1685925-295275

1685925-295275
?NL 102 C?mmun?c?t??n Sk?lls
F?n?l C?s? Study
11430002609850
D?n? by H??? Lu?? ?zz? 201610051
subm?tt?d t?
D?c/ Sun?y?n? M?n?j
Str?ss, ?t s??ms, ?s ?v?rywh?r? – ?cr?ss th? l?ngu?g? ?f ?ur ?v?ryd?y l?v?s, ?n sc??nt?f?c ?nd s?c??l sc??nt?f?c ?nqu?ry ?nd ?s ?n ?ncr??s?ngly ?mp?rt?nt f?cus w?th?n ? d?v?rs? r?ng? ?f p?l?cy ?nv?r?nm?nts. ?t ?s ? r?l?t?v?ly n?w ph?n?m?n?n, ?s h?rd t? d?f?n? or ?xpl??n ?nd ?s ?xtr??rd?n?r?ly c?stly. ??ch y??r, w?rk-r?l?t?d str?ss r?sults ?n th? l?ss ?f n??rly 13 m?ll??n w?rk?ng d?ys ?t ? c?st t? U?? ?mpl?y?rs ?f ?nyth?ng up t? 12 b?ll??n ??D . W?rk-r?l?t?d str?ss ?s ? t?p?c ?f ?ct?v? r?s??rch, ?nd ?s th? subj?ct ?f ?ng??ng pr?ct?c?l ?n?t??t?v?s. Y?t, ?t c?nt?nu?s t? pr?s?nt s?gn?f?c?nt d?ff?cult??s. Th?s? ?nclud? h?w t? d?t?rm?n? ?ts tru? n?tur?, h?w t? pr?v?nt ?ts ?ncr??s? ?nd h?w ?t ?s m?st ?ff?ct?v?ly m?n?g?d. ?dv?nc?s ?r? ?v?d?nt ?n ? numb?r ?f b?th th??r?t?c?l ?nd pr?ct?c?l f??lds ?nd ?t ?s th?s? th?t ?r? surv?y?d ?nd ?v?lu?t?d ?n th? r?s??rch r?p?rt wh?ch f?ll?ws. Th? f?rst d?ff?culty c?ns?d?r?d h?r? ?s th?t ?f d?f?n?t??n. Str?ss ?s v?r??usly d?f?n?d ?nd ?s ?ttr?but?d t? ? st?ll gr??t?r v?r??ty ?f c?us?s. N?r ?s ?t by ?ny m??ns cl??r th?t str?ss ?s s?m?th?ng r??l. C?uld ?t n?t ?ls? b? ?xpl??n?d by th? p?mp?r?d w??kn?ss ?f m?d?rn m?n? ? r?v??w ?f ?v??l?bl? ?xpl?n?t??ns sh?ws th?t str?ss c?n b? ?s much ? r?fl?ct??n ?f cultur? ?nd p?rs?n?l?ty ?s ?t c?n ?bj?ct?v? f?ct. Y?t th?s, ?n turn, p??nts t? ? s?c?nd d?ff?culty: th? pr?c?s? n?tur? ?f th? r?l?t??nsh?p b?tw??n str?ss ?nd ?ll-h??lth. Th? suff?r?ng ?nduc?d by str?ss, h?w?v?r, ?s n? f?gm?nt. N?r ?r? ?ts f?n?nc??l c?sts t? b?th bus?n?ss ?nd g?v?rnm?nt m?r?ly ?m?g?n?ry. ?s w? sh?ll s??, wh?t?v?r ?t ?s, str?ss h?s gr?wn r?p?dly ?n r?c?nt y??rs. ?t ?s th?r?f?r? ?f s?m? ?mp?rt?nc? wh?th?r ?r n?t th?r? ?s ?n ?p?d?m?c ?f str?ss, wh?t ?s c?us?ng ?t ?nd wh?th?r ?t w?ll c?nt?nu? t? r?s?. ?tt?nt??n th?n sh?fts t? th? qu?st??n ?f why str?ss ?s ?ccurr?ng n?w. Wh?t ?s h?pp?n?ng ?n s?c??ty, c?nt?mp?r?ry l?f? ?nd curr?nt w?rk?ng pr?ct?c?s th?t ?s c?us?ng str?ss?
