1

1.1 Introduction

During last summer vacation, we had visited the SWAMI TEXTILE. For our IDP project. Swami Textile is a dyeing factory, where the threads are dyeing in bulk. Main components those used for dyeing threads are Boiler, Process equipment, Pipes, Colour Mixture for mixing the different colours. Here steam application is as a process steam. Product quality depends upon quality of steam. So Steam is the main parameter for satisfactory operation. Steam quality depends upon various factors like feed water, boiler fuel, type of boiler, steam carrying pipes, distance between steam generation point and area of application.

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The whole unit of dyeing incorporates a wood fired water tube boiler, steam carrying pipes, dyeing containers with number of nozzles filled with different colours, and a chimney for exhaust gases. Steam generated by the boiler is used as a process steam for dyeing purpose. Heat carried by steam is used for transferring heat to the threads bundle to impregnate the colour into threads properly.

During Dyeing operation, Water is fed to the boiler at room temperature by pump. Steam generation takes place in wood fired water tube boiler using wood as a fuel in the furnace. Steam is carried from boiler tubes to point of application where steam is used for heating the threads. First threads are coloured by sprays and then heat is used threads for drying purpose. Steam used for this purpose should be such that it would be dry enough to make thread dry but it should wet also so that threads are no burned out. So, Steam of uniform quantity is necessary. Flue gases produced by burning of fuel will be disposed to atmosphere through metal chimney.

2
OVER VIEW OF PLANT
2.1 Over view of Swami Text Pvt. Ltd.
2.2 Operation of Plant – 2.2.1 Operating parameters
2.3 Existing Condition of Plant

2.1 Over view of Swami Text Pvt. Ltd.
Fig. 2.1 Schematic Plant layout of Swami Text Pvt. Ltd.
Figure shows the schematic diagram of plant with dimensions where the yarn drying is carried out. It consists of boiler with economizer placed vertically, steam carrying pipes, control valves, feed water arrangement, process equipments. Feed water is first heated in the economizer, and then it is further heated by the hot flue gases formed in the combustion chamber. This heated water then converted into the dry saturated steam by taking latent heat of vaporization from hot gases.

Steam is then carried to the 1st floor where the process equipments are placed. Steam is carried by pipes are insulated by glass wool so that the heat transfer loss is minimum during flow through pipes. Steam is then used for process heating in process equipment drums in which the dyeing process is carried out. In these drums thread bundle is placed in such a way that the dyeing to thread is uniform throughout the bundle. In drums proper pressure is built up in process equipment and then dyeing to threads is carried out.
2.2 Operation of plant

During last summer vacation, we had visited the swami textile for our IDP project. Swami textile is a dyeing factory, where the threads are dyeing in bulk. Main components those used for dyeing threads are boiler, process equipment, pipes, and colour mixture for mixing the different colours. Generally, steam, in industries, is either used for power generation or as a process steam. Here steam is used as a process steam. Steam generated by the boiler is used as a process steam for dyeing purpose. Heat carried by steam is used for giving heat to the threads bundle to impregnate the colour into threads properly. Product quality depends upon quality of steam. So steam is the main parameter for satisfactory operation. Steam quality depends upon various factors like feed water, fuel used for combustion, type of boiler used, steam carrying pipes, distance between generation of steam location and area of application.

Figure. 2.2 Photo of Thread dyed in the Swami Textile Pvt. Ltd.
During dyeing operation, water is fed to the boiler from water tank through economizer where temperature of water is increased to 800c. From where water is pumped by centrifugal pump running by 1hp motor. Boiler is fired tube boiler in which water is converted in to steam of temperature around 140 to 1600c and pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm2. Steam is generated in wood fired water tube boiler by combustion of wood in the furnace. Steam generated in boiler tubes are carried to the process equipments through pipes, where steam is utilized for heating the threads. First threads are coloured by sprays and then steam is used to heat those threads for drying purpose. Steam used for this purpose should be such that it would be dry enough to make thread dry and at temperature of 1300c and pressure of 3 kg/cm2, but it should wet also so that threads are no burned out. So, steam of uniform quantity is necessary. Wood burnt in furnace will give heat to water and produces steam. Flue gases produced by burning of fuel will disposed to atmosphere through chimney. Steam supplied to the processing vessel is condensed and lead to the water tank and same water is fed to the boiler as feed water.
2.2.1 Operating parameters

