Starbucks is one of the worldwide well-known multinational companies which are specializing in café business

Starbucks is one of the worldwide well-known multinational companies which are specializing in café business. Aside from the extraordinary coffee, Starbucks has made business out of the human connections, community involvement and the celebration culture. Employees at Starbucks described as an important asset of the company and they are important for the company’s growth. Starbucks use its Human Resources policies and practices as a strategy to gain competitive advantage within the international market and the retail industry.
Employee resourcing and development is essential to all organizations and highly contributes towards the organizations success. Employee resourcing is ‘the part of human resource management which focuses on the recruitment and release of individuals from organization’ and ‘the management of their performance and potential while employed by the organization’ (Pilbeam & Corbridge, 2010). Employee development is ‘the process & facilitation of learning and knowledge that support business goals, develop individual potential and respect and build on diversity’ (Harrison, R., 2009). Starbucks has implemented five corporate strategies that are
1. Offer best quality products
2. Ensure maximum penetration in market
3. Offering a highly social atmosphere
4. Develop the best working conditions
5. Increase the profitability of the company by offering high margin products and reducing the costs.
Starbucks have been running their six level apprenticeship scheme in order to help their people grow, in areas such as, IT, digital skills, finance, accountancy, business, HR and the more obvious, being Baristas and Managers leading to a motivational level for the employees to commit themselves in order to achieve the above mentioned.
Employee’s Development
The performance of an organization is very much reliant on the employee’s development policy of the organization. Starbucks use a number of practices for the development of their human capital. Starbucks is putting more emphasis on workers training and education as its main focus is on long term investment, however, this is a risky task and at the same time it may be a good aspect in the future. For example, if Starbuck want to modernize in certain fields in the business, workers need to be ready for these changes. Therefore, these training and development is very significant for both workers and the business First of all the investments made by the Starbucks, to provide non-technical and technical trainings to its employees such as customer dealing techniques, coffee making workshops, customer care programs, determines the its success to increase the knowledge level of its workforces. According to many researchers like Huselid and Delaney (1995), McGrath and Koch (1996), Huselid (1995) the organizational performance can be increased greatly by providing proper training to the workforce. They all have developed a positive relationship between overall organizational performance and the employee development policies of the organization. Starbucks is now more concerned to develop its employees in order to achieve high performance they invest in their trainings and also try to make it possible to have long-term mutually beneficial relationship. In order to enable the employees to plan their careers properly, they design proper career development programs for them. The companies that have promotion system from within the organization they have usually more committed and motivated employees as they want to work hard in order to climb up the ladder, to get promotion and when company adopts internal promotion system it shows the commitment of the organization towards its workforce.
Recruitment & selection
Starbucks is one of the world largest organizations and having each day an addition of five new stores in its profile and in order to maintain this outstanding growth, Starbucks has to employ 200 new workers every day. The process of recruitment in Starbucks consist of many tools like interview of the candidates in which they also attend the sessions of coffee tasting and the key terms and conditions are being developed. Starbucks also requests its recruiters to regularly send gift cards of Starbucks to its job applicants whether they are selected or not for job, they must be treated as customers for the company. The procedure of recruitment in Starbucks is specifically designed for the job that is needed to be filled. The mission of the Starbucks is to expect the diversity and provide the employees the opportunity to develop themselves. After passing the interview Starbucks first train its employees before final selection. This apprentice scheme has employees go through a 12-month program, which also guarantees employment on its completion giving the opportunity to candidates starting from 16 years old to 50 years old being the oldest so far. This provide the candidate not only an education but a job at the end of it.

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION Background to the study Human resources management practices practices are viewed the most necessary belongings of every organization

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Human resources management practices practices are viewed the most necessary belongings of every organization, but very few agencies are in a position to fully make use of their potentials. Lado and Wilson (1994) define a human resource system “as a set of awesome but interacted at attracting, developing, and maintaining a firm’s human resources”. Over the years, researchers have counseled many satisfactory human useful resource administration practices that have the potential to improve and maintain organizational performance. These practices consist of emphasis on employee selection based totally on fit, with the enterprise culture, emphasis on behavior, attitude, and fundamental technical capabilities required by, the job, compensation, contingent on overall performance and worker empowerment to foster group work amongst others. The thought of organizational performance is based totally upon the idea that an organisation enterprise is a voluntary affiliation of productive assets, together with human, physical and capital resources, for the cause of manufacturing and making profit, Barney et al., (2001).

