2.1.2 Types of electronic services
The larger part of e-government constitutes what is known as Electronic Services Delivery or ‘eServices’. The eService provides a platform for the government to deliver various services to citizens without constrains. This was in fact among the earliest projects under e-government that allows citizens to move away from conventional way of dealing with government agencies. These include services ranging from transactions and payment of utilities such as telephone and electricity bill, police summons, and various taxes. The citizens mainly could use this service through various channels of service delivery such as the internet, interactive voice response (IVR) and 66 kiosk machines (Wan Abdullah et al., 2013).
In the beginning of its implementation, four government bodies have been assigned to be part of e-services implementation. They were namely Road and Transport Department (JPJ), the Ministry of Health, the National Utility Company (TNB) and the Malaysian Telecommunications Company (TMB). Later, they were followed by more government agencies such as ………. As what has been aforementioned above, there are various type of e-services. programmes organised in line with the e-government project. According to Wan Abdullah et al. (2013), e-services able to perform multiple delivery channel where all the services are available 24 hours via online. (Malaysian Administrative and Planning Unit (MAMPU)) and through e-government, passports can be issued in one hour, transfer of property and registration of property can be executed within one day when it took months previously (Mohd Zin Mohamed and John Antony, 2013).
During the beginning of its early implementation in 1997, the e-government projects under e-services are Electronic Procurement (eP), Project Monitoring System (PMS), Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS), Generic Office Environment (GOE), E-Syariah and Electronic Labour Exchange (ELX) (Shaidin, 2008). The implementation of e-government marks the beginning of the system to reinvent the government by making some forms of transformations in the way it operates, modernises and enhances its service delivery. Thus MSC is one of the efforts made by the government to improve the system so that e-government at the federal level is able to enhance the convenience, accessibility and improve the quality of interactions with the public and business at large and to the local government (Shaidin, 2008).
Electronic procurement (e-procurement)
E-procurement (Ep) which was introduced in 2000 is known as the main pillar of e-government in Malaysia in order to promote efficiency and prevent power abused by the civil servants by making the purchasing process more transparent (Hui et al., 2011, Muhammad Rais and Nazariah, 2003). All the information will be recorded by electronical means starting from the process of order tracking, delivery status and invoicing matters. (Muhammad Rais and Nazariah, 2003). The purpose of introducing this system is to reduce cost of the government by having proper system of administration.
Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS)
Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS) is one of the system introduced by government after the establishment of MSC in order to strategically handle staffing, human resource management data, enhance better communication and to promote flexibility and openness among all the civil servants (Maniam et al., 2012). Some of the successful works have been implemented under this system are manpower planning, recruitment and training, promotion of the staffs, retirement and pension, salary and others.
In order to make matters pertaining to Muslim affairs more organized due to the court system that has been labelled as inefficient and ineffective (Ramli, 2012), government took an initiative to be more responsive to this service by embracing the application of ICT. Many aspects have been adjusted and improvised in order to make e-syariah system more efficient namely in the Syariah Court Case Management System, Syariah Lawyers Registration System, Office Automation System and others (Wan Absullah et al., 2013). E-Syariah supports the smooth running of the Syariah (Muslim) court administration (Mariam, 2007).
E-land is known as one of the successful government project under the seven flagship project where it serves as a platform for public to lodge a complaint on the poor quality of the ministry’s service delivery due to unnecessary cumbersome process and procedures as well as bureaucratic processes. Therefore, in order to tackle problem arise, this service has been introduced to develop a comprehensive user friendly land management and administration to ensure the quality in terms of service delivery (Ramli, 2012). A study has been carried out to know the level of significance of e-land service and the result showed positive feedback given by the public as this system able to improve land management in Penang (Ramli, 2012).
In 2004, many unorganized and long delays cases have been detected by the government which jeopardized the efficiency of the court management and administration in handling cases. Therefore, starting from 2011, a complete court ICT based has been implemented consisting four components namely a video-conferencing system, queue management system of lawyer’s attendance, e-Filing of cases via online and community and advocacy portal to enhance communication between courts and the public.
Business Licensing Electronic Support System
Other than public sector, government concerned on private sector businesses. In 1993, under MAMPU, Business Reengineering (BPR) program has been initiated. Through this system, Business Licensing Electronic Support System (BLESS) has been introduced where applicants need to undergo several process to apply for licenses and permits to start their business in Malaysia. This is to expedite business licensing processes by reducing overlap and increase efficiency (MAMPU, 2013). This initiative by MAMPU met success when BLESS successfully assisted almost 7000 users by 2011. And almost 600 businesses were registered in this system (Wan Abdullah et al., 2013).
All the programs mentioned as above is none other but to improve the interaction among three tiers of government with other bodies namely government-to government (G2G), government to citizen (G2C) and government to business (G2B). To enhance government to government interactions, other transformations have been done as well. For example, other government departments has access to the databases of the Immigration Department and Registration of Births and Deaths Department and the Road Transport Department and the Police Department have access to the database of the other. By having such access, those shared databases allow people to access multiple services through one-stop centers. (Mohd Zin Mohamed and John Antony Xavier, 2016). For Government-to-business (G2G) interactions under e-government, it brings public agencies and businesses together to enable electronic processing of business permits, licenses, government approvals such as customs clearance, and the payment of fees and penalties. Thus, it can be seen that these efforts have been done in order to bring all the services under one roof known as e-government.