Wh?t d??s th? W?rk-r?l?t?d str?ss m??n? Th? H??lth ?nd S?f?ty ?x?cut?v? (HS?) d?f?n?s str?ss ?s ?n ‘?dv?rs? r??ct??n p??pl? h?v? t? ?xc?ss?v? pr?ssur?s ?r ?th?r typ?s ?f d?m?nd pl?c?d ?n th?m’.3 W?rk-r?l?t?d str?ss ?s thus und?rst??d t? ?ccur wh?n th?r? ?s ? m?sm?tch b?tw??n th? d?m?nds ?f th? j?b ?nd th? r?s?urc?s ?nd c?p?b?l?t??s ?f th? ?nd?v?du?l w?rk?r t? m??t th?s? d?m?nds. Th?s d?f?n?t??n ?mph?s?z?s th? r?l?t??nsh?p b?tw??n ?nd?v?du?ls ?nd th??r w?rk?ng ?nv?r?nm?nt, ?nd h?lps t? ?xpl??n why ? s?tu?t??n th?t ?n? p?rs?n r?g?rds ?s ? st?mul?t?ng ch?ll?ng? c?us?s ?n?th?r t? ?xp?r??nc? ? d?m?g?ng d?gr?? ?f str?ss. Th? d?gr?? ?f str?ss ?n ?nd?v?du?l ?xp?r??nc?s ?s, t? ?n ?xt?nt, d?p?nd?nt up?n h?s/h?r ?wn ?ppr??s?l ?f th? d?m?nds ?f th??r w?rk. Such ? subj?ct?v? ?ppr??s?l w?ll ?n turn b? ?ff?ct?d by ? r?ng? ?f s?c??-?c?n?m?c f?ct?rs, m?ny ?f wh?ch m?y n?t b? d?r?ctly w?rk-r?l?t?d. F?r ?x?mpl?, g?nd?r, r?c? ?nd ?g? ?ll pl?y ? p?rt, ?s d? g??gr?ph?c l?c?t??n, h?us?ng, h??lth, numb?r ?f ch?ldr?n, f?m?ly ?rr?ng?m?nts ?nd c?mmun?ty n?tw?rks. ?n ?dd?t??n, m?r? sp?c?f?c psych?l?g?c?l f?ct?rs must b? c?ns?d?r?d, ?nclud?ng p?st ?xp?r??nc?s ?nd p?rs?n?l?ty tr??ts. F?n?lly, str?ss l?v?ls s??m t? d?p?nd ?n wh?t ? p?rs?n ?nt?rpr?ts ?s thr??t?n?ng ?r ch?ll?ng?ng, ?nd wh?th?r th?t ?nd?v?du?l b?l??v?s h?m ?r h?rs?lf ?bl? t? c?p? w?th ?t. ?lth?ugh th? ?xp?r??nc? ?f str?ss ?s subj?ct?v?, ?nd ?s m?d??t?d by th? p?rs?n?l ?v?lu?t??n ?f ? s?tu?t??n by th? ?nd?v?du?l, th?r? ?r? n?v?rth?l?ss ? numb?r ?f subst?nt?v? f?ct?rs th?t c?n b? ?d?nt?f??d ?s p?t?nt??l c?us?s ?f w?rk-r?l?t?d str?ss. Th?s?, ?f c?urs?, w?ll v?ry ?n d?gr?? ?nd ?mp?rt?nc? d?p?nd?ng ?n th? p?rt?cul?r j?b. but th? HS? h?s ?d?nt?f??d s?x c?t?g?r??s ?f p?t?nt??l str?ss?rs ,f?rstly D?m?nds, Th?s ?nclud?s f?ct?rs ?ntr?ns?c t? th? j?b such ?s w?rk?ng c?nd?t??ns (f?r ?x?mpl? n??s?, t?mp?r?tur?, l?ght?ng ?r v?nt?l?t??n), sh?ft w?rk, l?ng ?r uns?c??bl? h?urs, w?rkl??d. S?c?ndly, C?ntr?l, H?w much s?y ?nd ?ut?n?my ? p?rs?n h?s ?v?r th? w?y ?n wh?ch h? c?rr??s ?ut h?s j?b; l?w l?v?ls ?f j?b c?ntr?l ?r? typ?c?lly l?nk?d t? h?gh l?v?ls ?f str?ss. Th?rdly, R?l?t??nsh?ps w?th sup?r??rs, sub?rd?n?t?s ?nd c?ll??gu?s c?n ?ll pl?y ? p?rt ?n ?n ?nd?v?du?l’s str?ss l?v?ls; l?w l?v?ls ?f trust ?nd supp?rt ?r? l?k?ly t? ?ncr??s? str?ss. ?ls?, c?nfl?ct, h?r?ssm?nt ?nd bully?ng ?n th? w?rkpl?c? ?r? ?ll l?nk?d t? h??ght?n?d str?ss. F?urthly, Ch?ng? th? w?y ?n wh?ch ch?ng? ?s ?ntr?duc?d, m?n?g?d ?nd c?mmun?c?t?d t? st?ff c?n ?mp?ct ?n l?v?ls ?f str?ss, ?s unn?c?ss?ry ?r b?dly pl?nn?d ch?ng? r?sults ?n ?xc?ss pr?ssur? ?n w?rk?rs. R?l?: Str?ss m?y b? tr?gg?r?d wh?n ?n ?nd?v?du?l d??s n?t h?v? ? cl??r und?rst?nd?ng ?f h?s r?l? w?th?n th? ?rg?n?z?t??n, wh?n th?r? ?s c?nfl?ct b?tw??n r?l?s ?r ?mb?gu?ty w?th r?g?rds t? p?s?t??n ?nd d?gr?? ?f r?sp?ns?b?l?ty ?v?r ?th?rs. f?fth, Supp?rt th? ?m?unt ?f supp?rt ?nd j?b tr??n?ng ?v??l?bl?, ?s w?ll ?s ?nc?ur?g?m?nt, sp?ns?rsh?p ?nd r?s?urc?s pr?v?d?d by c?ll??gu?s ?nd m?n?g?m?nt.
Wh?th?r s??n ?s b??ng du? t? ?bj?ct?v? ?r subj?ct?v? c?us?s, n? ?n? d?n??s th?t str?ss n?w c?nc?rns us m?r? th?n ?t us?d t?. Th? qu?st??n ?mm?d??t?ly ?r?s?s ?s t? wh?t, ?n c?nt?mp?r?ry l?f?, m?ght b? r?sp?ns?bl? f?r th?s sudd?n ?ncr??s? ?n v?s?b?l?ty? Str?ss ?nd c?mm?n m?nt?l h??lth pr?bl?ms typ?c?lly h?v? c?mpl?x ?nd mult?pl? c?us?s ?nd c?nn?t b? ?ttr?but?d s?l?ly t? ?v?nts ?n th? w?rkpl?c?. C?rt??nly, un?mpl?ym?nt ?s ?s b?d ?r w?rs? f?r ?ur h??lth, wh?l? th? f?ct ?f h?v?ng ? j?b, h?w?v?r ?mp?rf?ct ?t m?y b?, br?ngs p?s?t?v? psych?l?g?c?l ?ff?cts. ?mp?rt?ntly, ?t h?s b??n sugg?st?d th?t th? ?ncr??s? ?n ?lln?ss ?ttr?but?d t? str?ss m?y ?n p?rt b? du? t? th? r??s?d ?w?r?n?ss ?f str?ss th?t h?s t?k?n pl?c? ?nly r?c?ntly. Str?ss m?ght, th?r?f?r?, b? ? p?rt?cul?r r?fl?ct??n ?f h?st?r?c?l c?nt?xt24 , ?nd ?v?n ?f curr?nt p?l?t?c?l ?d??l?gy25 . Wh?th?r r??l by n?tur? ?r s?c??l c?nstruct??n th?r? ?s ?bund?nt surv?y ?v?d?nc? th?t p??pl? p?rc??v? th?ms?lv?s t? b? und?r ?ncr??s?ng l?v?ls ?f str?ss, p?rt?cul?rly ?n th? w?rkpl?c?. ?nt?r?st?ngly, th?s? wh? f?nd th??r w?rk p?rt?cul?rly str?ss-?nduc?ng ?r? h?gh- ?nd l?w-st?tus w?rk?rs. ?s th? str?ss ph?n?m?n?n h?s b??n p?pul?r?z?d, l?ss st?gm? h?s c?m? t? b? ?tt?ch?d t? ?dm?tt?ng f??l?ngs ?f str?ss ?r ?n?b?l?ty t? c?p?. ?ncr??s?ngly, w? ?nt?rpr?t ?v?nts ?nd ?m?t??ns ?n t?rms ?f str?ss.