Organizational performance comprises the proper output or consequences of an organization as measured in opposition to its supposed outputs (or desires and objectives). Stickland and Thompson (2007,) provide a complete approach for measuring performance of organizations. According to Drucker (1975), human beings are a firm’s most valuable resource. Having the right personnel at the right area and at the right time is utmost vital for the survival and success of any organization. (Oladipo 2011). Firms proclaim that people are the supply of their competitive gain whether they are technological experts, accommodating client services, professional or visionary managers at a time of unparalleled science development. It is the human aid that spells success or failure of all firms, and in particular entrepreneurs.

1.2 Problem statement
Organizations today are confronted with the assignment of finding and preserving higher-performing employees. Indeed, human aid management practices are practiced via management of the selected banks and the total banking sector in general. Human aid is the backbone of corporations in the world and undoubtedly the most essential resource. According to Qureshiet. al. (2007), have an impact on of human useful resource administration practices on organizational performance has been an necessary vicinity of lookup in the previous 25 years indicating positive relationship between human resource administration practices and organizational performance. He again stated that, human aid administration practices have been an important and integral area in administration and organizational overall performance for the last a number of years especially in the banking industry.

A study carried out in Saudi Arabia on how one of a kind variables help an employer to reap its targets in efficient and positive way (AlHussain, 2011).Human resource management is a hassle to nearly all business enterprise across the globe for example a study conducted in India by means of Singh (2004) investigated the relationship between six human resources management practices and organizational level performance in India. A study performed was additionally in Saudi Arabia on how different variables help an agency to acquire its targets in environment friendly and nice way (AlHussain, 2011). It is evident from these studies concerning the factors that affect human assets practices in the banking quarter on organizational performance. These have been carried out mainly in India, Saudi Arabia with few of these research being performed in Africa (Chiboiwa, Samuel & Chipunza, 2010; Mensah & Alemna, 1997 and Tettey, 2009). Also preceding research on human aid administration practices have been patchy or inconsistent and researchers have not arrived at an fantastic combo of practices that should improve organisational commitment and retention (Chew & Chan, 2008). Existing literatures have appreciably elicited the wonderful contributions of human sources administration practices on organizations’ performances (Ahmed & Schroeder, 2003; Schuler & Jackson, 2007; and Agyapomaa, 2011).
The Ghanaian banks experience some level of worker turnover due to the massive opposition from other banks as well as other sectors of the economy. Hence it is critical that human resource administration practices that can raise retention are explored and instituted. Empirical lookup on employee retention in Africa in established and Ghana in particular is limited. (see Mensah & Alemna, 1997; Tettey, 2009).
In 2001 for instance, a whole of 380 out of 538 employees left the banking industry in Ghana. In 2002, 464 had been employed while 487 left the banks leaving the internet employment at -23. Similarly, a complete of 610 employees left the banks in 2007, representing a 60.53 percentage enlarge over these who left in 2001 (Amediku, 2008). These propose that retention is a primary assignment confronting banks in Ghana. These dearth of literature on the have an impact on of human aid administration practices on organizational performance in Ghana in general and in particular in Sunyani Municipal calls for an empirical study to assist fill the know-how gap.

Objectives of the study
The study used to be guided by the following objectives:
1. To discover out the kinds of human useful resource administration practices employed in the banking sector
2. To have a look at how human useful resource practices have an impact on organizational performance.3. To check out the extent to which human useful resource management practices have been used in the banking sector.

4. To decide the challenges dealing with the affect of human aid management practices on organizational overall performance and measures that can be put in vicinity to clear up the challenges.1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the sorts of human useful resource administration practices available or used in the banking sector?
2. How do human useful resource management practices affect organizational performance?3. Determine the extent to which human resource management practices have been used in the two banking sector?
4. What are the challenges going through the affect of human useful resource administration practices on organizational overall performance and measures that can be put in location to remedy the challenges?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The lookup and its findings will provide an insight into the chosen banks on how quality human resource administration practices have impacted on the performance of the banks. It will also convey to the be aware of the administration of the banks some satisfactory human aid administration practices. To the board members, the learn about will furnish the benchmark that can be used to the other branches of the banks underneath study, which do now not practice exceptional human resource administration practices as expected. This will therefore, enhance on their performance and lead to the attainment of the average targets as well as competitive edge in the commercial enterprise environment. The learn about will once more elicit some lookup gaps in the region of quality human sources administration practices in the banking sector for other researchers to do more work into.

