries. The fundamental to discover the root of problems and treatment has helped a lot of people to recover from psychological problems.
Aviation psychologies are referred to all aspects related to pilot performance in order to increase safety; biological and physiological is the area of study focuses on the physical processes and correlations with psychology; clinical is the field treats mental illness and other psychological problems. Cognitive is the field of studies how the function of mind works; comparative psychology is the study of animal behavior; the consumer is the field of studies how consumers interact with products and services, often to help companies improve in selling products and services. Counseling psychology provides therapy to help human overcome health-related, emotional or social concerns; developmental psychology studies the way of human change or develops physically, mentally and socially. Educational which is known as school psychology is the field of work with the school system to improve student’s success and wellbeing in the understanding of their behaviors and psychological needs. Experimental is the field of study refers to scientific research in better understanding on behavior and human mind; family examines and seeks to improve family and marital relationships; forensic psychology is when psychologists use their expertise in legal or criminal cases. Geopsychology is the study of psychology regarding aging, something that is sure to grain importance with graying of America; industrial-organizational focuses on the questions on how to improve productivity in the workplace by cultivating the wellbeing of employees; psychometrics psychology deal with tests and experiments that measure personality and intelligence, social focuses on beliefs, emotions, behaviours on how it is affected by others and the causes of prejudices and other social conditioning; and lastly sports is the study of how psychology can be used to improve performance and motivation in athletes.
During the second half of twentieth century, the psychology research expanded rapidly and this field is experiencing the era of “knowledge explosion”. As psychology has grown over the years, psychologists have found ways to contribute to their communities in many fields as you can think of. They consult with organisation to improve worker satisfaction and improve productivity. Whereas they establish programmes to improve relations and reduce ethnic tensions. Besides, they contriuted to communities on solving pollution and noise issue that might affect mental health by creating awareness to public. They do rehabilitation training for people who are mentally or physically disabled.
Psychology educate judges and juries about eyewitness testimonies and they assist police in emergencies involving hostages or disturbed persons. A lot of organisastion conduct public opinion surveys, run suicide-prevention hotlines and educate public the importance of appreciate lives.
In conclusion, psychology allows your life to get better results and improving overall. By learning psychology, you may improve your leadership skills, become a better communicater as it involves much more than you speak or write. We have to consider non-verbal signals make up a huge portion in our interpersonal communications. By learning psychology, we learn the way to understand others better. We equip the ability to understand emotions and emotions of those around us which really plays an important role in our relationships and professional life. Research in cognitive psychology provided us with wealth of information about decision making. We apply psycholgy in our daily lives as the useful tool. The field of psychology offers us beneficial strategies that can help us achieve a better and healthier life.
McLeod, S. (1970, January 01). Saul McLeod. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/perspective.htmlPsychological approaches. (2018, January 10). Retrieved from https://educheer.com/psychological-approaches/Bachelor of Science (Psychology). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.usq.edu.au/study/degrees/bachelor-of-science/psychologyLearning, L. (n.d.). Introduction to Psychology. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wsu-sandbox/chapter/psychological-perspectives/Author removed at request of original publisher. (2015, October 26). Introduction to Psychology. Retrieved from http://open.lib.umn.edu/intropsyc/chapter/3-2-our-brains-control-our-thoughts-feelings-and-behavior/