• Boiler pressure (pb) = 3-4 kg/cm2
• Boiler temperature (tb) = 150 c0
• Enthalpy of steam at boiler outlet (eb) = 2759.329 kj/kg of steam (from steam table)
• Final pressure or pressure in dyeing drum (pd) = 3 kg/cm2
• Temperature in dyeing drum (td) = 1300c

2.3 Existing Condition of Plant

Fig.2.3 Existing Boiler
The working condition of actual existing boiler is shown in photograph. Boiler is shown and required mountings like pressure gauge, temperature gauge, water level indicator is mounted. Economizer is shown where heat is transferred from hot flue gases to inlet feed water. Water is preheated around 80 0c then water is heated to final temperature in boiler around 150 0c.

Fig.2.4 Steam Pipe lines
Fig 2.4 Shows insulation condition of steam pipeline. Steam carrying pipeline is insulated using material glass wool. Flow control valve and coupling is shown in figure.

Fig.2.5 (a) Valves

Fig.2.5 (b) Flow control valve
Fig 2.5 (a) and (b) shows control valve various flow control valves are also used to control the flow of valve as shown in figure. Direction control valves are also used where there is requirement of flow of steam at two places.

Fig.2.6 Filter and oil separator
Figure shows the filter and oil separator. Oil is separated here from the fluid. Filter is provided to filter it to reduce the intensity of contaminants from the fluid.

Fig.2.7 7 Sampling vessel
Figure shows the sampling process vessel, Where the steam of required quantity is used for dyeing to check the quality of product that is to be made by that steam.
Before the starting the production of dyeing in large quantity, it is required to check first quality of color mixture that is done at this vessel.

Fig.2.8 Horizontal process vessel
Figure shows horizontal process vessel in which the cone of thread is applied horizontally. It can be put easily in the vessel as compared to vertical vessel.

3
ISSUES
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Major Issues -Inefficient steam system –

3.1 Introduction

Process carried out in factory need steam of should be dry enough to give amount of heat to threads for drying them. But the problem is that steam coming to the process application area, is not dry enough to give satisfactory results. Steam produced at boiler is of required quality but when it reaches to application area it is of low quality. This is major concern for the factory employees. It also affects operation of process equipment as the equipment has to work under this faulty condition and this will lead to premature failure of process equipment.

Even this wet steam cause many other problems like corrosion of gauges, less heat transfer due to layer of water, premature failure due to corrosion of gauges, improper working of equipment under this condition, poor quality of product, higher fuel consumption and higher expense on fuel. This all problem is due to wet steam so we find that this problem is important to consider and there is lot of scope of savings in terms of cost as well as energy.

Another problem was occurring with chimney. Main function of chimney is disposal of waste hot flue gases, produced at the end of combustion process in the furnace, to atmosphere. Here factory is using wood fired water tube boiler, so the wood is fired in the combustion chamber to produce steam in water tubes for process. Then this hot gases coming out of furnace is used for preheat water in economizer. Hot flue gases passing through economizer, will then come to chimney from where it will dispose to atmosphere. Chimney of circular cross section is used.

Here the main problem in industry is that chimney is blocked in 6 to 7 days because of disposal of carbon on surface of the chimney wall. Because of this workers have to clean the chimney every week otherwise the combustion process cannot be proceeded due to choke up of chimney. Boiler operation is off during cleaning of chimney and this makes the boiler to cool down. When the cleaning is done, the boiler can be used. When boiler is started again, it will take some hours to heat it up then it can give actually heat to the water to produce steam.

