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BN18110066 HO QI JING
1.0 Introduction
The ocean is a continuous body of saltwater that covers more than 70 percent of the Earth’s surface and the oceans hold about 320 million cubic miles of water, which is roughly 97 percent of Earth’s. The ocean provides us with food, water, wood and fibre. Over a billion people worldwide depend on fish as a source of protein. As a result, the ocean is also vital to our economy with the present of fishery industry.

Fishery is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. Nowadays, there are more fishing techniques compared with the ancient ages. For examples, the techniques are traps, dragged gear, gill nets, trawling and purse seining.

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Kota Kinabalu Central Market is at the waterfront or immediately opposite the KK Plaza on Jalan Tun Fuad Stephens. The complex consists of 5 markets which are fish market, salted fish market, Filipino handicraft market, night food market and fruit market.

The fish market is also known as SAFMA (Sabah Fish Marketing) fish market which is located right on the water’s edge, directly behind the main building visible from the street. Sabah is known throughout Malaysia as having some of the best and cheapest seafood and it all on display at Kota Kinabalu’s Fish Market. Not exactly geared for tourism, the Fish Market is where most of the seafood we will eat around Kota Kinabalu is sold and bought, and seafood eating is undeniably a big tourism activity, facilitated by a large number of seafood restaurants.

In this content, we will talk more about the Fish Market regarding their Marine resources product and their fish vendors.

Kota Kinabalu Central Markets are made up of five main buildings, the largest is the Central Market, then we have Fish Market, Slated Fish Market, Filipino Handicraft Market, Night Food Market and Fruit Market. The whole market complex is locally called Filipino Markets (Pasar Filipina) because majority of the stalls are run by Filipino who originally immigrants from Philippines.
It is an oblong two storey building with rows and rows of fresh leafy, root and bean vegetables, local fruits and imported fruits and salted dried sea products. At one end of the building it is spice heaven. Hawkers ply their vast variety of ground and whole dried spices. At the other end of the building there are the pork and slaughtered chicken stalls. The upper level of the building is a food heaven where many food stalls serve both the locals and the visitors. In addition there are stores selling clothing, bags and shoes.

The fish market building projects into the waterfront at the back of the main market. Unlike shopping malls, fresh produce markets like these open very early in the morning. There will be hustling and bustling as early as 4 am daily. People buy their supply of fresh fish very early and this place is a hive of intense activity as vendors and buyers bargain over their choices. Prices fluctuate depending on the supply and demand curve. Common types of sea food found here are the various types of mackerel, mullet, mud crabs, tuna, black and white pomfret, prawns, cockles, clams, coral fish, shrimps, scallops, sword fish, sardines, ray fish, red snapper, grouper, turbot, etc. Less than a km from the main market is the Filipino Market. Here is the place for locals and visitors to buy ethnic decorative and functional handicrafts and carvings made from sea shells, wood, bark, coconut shells, cord, bamboo, etc.

There are lots of freshwater and sea pearls in all sizes and shapes, believed to be mostly cultured, for sale here. These are fashioned into earrings, rings, bracelets and chains, and are popular with the ladies. Fruits such as young coconuts, yellow mangoes and dried preserved sea food are also for sale here. In the day time this is a crowded place frequented by locals and visitors alike. It is closed at night. For night shopping and bargain hunting, the visitor can try his/her skills in the open air night market near to the Sinsuran shops.
In this research, we had gone to the Fish Market of Central Market (Pasar Besar) Kota Kinabalu to get information regarding the fish monger-vendor and marine resources sell by them. The method we used to for the research is mainly by interviewing respondents. From our observation, it is about 15 to 20 fish vendors selling their marine resources and we had interviewed 5 of them. We asked about the types of marine resources being sold, the kilo age of the tonnage of marine resources sold and the rough estimate of their annual income from these resource. The interview session is done with randomly selection. We select a few fish vendors who is willing to spend their little time for a brief interview on the spot.

247650464185003.1 FISRT RESPONDENT
Figure 3.1.1: First respondent, Mr. Mil
The first respondent we had interviewed is a 20 years old man named Mr.Mil who had been working as a fishmonger for about 2 years. Within 2 years’ experience in the industry, Mr.Mil had sold variety of marine products such as ‘ ikan basung’, ‘ikan kerisi’, ‘ikan tulai’ and last but not least is ‘ ikan tenggiri’. According to Mr.Mil, he had to travel every weekends to get his supplier which is mostly located in Lahad Datu, Beluran, Kunak and Sandakan. Through the interviews, he said that he sells the ‘ikan basung’ for RM5 per kilo, RM 7 per kilo for ‘ikan kerisi’ and RM 8 per kilo for ‘ikan tulai’. Next, he also sells ‘ikan tenggiri’ for RM 17 per kilo. As for Mr.Mil, ‘ikan basung’ will sold out first as it has high demands in the market and mostly the costumer buy them as it is more cheaper than the other fish. However, the price is not fixed as it’s depend on the breeding season and the weather changes. For an example, when the monsoon season comes it will be hard to catch fish thus the fish price in the market will rise up as there were limited stock to sell. On average, Mr.Mil can sell approximately 45 to 50 kilograms from his marine sources on daily basis. Thus, the net income he will gets in a month is about RM6000 but in some other month the sale will drop as the business is not running center295275000well due to the some reason.