D?t? ?n str?ss ?s ?ft?n ?v?r-r?l??nt ?n ? s?ngl? m??sur?m?nt; m?st ?ft?n, s?lf-r?p?rt?d ?nc?d?nts ?nd ?xp?r??nc?s, s?m? ?f th?s? d?t? ? h?v? g?th?r?d mys?lf fr?m 5 d?ff?r?nt p??pl? which’s mentioned in the next paragraphs.

f?r th? f?rst qu?st??nn??r?, N.T 29 y??rs ?ld w?rk?ng ?s ? d?r?ct?ng m?n?g?r ?n c?nstruct??n , th? str?ss h? f?c? ?t th? s?t?s ?nd c?nstruct??ns ?s m?stly fr?m th? cl??nts ?s th??r ?xp?ct?t??ns ?r? ?lw?ys h?gh ?nd ?v?r th? l?m?ts. ?n ?dd?t??n, th? budg?t ?ssu?s ?r? c?ns?d?r?d ?s str?ss b?c?us? th? cust?m?r w?nt th? b?st w?th l?ss c?sts ?nd r?s?urc?s. S?lut??n w?r? m?nt??n?d such like t?chn?l?gy that c?n h?lp c?mp?n??s m?n?g? mult?pl? pr?j?cts ?nd t?sks ?f v?r??us s?z?s ?nd sc?p?, wh?l? pr?v?d?ng r??l-t?m? r?p?rts ?nd tr?ck?ng ?n ? s?mpl?, ?ntu?t?v? v?su?l d?shb??rd. Th?s r??l-t?m? f??db?ck f?c?l?t?t?s ?ng??ng c?mmun?c?t??n b?tw??n ?ll ?rg?n?z?t??n?l l?v?ls ?nd ?nc?ur?g? ?mpl?y??s t? sp??k up wh?n th?y f??l th?t ?xp?ct?t??ns ?r? unr??l?st?c ?r th?y f??l ?v?rwh?lm?d. Th?s pr??ct?v? ?ppr??ch w?ll r?duc? w?rkpl?c? str?ss ?nd ?dd ? l?v?l ?f c?mf?rt t? th? bus?n?ss — p??pl? w?ll f??l th?t th?y h?v? ? v??c? ?nd ?r? b??ng h??rd.

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G.B sh? ?s 32 y??rs ?ld w?rk?ng ?s ? TV pr?s?nt?r, “th? str?ss ?t ?D TV w?s th? t?m? ?t’s b??n ?lw?ys ? b?g h??d?ch? t? th? t??m ?nd th?y’re ?lw?ys surr?und?d by ? t?ny c?rcl? ?f t?m?” – said G.B. Additionally, as th?y just c?n’t f?n?sh th? w?rk ?n th? r?ght t?m? but th?y w?uld try th??r b?st t? f?n?sh ?s much ?s p?ss?bl?. Th? s?lut??n w?s according to t?sk-m?n?g?m?nt str?t?gy, ?st?bl?sh r?l?s f?r ??ch ?mpl?y?? s? th?y kn?w wh?r? th??r pr??r?t??s l??, ?nd tr?ck th??r pr?gr?ss c?nt?nu?usly t? ?nsur? th?y ?r? b??ng pr?duct?v?. Wh?n pr?duct?v?ty l?gs, th?t sc?n?r?? m?y ?nd?c?t? burn?ut ?nd ?v?rw?rk. ? c?ns?d?r?d th?t ?s ? tw? c?s?s c?us? h? w?s h?v?ng ?n tw? d?ff?r?nt w?rk-pl?c?s.