This will lead to time consuming process as well as productivity is also affected. Due to this problem factory has to face the problems like less productivity, required more time to clean chimney and fully utilization of equipment is not achieved.

3.2 Major Issues

During visit we had found that there is certain problem in plant regarding to chimney and Quality of steam. Factory workers and senior employees decided to support and help us in our project. They were ready to give any kind of information related to plant based on our project. As in factory two problems are there, so we have decided to include both problems in our project.

1) Inefficient steam system

3.2.1 Inefficient steam system:

Steam quality is an important factor that affects the quality of product and fuel consumption of process, process time and is directly related to cost of product and cost of fuel. Process carried out in factory need steam of enough dryness fraction that is steam should be dry enough to give amount of heat to threads for drying them and wet enough so that it will not damage the threads.

Here we found that steam coming to the process application area, is not dry enough to give satisfactory results. Steam reached at application area is of less dry. Steam produced at boiler is of required quality but when it reaches to application area it is of low quality. This is major concern for the factory employees. It also affects operation of process equipment as the equipment has to work under this faulty condition and this will lead to premature failure of process equipment.

Even this wet steam cause many other problems like Corrosion of gauges, less heat transfer due to layer of water, premature failure due to corrosion of gauges, improper working of equipment under this condition, poor quality of product, higher fuel consumption and higher expense on fuel. This all problem is due to wet steam so we find that this problem is important to consider and there is lot of scope of savings in terms of cost as well as energy.

Fig. 3.1 Steam Distribution System

As shown in fig. insulation of steam pipelines is not sufficient and it leads to high heat loss in steam. As piping work and insulation provided is done by local person, also installation of boiler is not as per standards. Low boiler effectiveness leads to high consumption of fuel and low productivity. Hence re-design of steam system is necessary.

By proper inspection and observation during the training period in swami textiles, we concluded some of the reasons behind it.
Some of the main reasons we have considered are,
1. Use of low quality wood fire boiler the steam quality is poor at the generation so that it is getting wet near to point of application. Wood has lower calorific value and improper maintenance may cause of lower quality steam.
2. Lower steam quality is because of poor insulation technique or degraded material used for insulation.
3. Improper designed pipelines and unnecessary length of the steam carrying pipe cause the pressure drop in the pipe & it leads to condensation.

4
ANALYSIS FOR STEAM SYSTEM
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Boiler – 4.2.1 Boiler Specification – 4.2.2. Cost analysis of existing boiler
4.3 Alternative Solution (Thermal Oil Boiler) – 4.3.1. Actual working and design of oil thermal boiler – 4.3.2 Construction –4.3.3. Horizontal and Vertical Design – 4.3.4. Cost analysis for oil thermal boiler
4.4 Gas fired boiler – 4.4.1. Introduction – 4.4.2 Cost analysis for Gas fired boiler
4.5. Pipe Sizing – 4.7.1 Energy Conservation- 4.7.2 Steam line size calculations
4.6 Insulation of Steam Distribution System – 4.6.1 Existing Condition Of Insulation in Plant – 4.6.2 Heat Gain / Loss from Cylindrical Surfaces like Pipes – 4.6.3 Economical Insulation Thickness

4.1 Introduction
The main issue is with the steam quality used for process heating. The steam quality is decrease as it reaches to the process equipment. By proper inspection and observation during the training period in swami textiles, we concluded some of the reasons behind it.
Some of the main reasons we have considered are,
1. Due to use of inefficient wood fired boiler the quality of steam is lowered at the generation so that it is getting wet near to the process equipment. Wood has lower calorific value and improper maintenance may cause of lower quality steam.
2. Decreased quality of steam may be because of lower quality insulation on the steam carrying pipes or thickness of insulation is more than the critical thickness of insulation for given condition. So improper insulation is the major factor affecting the quality of steam.
3. Improper pipeline diameters and unnecessary length of the steam carrying pipe cause the pressure drop in the pipe, so the condensation of steam takes place. Sometimes it also lowers the velocity, and this cause the loss of heat to the surrounding by heat transfer.

