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1. Reflect on the relative success of centralised and dispersed systems for technology related to adaptation to climate change. Describe the advantages and disadvantages that these two types of systems may have for climate change adaptation, using examples to support your explanation (2 paragraphs)
Situated in northwest Queensland is located Sun Water’s $42.5 million Cloncurry pipeline which is helping the local residents as a drought relief. In December 2008, Queensland Premier Anna Bligh decided to construct the pipe line because of clear water shortage in the town on Cloncurry due to drought. The up gradation of plant allows in improvement in water quality. In South Africa, the poorly distributed rainfall, soil losses and the current economic conditions have excluded the persons from having access to water. DRWH(Domestic rain water harvesting)consist of catchment area which includes rooftop rain water harvesting (water is stored in either above-ground or underground tanks) and ground rainwater harvesting(Water sis stored in underground tanks).Productive activities like garden watering contribute to the household incomes as an contribution to the small scale home based productive activities.
At financial and environmental cost, desalination plant can provide a climate independent water supply.one can reduce the usage of water using desalination plants. A $ 6.9 billion has been invested for treating water supply network that is resilient to new climate water supplies, such as Purified recycled water and desalination in South East Queensland. across SEQ from Noosa to Coolangatta and west to the Lockyer Valley, water supply is been connected through two way pipes that allows the treated drinking water move from new and existing sources across the region. A large amount of energy is required for to be fall under environmental cost but the greenhouse gas will distress the atmosphere unless renewable energy is used. Dispersed system enhances livelihood resilience and ecosystem. The Domestic rain water harvesting in South Africa has helped to store water in roof top tanks when there is no rain. The rain water harvesting has increased access to water and has improved livelihood of African people. The disadvantage is its maintenance is intensive and can present operational challenges.
References
(a)Cloncurry Water Pipeline brings relief.2010 June 5.The Australian pipeliner. Retrieved from www.pipeliner.com.au/2010/06/05/cloncurry-water-pipeline-brings-relief/
(b) M.K. Jean-marc . E. T. Akpofure, R.J. Boroto.(2010). Domestic Rainwater Harvesting as an Adaptation Measure to Climate Change in South Africa. 35.13-14
2. Explain the role that hybrid systems may play in climate change adaptation and provide examples (1-2 paragraphs)
Hybrid water supply system is a part of sustainable urban water management strategy. Such creation helps in reduction of waste water and storage water into the environment. It is an inspirational approach towards scarcity of water due to population growth and uncertainty of climate change. Through local source variation they can enhance the water security. Usage of alternative local water usage diminishes the amount of water absorbed from waterways, groundwater or dams and hence refines water security. It also decreases the social, economic and environmental instability to climate change by creating distributed water systems through infrastructure design choices at a range of scales from household to local level. This guarantees greater flexibility. Because of the adverse effect of climate change in water supply system it has become important to study other water service options such as storm water and rainwater harvesting, wastewater recycling along with centralized system .
South Africa, because of the long term climate change and reduction of rainfall the water professionals with political support from government leaders have come up with a plan of water reuse and rise in desalination. The Residents of Amatikwe, South Africa are using community standpipes for water. Establishment of roof tanks to store 200 litre of water per day in KwaZulu pilot project are distributed in low pressure. Even in the U.S state of California, the highly treated wastewater is purified for the reuse. By minimising wastewater disposal to the sea, and provide clean water to inject into deep groundwater aquifers to prevent seawater intrusion. The Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) is used to purify for reuse additional highly treated wastewater. About 80 pecent of the pure drinking water is piped to the houses.
References
(a)S. Mukta, A.Meenakshi, M.Hector, M.Magnus,S.Ashok,G.Biju,P.Francis.(2014). An Overview of Hybrid Water Supply Systems in the Context of Urban Water Management: Challenges and Opportunities. Water 2015. 7(1), 153-174
(b)D.Bruce,R.P Stephanie(phD),G.Dawn. Sustainable solutions to water scarcity. Retrieved from www.waterworld.com/articles/wwi/print/volume-17/issue-5/features/sustainable-solutions-to-water-scarcity.html

(3)Mini case study – Provide an example of a technology related to climate change adaptation (be careful not to choose one related to mitigation) and describe whether it is centralised or dispersed, and whether this may need to change to respond to climate change in societies where that technology is used (2 paragraphs)
Shimla City, Himachal Pradesh has always depended on springs for water supply because of the population size. But as eh population has increased and the change in climate has led to high temperatures and irregular rainfall patterns in building water tanks on the roof has become important. Dispersed technologies such as Roof top harvesting is used in Shimla as the best way for further use. From June to September, heavy showers can be noticed. Doubling of the land area has led to water requirement. The additional supply of Water from the Giri River is not sufficient for the people and the municipal corporation deploys tankers in alternate days. Decreasing in forest is as a main factor in reduction of water source. The natural springs have tried u because of high temperature. Seeing the population and future climate change a long term sustainable management of water resource is needed.