?.M ? stud?nt ?n ?GU ?t th? ?g? ?f 24 , h? ?s f?n?sh?ng h?s b?ch?l?r ?nd w?rk?ng ?n tw? d?ff?r?nt pl?c?s ?ll ?t th? s?m? t?m? , th? s?urc? ?f th? str?ss w?s th? ?m?unt ?f th? w?rk n??d?d t? b? d?n? by h?m w?th?n ? sh?rt p?r??d ?f t?m? wh?ch c?us? f?r h?m l?ck ?f sl??p ?nd str?ss ,s?lut??ns th?t h? f?gur?d l?t?r w?s  fl?x?b?l?ty. Th?s typ? ?f burn?ut ?s p?rtly ?n th? h?nds ?f ?mpl?y??s, but ?rg?n?z?t??ns c?n pl?y ? p?rt ?nd m?k? ? p?s?t?v? ?mp?ct. D?n’t ?ll?w ?mpl?y??s t? t?k? w?rk h?m? ?n ? r?gul?r b?s?s. D?sc?ur?g? th?m fr?m c?nst?ntly c?nn?ct?ng by ?st?bl?sh?ng t?ch curf?ws ?nd s?tt?ng cl??r ?xp?ct?t??ns ?b?ut r?sp?ns? t?m?s t? h?lp m?n?g? w?rkl??ds. Pr?v?nt t?l?pr?ssur? by h?lp?ng ?mpl?y??s s?t sp?c?f?c m?m?nts ?n th? d?y t? ch?ck c?rr?sp?nd?nc?, ?nst??d ?f c?nst?ntly ?ddr?ss?ng ??ch n?t?f?c?t??n ?nst?ntly. ?dd?t??n?lly, pr?v?d? fl?x?bl? sch?dul?ng, l?k? p?rm?tt?ng fl?xt?m? ?r t?l?c?mmut?ng. Th?s ?ll?ws ?mpl?y??s th? ch?nc? t? g?t w?rk d?n? ?n t?m?, but ?cc?rd?ng t? th??r p?rs?n?l sch?dul?. Th?y w?n’t m?ss ?ut ?n th?ngs l?k? f?m?ly ?v?nts ?r st?p ?ng?g?ng ?n p?rs?n?l h?bb??s, ?nd th?y c?n st?ll b? pr?duct?v?.
H.L ? 20 y??rs ?ld ?qu?str??n tr??n?r ?nd ? r?c?ng j?ck?y ,?b?ut wh?t sh? f?c? fr?m str?ss ?nd th? ?ssu?s ?n th? w?rk?ng f??ld , hug? r?sp?ns?b?l?ty ?s sh? g?v?s tr??n?ng t? k?ds ?nd th? duty w?rk?ng sh?fts , th? h?gh ?xp?ct?t??ns ?f th? p?r?nts t? m?k? th??r k?ds pr?f?ss??n?l r?d?rs wh?l? ?t’s n?t th?t ??sy t? ?cc?mpl?sh plus t?k?ng c?r? ?f th? h?rs?s h??lth ?nd st?m?n?. Sh? r?c?mm?nd t? pr?v?d? fl?x?bl? sch?dul?ng, l?k? p?rm?tt?ng fl?xt?m? ?r t?l?c?mmut?ng. Th?s ?ll?ws ?mpl?y??s th? ch?nc? t? g?t w?rk d?n? ?n t?m?, but ?cc?rd?ng t? th??r p?rs?n?l sch?dul?. Th?y w?n’t m?ss ?ut ?n th?ngs l?k? f?m?ly ?v?nts ?r st?p ?ng?g?ng ?n p?rs?n?l h?bb??s, ?nd th?y c?n st?ll b? pr?duct?v?.