We considered these three major problems and find out the feasible solutions with the help of respected project guide Prof. U.V.Joshi and respected plant manager Mr. B.C.Suhagiya during our project hours.

We undertake the 3 of the problems consequently one after another with suitable calculated proper solutions.
4.2 Boiler
Swami textile is using wood fired water tube boiler for steam generation. Steam is generated by firing of wood. Wood fired boiler has lots of its own disadvantages. Lower combustion efficiency, lower calorific value, higher moisture content, and higher ash problem, human health problem because of ash and carbon particles suspended in atmosphere.
4.2.1 Boiler Specification:

• Boiler pressure (pb) = 3-4 kg/cm2
• Boiler temperature (tb) = 150 0C
• Enthalpy of steam at boiler outlet (eb) = 2759.329 kj/kg of steam (from steam table)
• Feed Water Temperature = 80 0C
• Max. Pressure = 7 kg/cm2
• Size of the Boiler = m3

Fig. 4.1 Actual Boiler Design

At first sight it is recommended to replace fuel of boiler like use of gas fired boiler using compressed natural gas. There are lots of advantages that affect the life of boiler and condition of boiler. Direct advantages are no or less ash deposition on the wall of boiler so less maintenance is required, less production loss, higher thermal efficiency and higher heat conduction rate to the water.
4.2.2. Cost analysis of existing boiler
? Wood fired boiler first cost = Rs.4, 50,000.
? Wood fired boiler life = 3 to 4 year depend on fuel and water condition
? Wood rate = 5 Rs./k.g.
? Per day use of wood = 200 to 300 k.g.
? Per day cost of wood = Rs.1000 to 1500
? If we consider Rs.1250 per day cost of wood, then per year cost of wood = 1250 * 365 = Rs.4,56,250/year
? Maintenance cost for cleaning boiler per year as per contact given to the agency = 25000
? Total running and maintenance cost for wood fired boiler per year = 456250 + 25000 = Rs. 4,76,250
4.3 Alternative Solution (Thermal Oil Boiler)

Fig. 4.2 Range of operating temperature for various oils for thermal oil boiler

Ensuring low thermal fluid film temperature is essential in designing the thermal oil heaters. The correct design prevent cracking of the fluid and it means that thermal oil boilers are basically quite different in design compared to steam/water boilers. For instance, where water heaters and steam boilers can be heated using a pool of hot water, the thermal fluid in contrary must be heated by forced circulation ensuring high velocity of the thermal fluid at all time. It is recommended that potential users of a thermal oil heating systems make special efforts in order to ensure that the chosen supplier of the thermal oil system is both skilled and experienced in these fields.

4.3.1. Actual working and design of oil thermal boiler

Thermal oil heaters (also called thermal oil boilers, thermal fluid boilers or hot oil units) are developed and designed especially for demanding process heating operations where no compromise on quality are accepted and where reliability is the key word.

The solutions comprising boilers are not based on low purchase price – the heaters are developed to ensure low over-all costs including low maintenance and operational costs.

Fig. 4.3 Photo picture of thermal oil boiler

Consequently the boilers heaters are made of first class material and component, without any compromise on quality. The pressure part is designed as standard between 10 bar and up to 40 bar pressure (although operation often are atmospheric and pressure less).
The heaters for thermal oil (heat transfer fluid) are delivered as complete and fully equipped units with all necessary armatures, instrumentations and safety features.
4.3.2 Types of Thermal Boilers:

Fig. 4.4 Closed Type

Fig.4.5 Open Type

4.3.3. Horizontal and Vertical Design

Fig.4.6 Horizontal and vertical design of oil thermal boiler
Table 4.1 Dimension of oil thermal boiler according to load
Max. Capacity
Kw Max. Heat
capacity

mcal/h A
mm B
mm C
Mm D
mm E
mm F
mm Wt.
empty

kg Wt.
service

kg
70 60 1800 1400 1300 1100 1700 Ø150 400 450
140 120 2100 1700 1400 1200 2100 Ø150 500 600
235 200 2500 2000 1600 1300 2100 Ø210 650 800
350 300 2800 2300 1700 1400 2200 Ø210 1000 1200
600 520 3100 2500 1900 1600 2400 Ø355 1700 2200
1000 860 3900 3300 2200 1800 2600 Ø400 2400 3200
1500 1300 4300 3700 2500 2000 2800 Ø500 3600 4800
2000 1720 4800 4100 2600 2100 2900 Ø560 4000 5500
2350 2000 5300 4600 2800 2200 3100 Ø560 4300 5800
4.3.4 Cost analysis for oil thermal boiler

? Cost of boiler- 10 lakhs
? Cost of maintenance is around-10,000/yr

Life of boiler is 10-12 years. So, eventually the operating cost per year is much lower than that of above 2 types of boiler. From all above data, it is beneficial to use oil thermal boiler because of its long life, better operation at higher temperature and pressure.

4.4 Gas Fired Boiler
4.4.1 Introduction:
Gas fired boiler employs gas like natural gas or LPG for firing. Wood has low combustion efficiency and low calorific value as compared to natural gas. Natural gas has high combustion efficiency and high calorific value so that it gives more heat to water by firing less gas.
Cost of natural gas is higher than wood. Its price is around 60 rupees per liter.

Fig. 4.7 Gas Fired Boiler
Table 4.2 Technical specification for Gas Fired Boiler

4.4.2 Cost analysis for Gas fired boiler:

Cost for establishment of natural gas pipe line is 5,00,000 rupees, in that area where SWAMI TEXTILE is situated.

• Gas fired boiler price is around 10,00,000 rupees.
• Life of boiler is 5 to 6 years.
• Maintenance cost for this boiler is around 15000 rupees/year
• Cost of fuel is 55 Rs/liter and it is much higher than that of wood.

So the overall cost for the gas fired boiler is much high. Also it is useful for any industry to invest 10,00,000 Rs just for gas pipe line so gas fired boiler is not suitable for given conditions.

4.5 Sizing of Pipe

Steam is used mechanical power and heat. A bad designed steam distribution system leads to the steam heat loss. A optimum design leads to the best quality of steam at application.

Following points decide the system efficiency and provide solution for the system.
The primary function of pipe is to provide desired quality steam and after usage it is required to convert in to water and supplied back to the boiler. Heat loss in overall distribution arrangement is 3 to 10% ideally. The management of energy can help to reduce the heat loss by providing proper insulation, repairing the leaks and by providing steam taps as well as by providing water treatment.

The losses are :
• Pressure loss.
• Leakages in taps, valves & gauges etc. .
• Bad insulations

Principal factors determine pipe sizing in a steam system:

1. The pressure loss at the boiler should not exceed the 20% of the maximum allowable pressure. This pressure drops consist of—line loss, elbows, valves, etc. Remember, pressure drops are a loss of energy.

2. Steam velocity. Erosion and noise increase with velocity. Reasonable velocities for process steam are 6,000 to 12,000 fpm, but lower pressure heating systems normally have lower velocities. Another consideration is future expansion. Size your lines for the foreseeable future. If ever in doubt, you will have less trouble with oversized lines than with ones that are marginal.
3. Well designed steam taps
4. Insulation of each and every pipe.
5. All steam mains should be properly laid with optimum size and drained and should be air vented.
6. Distribution system should be designed for least pressure drops.

A practical and well-designed distribution system must be placed based on the ideal as well as practical situations to reduce production cost and increase productivity.