Figure 3.1.2: One of the marine resource of Mr. Mil
daily weekly monthly annually
Weight sold (RM) 48 336 1440 17520
Rough income(RM) 2000 14000 60000 730000
Net income (RM)from rough income 10% 200 1400 6000 73000
Table 3.1.1: Estimated income of Mr. Mil
3.2 Second respondent
Figure 3.2.1 Second respondent Mr Ali
Next, our second interviewer is Mr.Mohd Ali. Mr Ali is 48 years old man. He had about 5 years’ experience in this business. He is the owner of this stall. He has sold many type of marine resources such as crabs and shells. He told us that the most popular crabs that he sold is ‘ketam nipah’ and ‘kerang’. ‘Ketam nipah’ which is bigger in size is about RM 20 whereas the one with smaller size is about RM 15 per kilo. It is conclude that the bigger the size of the crabs, the more expensive it will be. Besides selling crabs, he also sell ‘kerang’. The price for ‘kerang’ is RM 8 per kilo. Other than crab and ‘kerang’, ‘dalus’ is also available and is sold for about RM 15 per kilo. According to Mr Ali, he sold about 48 kg which gave him RM 800 income per day. In addition, Mr Ali roughly sell about 40-60 kg of marine resources per day. However, his net income is only around RM 80. He said that he can sell up to 336 kg per week which gave him around RM 560 as his net income. Furthermore, he said that he can sell up to 1344 kg which gave him around RM 2240 as his net income monthly. He also can sell up to 16128 kg which gave him around RM 26880 as his net income annually. He claimed that his income is not constant and stable as it is affected by many factors. For example, the factors are climax change, monsoon season and so on. He claimed that they can sell more marine resources during festival season like Chinese New Year, Hari Raya Aidrilfitri, and Deepavali and so on. He also told us that he normally get his marine resources from Sandakan, Tawau, Pilas as the place has more supplies of crabs. Most of his customer are tourists who come to Sabah for visit.
center92392500Figure 3.2.2: ‘Ketam nipah’
Daily Weekly Monthly Annually
Weight sold
(RM) 48 336 1344 16128
Rough income
(kg) 800 5600 22400 268800
Net income (10% from rough income)(RM) 80 560 2240 26880
Table 3.2.1: Estimated income of Mr Ali
714375266700003.3 THIRD RESPONDENT
Figure 3.3.1: One of the Marine Resources, ‘udang putih’ grade a of Mr. Mohd Alfa Rahbi
center222440500Our third respondent is Mohd Alfa Rahbi with 10 years’ experience in this field. He is now 24 years old. The types of marine resources he sold is the same that is ‘udang putih’, a type of prawn with different grade. He sold ‘udang putih’ grade A, B and C which the biggest size is grade A and grade C has the smallest size. He gets the marine resources from Tawau, Kunat and Sandakan three times in a week. The price for grade A ‘udang putih’ is RM38 per kilogram, RM 30 per kilogram for grade B and RM28 per kilogram for grade C. Normally, he roughly sold 30 kilograms in a day and the amount of income she gets is roughly RM900 to RM1000. The net income of Mr. Mohd Alfa Rahbi in a day is approximately RM which is fifteen percent of his total income.

Figure 3.3.2: Our third respondent, Mr. Mohd Alfa Rahbi
Mr. Mohd Alfa Rahbi said that when monsoon season, it is hard to do any fisheries and catching the marine resources, so sometimes he has no marine resources to be sold and this will seriously affect his income. The price of marine resources also rise when monsoon season because there is just a few marine resources sold, so if Mr. Mohd Alfa Rahbi has the marine resources to be sell, his income will increase.

Weight sold (kg) Rough income (RM) Net income (RM) (Rough income *10%)
Daily 50 950 95
Weekly 350 6,650 665
Monthly 1400 26,,600 2,660
Annually 16,800 319,200 31,920
Table 3.3.1: Estimated income, Mr. Mohd Alfa Rahbi
Figure 3.4.1 Fourth respondent, Mr. Abdul Karim.