Rain water harvesting is a good option for adaptation. As the city receives a good amount of rainfall Rain water harvesting is a good option also it has a long term impact. Rainwater harvesting is important due to the possible result of climate change. In Future, there is a change in reduction of rainfall. So, ground water recharge must be an option to save the rain water which can be done by making recharge pits. Furthermore, recycle and reuse of waste water. Hybrid water system will be a good option for Shimla city.
References
(a) S. Tanu, L.S. Kandari.(2012).Rainwater harvesting in the Wake of Climate Change: A Case Study from Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh . Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology . Volume 2, Issue 4: 336-346
(b)CDP (City Development Plan) (2006): Shimla, Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD)

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Journal Question 5
1. Write a summary of your chosen the article (2 paragraphs)
The Article well describes the change in years in knowing the happenings inside the ocean of the marine ecosystem and the effects of human involvement. A lot of information on the threshold on the ecosystem and socio-economic dynamics on ecosystem has been known to the people by divers. It is true that remote sensing techniques, molecular tools, advanced computer models have to broaden the horizon of knowledge of marine life. But, going deep into the unknown ocean will require new techniques and strategies to prepare for the worst and cross new boundaries. The scientist must think some innovative methods to further explore and develop the marine ecosystem. In the globalized economy, marine ecosystem is important as it influences incentives, prices but the human activities spoil the marine life by the release of toxins, heavy metals into the ocean. Human beings have become an important part of the marine ecosystem and it has become a necessity for re-evaluation of how the marine ecosystem functions.
The complex and change in the marine ecosystem have led to a shift of study from species interaction to non-linear interactions. Research on the effects of climate on species, ocean acidification as well as human influence on marine by the change of habitats, removal of predator and prey, adding nutrients is gaining a lot of attention. Thresholds in the marine ecosystem cannot be left unattended coz that points on the human actions and causes loss of resilience. Novel models have been developed to identify thresholds. Knowing the marine ecosystem is based on the market price and incentive as well as coastal livelihood. Fishing is good but going beyond can affect the marine balance. Social-ecological dynamics include the measures to restore the marine ecosystem, protecting the areas. Catching big fish is not easy and the scientist must go beyond their creativity and research to explore the critical factor of the marine ecosystem and the social-ecological future. Efforts from species communication to fisheries-human interactions, ecosystem-social interactions have already started. Understanding the socio-economic activity (pollution) leads to human-induced biophysical change (ocean acidification) can impact the marine ecosystem. The social-ecological dynamic can aware how the human communities, regions, nations, adjust to social-ecological change and convert to verge on the ecosystem to marine administration. Adaptive governance and system transformation ease the fast spread of ideas with possible global implications. Interactions with the ecosystem academic designed as experiments can allow for evaluation to produce on adaptation and transformations in marine social-ecological systems. Transformation is a way to investigate and understand social-ecological dynamics across scales.
In conclusion, preparing for the unexpected is an important strategy. The marine scientist must collaborate with researchers help identify novel ways to understand and govern marine ecosystems.
2. Explain how it informs the developing field of climate change adaptation (2 paragraphs).
Investigating on social ecological dynamics through studying marine ecosystem and research on markets contribution in food webs to the coastal livelihood has improved the marine ecosystem. The proximate interactions between socioeconomic activities (for example, fishing, pollution) and human-induced biophysical change (for example, temperature, ocean acidification) is an important step towards sustainable sue of marine ecosystem. Efforts on modelling the Anthropocene from species communication to fisheries-human interactions, ecosystem-social interactions have already started. Adaptive governance and system transformation ease the fast spread of ideas with possible global implications. Interactions with the ecosystem academic designed as experiments can allow for evaluation to produce on adaptation and transformations in marine social-ecological systems. Transformation is a way to investigate and understand social-ecological dynamics across scales.