4.5.1 Energy Conservation

• Steam piping layout
A good steam distribution system should be consisting of adequately configured, sized and supported. The environment of the system where it is to be placed should be considered for designing the system as larger diameter pipe will lead to less pressure drop and will make lesser noise than the smaller diameter pipe.
The drainage is an important factor. Piping must be designed with required drip legs to provide better condensation to the drainage steam. These drip legs experience two conditions which are normal condition and start up. These both should be considered for designing the pipe lines.
Moisture separators with traps are very critical part of the design. These are used to collect moisture particles. Automatic air vents should be provided at dead end of steam pipes to allow air which cannot be condensate to remove.

• Design consideration for steam pipe sizing

Required steam quality is entirely based on proper sizing of pipeline and design of proper sizing of pipe is based on velocity and pressure drops.
Pipe sizing can be designed from general criteria accepted worldwide based on the quality required for the steam that is superheated, wet or saturated.
Following are the velocities for various types of steams are:

• Superheated 50-70 m/sec
• Saturated 30-40 m/sec
• Wet or Exhaust 20-30 m/sec
Pipes which are not under used should be isolated quickly to eliminate the heat loses. The transmission of steam from source to point of application should be quick and through shortest distance.

• Steam pressure

The steam pressure must be adjusted in relation with the pressure generated and the pressure needed at point of application.

However, while designing, it is required to consider steam distribution pressure at source, or at little high average pressure; if the generation is at high pressure. Distribution the steam at the same pressure that of source has the following advantages:

• Lower steam velocity leads to reduce erosion of pipe and reduces noise.
• It will provide steam with required pressure at point of application.
• Low cost while designing with small diameter pipe.

4.5.2 Steam line sizing calculation

• Operating Pressure ( P ) :- 4 kg/square cm
• Operating Temperature ( T ) :- 150
• Mass flow Rate ( ? ) :- 0.0625 TPH
• Design Pressure ( Pd ) :- 4*1.2= 4.8 kg/square cm
• Design Temperature (Td ) = Operating Temperature + 10
= 150 + 10
= 160
• Specific Volume At Design Temperature and Design Pressure From Steam Table
? = 0.4709 m³/kg
• Allowable Stress (? ) = 1202kgf/cm² ( From ASME B31.1 Power Piping Table a’1)
• Assume Velocity ( V ) = 22 m/s
• Required Inner Diameter Of Pipe, ( d )

d =
d=0.022m
d=22mm
• Select Outer Dia. Of Pipe From ANSI B36.10 Carbon Steel Seamless Pipe Data Book

D0 = 33.4mm

• Minimum Thickness ( Tm ) = + A
= + 0.75
= 8 mm

• Theoretical Velocity =
=
= 14.68 m/s

Theoretical velocity is less than the assumed velocity so that the calculated diameter is suitable for steam carrying pipe for these conditions.
As above all the pipe sizing can be calculated and is given in the sheet format.

4.6 Insulation of Steam Distribution System

4.6.1 Current insulation condition:

The plant had very badly insulated piping system. Its insulation was done 2 years ago and at present the condition of steam pipe insulation is very poor.

The figure 4.9 shows a photograph piping system. It is visible from picture that insulation is bad and needs repairing and also at some places insulation is missing, causing great heat loss. Glasswool used as a insulator and many places in pipes where the material is not available and it leads to the loss in the heat. So we have collected the data about different insulation material. Also we have given list of local insulation carrying consultancy. Here are some insulation material properties

Fig 4.8 Photograph of part of steam distribution system

Function of insulation are:

• To conserve energy to avoid heat loss or heat gain
• To maintain temperature of system
• To avoid heat loss from heat carrying fluid
• To stop condensation
• To avoid corrosion or exposure to corrosive atmosphere as well as fire
• Process with good efficiency like heating, ventilation and cooling.
• To absorb noise from the mechanical equipment.

Selection of insulation material is very critical and following points should be considered.

