(1) ELECTRIC PROPULSION AND ENERGY STORAGE
Most hybrid hardware subsystems and components with exception of energy storage devices have been matured to an acceptable level efficiency performance and reliability. The energy stored in the HEV storage unit is much smaller than that in the EV unit. It is also clear that the power capability of the batteries designed for HEVs is much higher than those designed for EVs. However, batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles require both high energy density and high-power capability based on the driving requirements. The other significant technical challenges include higher initial cost, cost of battery replacement, added weight and volume, performance and durability.
Mehrdad et al (1997) presented a design methodology for EV and HEV propulsion systems based on the vehicle dynamics. This methodology is aimed at finding the optimal torque-speed profile for the electric powertrain. The study reveals that the extended constant power operation is important for both the initial acceleration and cruising intervals of operation. The more the
motor can operate in constant power, the less the acceleration power requirement will be. Several types of motors are studied in this context. It is concluded that the induction motor has clear advantages for the EV and HEV at the present. A brushless dc motor must be capable of high speeds to be competitive with the induction motor. However, more design and evaluation
data is needed to verify this possibility. The design methodology was applied to an actual EV and HEV to demonstrate its benefits.
Keywords : Hybrid electric vehicle, Motors, Power
Bartlomiej et al (2003) provided the evaluation of driving power and energy requirements for automotive vehicle. A survey of most promising applications of electric and hybrid vehicles in cities with commercial line solutions was given. Evaluation of vehicle’s energy, when is referred to urban driving cycles, reflects an important diversification of the average and maximal power requirements. Simulation results of a small car equipped with advanced fuel cell converter and supercapacitor storage bank have indicated the power flow between these sources at normalized urban driving conditions.
Keywords : Energy, Power
Markel and Simpson (2006) proposed that, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology holds much promise for reducing the demand for petroleum in the transportation sector. Its potential impact is highly dependent on the system design and the energy storage system. They discussed on the design options including power, energy and operating strategy as they relate to the energy storage system. They studied the design options including power, energy, and operating strategy as they relate to the energy storage system. Expansion of the usable state-of-charge window will dramatically reduce cost but it will be limited by battery life requirements. Increasing the
battery power capability will provides the ability to run all-electrically more often but it will increase the cost. Increasing the energy capacity from 20-40 miles of electric range capability provides an extra 15% reduction in fuel consumption but also nearly doubles the incremental cost.
Keywords : Transportation, Charge, Battery
(2) ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Karl (2005) developed a methodological approach to combine a technology assessment of the major subsystems of a personal electric vehicle with a technical model of vehicle performance in order to estimate the cost and mass of a vehicle for a given set of functional requirements. Personal electric vehicles offer several potential benefits to consumers and to society including lower transportation costs, reduced trip times and lower environmental impact. Personal electric vehicles are technically feasible now. However, suppliers have not yet arrived at a set of practical vehicles that best match technical feasibility and consumer demand. Part of the challenge is to understand the relative trade-offs among cost, weight, range and other dimensions of vehicle performance. His article estimates the technological frontier defined by these trade-offs. This frontier illustrates what is likely to be technically possible. The question of what is commercially feasible remains. However this question will be answered by suppliers and consumers in the marketplace in the coming years.
Keywords : Technology, Performance, Feasible
Jonathan et al (2008) examines the key forces driving and resisting strong market growth of E2W, what is causing these forces and how these forces are inter-related using FFA methodology. Through this analysis, we conclude improvement in E2Ws and battery technology is a driving force that can be partially attributed to the open-modular industry structure of suppliers and assemblers. This type of structure was made possible by the highly modular product architecture of E2Ws, which resulted in product standardization and enhanced competition amongst battery technologies. Growing air quality and traffic problems in cities in part due to rapid urbanization has led to strong political support for E2Ws at the local level in
the form of motorcycle bans and loose enforcement of E2W standards. There are softer signs of national support for this mode in part due to national energy efficiency goals. Public transit systems in cities have become strained from the effects of urbanization and motorization, which has stimulated greater demand for ”low-end” private transport.
Keywords : Market, Urbanization, Traffic
Nan and Michael (2009) developed a database on all transport modes including passenger air and water and freight in order to facilitate the development of energy scenarios, and assess the significance of technology potential in a global climate change model. Transportation mobility in India has increased significantly in the past decades. This has contributed many energy and environmental issues, and an energy strategy that incorporates efficiency improvement and other measures needs to be designed. An extensive literature review and data collection has been done to establish the database with a breakdown of mobility, intensity, distance, and fuel mix of all transportation modes. Energy consumption was estimated and compared to aggregated transport consumption reported in IEA India transportation energy data. Different scenarios were estimated based on different assumptions of freight road mobility. Based on the bottom-up analysis, they estimated that the energy consumption from 1990 to 2000 increased at an annual growth rate of 7% for the midrange road freight growth case and 12% for the high range road freight growth case corresponding to the scenarios in mobility, while the IEA data only show a 1.7% growth rate in those years. Ultimately, however, energy-related environmental impacts, particularly climate change, are a global issue. They hope that continuing research applying the approach presented above contributes to the understanding of global energy-related emissions and toward strategies of their reduction.
Keywords : Energy, Environmental, Consumption
(3) A multi-level perspective on the introduction of hydrogen and battery-electric vehicles
Alternative vehicles powered by electricity or hydrogen hold the potential to solve a number of challenges that relate to automobile use, such as climate change, deterioration of local air quality, security of energy supply, and high fuel prices. This article addresses the question as to how a transition to vehicles powered by hydrogen or electricity could take place. Recognizing that transitions result from joint development of technology and society, a co-evolutionary, multi-level perspective is adopted. The perspective is used to analyze the dynamics of the relationship between car manufacturers and consumers and developments that put pressure on this relationship. Building on the analysis, two sets of scenarios for a transition to battery-electric and fuel cell vehicles are identified. In one set of scenarios, tightening emissions regulation stimulates carmakers to scale up experiments with alternative vehicles, moving them into the commercialization phase. In the other set, rising fuel prices prompt carmakers to first extend their current product line-up with plug-in versions, and later with battery-electric and fuel cell vehicles. The two scenarios have different implications for the actors involved and for the requisite supporting infrastructure.
Keywords : Fuel cell vehicles, Battery-electric vehicles, Socio-technical pathways
Geert P.J. Verbong is an associate professor in Technology and Sustainability Studies at TU/e. His specialisation is in the field of energy systems and renewable energy. His recent publications include a book on the history of renewable energy in the Netherlands (2001) and the Dutch Energy Research Centre (2005). He teaches courses on Technology Assessment, Scenario Methodology, Strategic Niche Management, Energy Policy and Governance in the Science Technology and Society program and the MSc program Sustainable Energy Technology (SET) at TU/e, with a focus on energy systems, renewable energy and energy policy. He is a core member of the Dutch Knowledge Network on System Innovations or Transitions.
(4) Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi
Colin J R Sheppard, Anand R Gopal, Andrew Harris and Arne Jacobson
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6–7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ~10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of $4.4 M (or $440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and
frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.
Keywords : Opportunity, Hybrid, plug in Electric vehicle