Response diversity is the diversity where diverse response from species can be observed from environmental change. For example, in lake system, animal plankton species with high tolerance to low pH assist the operating of phytoplankton during acidic condition. The three groups of herbivorous namely scrapers, grazers, bio-erode helps in coral recovery. The self-repairing has actively robust the capacity of the marine ecosystem to support social and economic development. It seems it is trying to sustain desirable pathways and the marine ecosystem says to the continuous change. New policies are needed to protect ecosystem for future generation.
3. Provide the full reference of your chosen article. Do not use any article that is not available on the Murdoch library system.
(a) Österblom, H., Crona, B. I., Folke, C., Nyström, M., ; Troell, M. (2017). Marine ecosystem science on an intertwined planet. Ecosystems, 20(1),54-61.
doi:http://dx.doi.org.libproxy.murdoch.edu.au/10.1007/s10021-016-9998-6
(b) Drakou, Evangelia G.(2017). Shaping the future of marine socio-ecological systems research: when early-career researchers meet the seniors. journal of marine science,Volume 74, issue 7. ISSN: 1054-3139

Journal Question 6
1. Briefly describe the extreme event (1 paragraph)
The shortage in rain has led to the drought and an economic crisis affecting more than 2 million people in Srilanka. The rain shortage has led to a drastic effect on the paddy rice cultivation. There has been an urgent need of food assistance for more than 900,000 people and 80000 were in need of life-saving support according to a March 7 draft assessment acquired by IRIN. According to the World Food Program, in 40 years the cultivation was the worst as the drought has affected the land so badly. The nation’s food supply has caused a hit and the rise in price had let the poor families feed on small meals and avoid the nutrient food like meat or vegetables. Water tanks are being dried out leading to the contamination of storage water leading risk of diseases. The lack of lack will damage agriculture and hydropower. 80 percent of its electricity is derived from coal and oil and only 11 percent from hydropower.
2. List and group the adaptation responses using Pittock’s strategies (1 paragraph and/or a table).
1. Prevent effects: To survive, over 30,000 tons of rice has been imported from India. Even though the monthly requirement is 20000, there always been an increase. If the drought still remains for a year there is a possibility of increase in import of rice worth $800 million as per the central bank. According to Prof. Marambe, who chairs the country’s National Experts’ Committee on Climate Change Adaptation says to only rely on import as there is no other option. Taxes from the rice imports have been removed to stabilize the rice prices.
2. Modify the threat: A long term strategy can be taken by the government against climate change. A cross-ministry committee is making plans to come up with an action plan to deal with upcoming problems. The government is ready to get into short term power supply agreement with private companies to meet the fall of hydropower production capacity. Water use from national reservoirs will be strictly examined for the drinking purpose as suggested by inter-ministerial committee.
3. Was climate change acknowledged as a factor in the extreme event and why? (1 paragraph)
Yes, because of less rainfall the drought had left the Sri Lankan people in its worse condition. The harvest of rice production has lessened. Young farmers are migrating to a different job. The government is relied on importing rice from India. According to the experts, there is a wide figure in climate on the island. Over the last 50 years, there has been an increase in average temperature by 0.01-0.03 degree Celsius annually as said by Buddhi Marambe, professor of Crop Science at the Agriculture Faculty in the University of Peradeniya. Over the years, the dry seasons have become drier and wet seasons got wetter which is a huge impact of climate change which is leaving the land of Sri Lanka in drought.
4. Identify, list and describe any second-order adaptations that have occurred or will be needed to support the first-order adaptations you have listed in your answer to question 2 (1-2 paragraphs). For explanation of first and second-order adaptations see reading by Birkman et al. (listed above)
Planning is been made by the cross ministry committee to take an action plan to overcome the future problems. A long term strategy can be taken by the government against climate change. The government is ready to get into short term power supply agreement with private companies to meet the fall of hydropower production capacity. Water use from national reservoirs will be strictly examined for the drinking purpose as suggested by inter-ministerial committee.Taxes have been removed on rice imports to stabilize the market prices.