Very important. The following design and installation considerations must be noted:
• Type of insulation that is rigid, flexible, ease of handling, installation, and adjustment.
• Ease to modify, repair, and alter.
• Requirement of skilled and unskilled labor.
• Safety ; environment considerations.
• Weight of insulation material and density of same
• Replacement and removal should be easy
• Performance of material.

4.6.2 Heat Gain / Loss from Cylindrical Surfaces like Pipes

To evaluate the heat gain or loss from the cylindrical surfaces it has different equation from than the equation for the flat surfaces. The heat will be transferred to pipe wall through the flowing material and after that heat will be absorbed by the atmosphere. In case of insulation the heat dissipation will be less in atmosphere.
It is not possible to calculate exact amount of heat dissipated since it is affected by:

• Color, texture, and shape of the casing.
• Vertical or horizontal orientation of the casing.
• Air movement or wind speed over the casing.
• Exposure to thermal radiation, e.g. sunlight – all of these in addition to the temperature
• Parameters, etc.

Because of the number of complicating factors, generalizations must be utilized. The theoretical methods for calculating heat transfer for pipe or any other cylindrical objects like tanks, is depends on the thickness of insulation and the area of outer surface.

Table 4.3 Steam line losses for non-insulated pipes of different diameters

Pipe Diameter Heat loss (kCal/hr for 100 M Bare pipe)
(Steam pressure(kg/cm2g)
1.0 10 20 40
25 13210 26892 35384 46706
50 22174 45291 59444 79259
100 39158 80203 105679 141534
200 69824 98130 191543 257121
300 99546 207584 274576 369876

Table 4.4 Different types of material used for insulation.

Material Density
(kg/m3) Thermal conductivities (W/m 0C) Max
temp.
00C 1000C 2000C 3000C
Polystyrol 20-50 0.032 70
Cork 100-200 0.032 80
Glass wool (non fiber) 40-60 0.031 0.050 200
Long fiber 80 0.031 0.048 0.073 0.110 500
Short fiber 100 0.036 0.051 0.051 0.102 700
Rockwool ; glass wool 40-250 0.028 0.039 800
Asbestos 80-250 0.042 600

4.6.3 Economical Insulation Thickness:

Fig 4.9 Cost v/s year for insulation
The cost of insulation will increase if the insulation material thickness will be higher than required. So the cost of losses will be go high. The thickness should be in such a way that the conserved heat loss should be more than the cost of insulation. So at optimum thickness the saving will be higher than the insulation cost.

Figure 1 gives idea about the calculate the economic thickness.

5
CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Conclusions

5.1 Conclusions

Following are some results we obtained in this project which will help to optimize the steam distribution system.

1. Initially the best and economical solution is to insulate the pipes. Insulation on overall system was very poor and old. The rust pipes are inefficient and very risky. We suggested them to implement the proper insulation with high thermal resistant material to cope with the problem.

2. Secondly to see in long term it is advisable to do necessary changes in boiler.
3. If the pipe carrying the steam has diameter more than or less than required diameter, it will lead to major problem like loss of steam heat due to condensation, loss of velocity, pressure drop, noise and sometime it may burst.
So, the proper pipe diameter is required for the satisfactory utilization of steam quality. Line sizing has been calculated using suitable formulas and it is concluded that it has been undersized previously. So we have calculated the optimum diameter for given conditions of steam.
4. There is not any technical person in SWAMI TEXTILE. So the plant layout, their working strategy and dealing with the difficulties occurring during operation was very poor. No technical guidance during operation can cause lots of loss of energy, steam, fuel and work.

So we also concentrate on other problem regarding to boiler. During this, we concentrate on the boiler fuel alternation like using natural gas instead of wood. We gathered the information about the oil thermal boiler. All the analysis and also cost analysis helped us to determine that oil thermal boiler is best suited.

We also convinced the owner of factory for replacement of boiler and proper insulation.