The forth fishmonger we had interviewed is a 28-year-old man, named Abdul Karim. He has been working in this field since 2014 till today, which means he has been in this business for 5 years. From our observations, the marine species that Mr. Abdul Karim sold were mainly prawns and crabs. He sold different types of prawns such as the tiger prawn (udang harimau), flower prawn (udang bunga), lobster (udang galah) and Flower crabs (ketam suri or also known as ketam bunga). He also added that all of his marine species are came from the sea and none of them were from the freshwater. According to Mr Abdul Karim, he usually sold the tiger prawn for RM90 per kilogram while RM70 per kilogram for the flower prawn. Furthermore, for the flower crab, he sold it for RM15 per kilogram only. And lastly, for the lobster, the price is RM100 per kilogram.
Figure 3.4.2 Lobsters sold by Mr. Abdul Karim
He also mentioned that the price is not fixed as it can vary depends on their freshness too. Sometimes, in the monsoon season or when there is high demand for these marine species especially during the New Year, the price of these marine resources will also increase than usual. Mr Abdul Karim also mentioned that he got his marine resources by importing them from the peninsular Malaysia by ship. The marine species usually arrived the night before, so that he can directly sold them on the next day to maintain their freshness. Mr Abdul Karim also said that he can sold up to 150 kilogram in a day with the average net income of RM100, which is 10% of the daily rough income he gained. In a week, he managed to sell 1050 kilogram and earned RM700. While in a month, he could sell 4500 kilogram and the net income he gained was RM 3000. For a year, the weight of marine species sold and the net income he gained is 54750 kilogram and RM 36,500 respectively. The detailed statistic of Mr Abdul Karim’s product sold is as shown in the appendix.

Daily Weekly Monthly Annually
Weight sold (kg) Rough Income (RM) Net Income (RM) (Rough income*10%) Weight sold (kg) Net income (RM) Weight sold (kg) Net income (RM) Weight sold (kg) Net income (RM)
150 1,000 100 1,050 700 4,500 3,000 54,750 36,500
Table 3.5.1 Estimated income, Mr. Abdul Karim
3.5 Fifth respondent
Figure 3.5.1: Our fifth respondent, Encik Akim
At last, our fifth interviewee is Encik Akim. He has started his business since year 2008, and now he is 25 years old. He has been in this business for about 10 years. He usually sells ‘ikan kerapu’, ‘udang lipan’, ‘udang bunga’, lobster queen, Japanese prawn and also ‘ikan tenggiri’. Encik Akim sells ikan kerapu for RM 15 per kilogram, ‘udang lipan’ for RM10 per kilogram and ‘ikan tenggiri’ for RM 25 per kilogram. According to Encik Akim, ‘ikan kerapu’ and ‘ikan tenggiri’ are the fish product that are quite popular among the others. He said that housewife usually choose fish rather than lobster and prawn because it is easier to deal with. Furthermore, it can also be cooked in various option, for example, asam pedas, steam with onion and garlic and cook with lemak. Encik Akim also sells lobster queen for RM170 per kilogram, Japanese prawn for RM40 per kilogram and ‘udang bunga’ for RM75 per kilogram. He claimed that the source of those marine products are from Kota Belud, Sabah. Encik Akim said that the amount and price of marine product are not fixed and not stable. It will be influence by the monsoon season, pollution and weather. Due to bad weather and monsoon season, the supplier unable to supply enough fish product upon demand villagers. Thus, the price of marine product will rise drastically. Encik Akim told that they would roughly sold 200kg of marine product in average a day. He earns about RM2000 for a day, and the net income for a day is roughly 838200212344000RM200.

Figure 3.5.2: ‘Udang lipan’ sold by Encik Akim
Daily Weight sold (kg) 200
Rough income(RM) 2000
Net income(RM),10% from rough income 200
Weekly Weight sold (kg) 1400
Rough income(RM) 14000
Net income(RM),10% from rough income 1400
Monthly Weight sold (kg) 5600
Rough income(RM) 56000
Net income(RM),10% from rough income 5600
Annually Weight sold (kg) 67200
Rough income(RM) 672000
Net income(RM),10% from rough income 67200
Table 3.5.1: Estimated income of Encik Akim


Fish Market at Kota Kinabalu’s Pasar Besar

Mr. Mil (2018, September 22 ). Personal Interview
Mr. Ali (2018, September 22 ). Personal Interview
Mr. Mohd Alfa Rahbi (2018, September 22 ). Personal Interview
Mr. Abdul Karim (2018, September 22 ). Personal Interview
Encik Akim (2018, September 22 ). Personal Interview