M.? ? 34 y??rs ?ld w?rk?ng ?s ? c?ll c?nt?r ?g?nt th? m?st th?ng th?t’s g?v? h?m h?rd t?m? dur?ng h?s w?rk ?s rud? cust?m?rs ?nd h?w th?y tr??t h?m ?n d?sr?sp?ctful w?y h? s??d ” ?f y?u r?sp?nd t? ? cust?m?r’s rud? c?mm?nt w?th ? d?f?ns?v? ?tt?tud?, y?u’ll ?sc?l?t? th? str?ss ?f th? s?tu?t??n f?r b?th ?f y?u”. Try t? us? r?str??nt ?n y?ur r?sp?ns? t? d?ff?cult cl??nts ?nd cust?m?rs.Y?u c?n’t c?ntr?l th? ?ct??ns ?f ?th?rs, but by staying c??l, y?u ?v??d c?ntr?but?ng t? c?nt?nu?d str?ssful c?nv?rs?t??ns. ?t t?k?s tw? t? ?rgu? ?nd ?f y?u’r? n?t th? ?n? wh? st?rts ?t ?nd y?u r?fus? t? f?n?sh ?t, y?u’ll l?k?ly h?v? much l?ss ?f ?t t? ?xp?r??nc?. R?m?v? y?ur p?rt ?n wh?t cr??t?s str?ssful s?tu?t??ns ?nd th?s? wh? h?v? str?ss t? sh?r? w?ll h?v? t? g? ?ls?wh?r?.

To conclude, as ? w?rd, str?ss h?s ? dub??us y?t und?n??bl? m??n?ng. ?s ? pr?bl?m, ?t ?s ?xtr??rd?n?r?ly w?d?spr??d ?nd m?y n?w h?v? ?ssum?d wh?t c?n ?nly b? d?scr?b?d ?s ?p?d?m?c pr?p?rt??ns. ?n ?v?ryd?y l?ngu?g?, p?l?cy c?rcl?s ?nd ?cr?ss th? s?c??l sc??nc?s, str?ss c?nt?nu?s t? d?m?nd ?tt?nt??n. W?rkpl?c? str?ss ?s c?stly ?nd b?c?m?ng m?r? s?, it h?s m?ny c?us?s, ?nd th?s? ?nv?lv? c?mpl?x c?mb?n?t??ns ?f phys?c?l, s?c??l ?nd psych?l?g?c?l ?l?m?nts. Str?ss ?ff?cts p??pl? d?ff?r?ntly, ?s d?ff?cult t? m??sur? ?nd h?s ? fr?ught r?l?t??nsh?p w?th b?th ?ll-h??lth ?nd unh?pp?n?ss. D?sp?t? th?s? s??rch?ng ?nd ?nc?nclus?v? d?b?t?s, suff?r?ng ?s r??l ?nd p??pl? c?nt?nu? t? ?d?pt th? ?ff?ct?v? l?ngu?g? ?f str?ss t? d?scr?b? (?nd ?xp?r??nc?) pr?bl?ms ?n th??r w?rk. N? m?tt?r wh?t ?ts pr?c?s? n?tur?, str?ss n?w pl?c?s s?gn?f?c?nt pr?ssur?s ?n ?rg?n?z?t??ns t? d?v?l?p m?th?ds f?r ?ts ?ff?ct?v? pr?v?nt??n ?nd m?n?g?m?nt.
R?f?r?nc?s :
P?th?k M (2008) “Th? c?sts t? ?mpl?y?rs ?n Br?t??n ?f w?rkpl?c? ?njur??s ?nd w?rk-r?l?t?d ?ll h??lth ?n 2005/06”, HS? D?scuss??n P?p?r S?r??s, N?. 002, S?pt?mb?r 2008.
P?ck J ?nd Th??d?r? N (2007) Fl?x?bl? R?c?ss??n: Th? T?mp?r?ry St?ff?ng ?ndustry ?nd M?d??t?d W?rk ?n th? US?, C?mbr?dg? J?urn?l ?f ?c?n?m?cs 31(2): 171–192.

P?lk?ngt?n ?, Mulh?ll?nd R?, C?w?? H?, Gr?h?m MK ?nd Hutch?ns?n P? (2001) B?s?l?n? m??sur?m?nt f?r th? ?v?lu?t??n ?f th? w?rk-r?l?t?d str?ss c?mp??gn, H??lth ; S?f?ty ?x?cut?v?, Sudbury: HS? B??ks.

Pl?tt S (1984) Un?mpl?ym?nt ?nd su?c?d?l b?h?v??ur – ? r?v??w ?f th? l?t?r?tur?. S?c??l Sc??nc? ?nd M?d?c?n? 1984;19:93–115.