1.6 Scope of the study
The study focused on the banking sector and again restricted itself to to Sunyani Municipality and therefore the findings were not to be generalized to be generalized. This was once due to the fact the banks chosen across the country of which the researcher had no documented evidence needed. The study was limited to the best practices of human resource management and how they influence the performance in the banking sector.

1.7 Limitations of the Study
This learn about faced a lot of challenges as the researcher located it very tough in assessing facts from the chosen banks due the reluctant nature of management and personnel in giving out information since the banks confidentiality policy restrained most of the respondents from answering some of the questionnaires. It was once regarded to be towards the banks confidentiality policy to expose the organization’s private matters. However, the researcher used an introductory letter from the university to persuade administration of the banks to cooperate with me and this helped to keep away from suspicion and enabled the employer management to reveal a lot of the information sought by means of the study. The study could not cover all banks and businesses within Sunyani Municipality. Also not all financial institutions in the Municipality were investigated due to time and resource constraint.

1.8 Definition of Significant Terms used in the Study
Human aid administration
Refers to the management of human capital-employees who make contributions to the attainment of enterprise goals.

Recruitment and Selection
Is the technique thru which the employer seeks candidates for possible employment and the system thru which the company attempts to identify candidates with the vital knowledge, skills, competencies and different characteristics that will assist it gain its’ goals.

Reward System
Reward systems, refers to procedures, rules, and standards associated with allocation of advantages and compensation to employees.

Job Design
The process of defining the way work will be performed and the venture that will be required of an worker in a given job.

Training and Development
Training is referred to as a planned effort to facilitate the gaining knowledge of job related knowledge, capabilities behavior through employees. Development is described as the acquisition of knowledge, capabilities and behaviors that enhance an employee’s potential to meet changes in job necessities and in consumer and purchaser care.

Performance Management
Refers to ability thru which managers ensure employees’ things to do and outputs are congruent with the organizational goals.

1.9 Organization of the Study
Chapter one gives the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, the research question, the significance of the study, delimitations and boundaries of the study, definition of significant terms used in the study and organization of the study.

Chapter Two reviewed literature applicable to the study the concept of best human resource management practices on organizational performance and also covering the theoretical framework, conceptual framework, empirical evidence, discussion and the summary of the literature.
Chapter Three discusses study’s research design, target population, sampling procedure and sample size research instruments which covers, pilot testing, validity of instruments, and reliability of instruments. Data collection methods, data analysis techniques, ethical issues were discussed in this chapter.
Chapter Four has covered detailed analysis, presentation and interpretation of research findings.
Chapter Five gives a summary of the study findings, discussions, conclusions and recommendations of the study.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter reviewed literature relevant to the topic; Assessing the impact of quality human aid administration practices on performance of the selected banks inside Sunyani Municipality. The assessment is targeted on the subject matters of the learn about which covers; recruitment and selection, reward system, job design, training and development, overall performance management and the theoretical body work, motivational principle and conceptual framework.

2.2 Conceptual Review
2.2.1The concept and definition of human resource management
There are many resources which are fundamental for the development of institutions. These assets include; man, money, substances and time. One of these sources in the development manner is man. Man can be said to be productive or unproductive relying on how he/she performs his/her endeavor and duties. In the quick growing and globalised world of today, the issue of human resource management unit is going through a huge challenge. All institutions, whether or not small or large are dealing with the undertaking of creating their work force to meet the demands of present day realities due to lack of certified human aid managers with managerial skills. Indeed, institutional growth cannot be completed besides certified human resource management.

The role of the human useful resource supervisor is evolving with the change in aggressive market environment and the cognizance that human resource managers have to play a more strategic role in the success of an organization. Organizations that do no longer put emphasis on attracting and holding talents can also find themselves in dire penalties as their competitors can also be outplaying them in the strategic employment of their human resources. Efficient human useful resource administration is one of the most quintessential requirements for survival in this competitive world. To bring out the best in a man is the essence of human useful resource development. Sethumadhavan (2007) wrote that human assets managers of today might also find it difficult because of the unexpectedly changing commercial enterprise surroundings and therefore they need to update their understanding and competencies by using searching at the organization’s objectives. In order to succeed, human useful resource managers have to be a business driven characteristic with a thorough appreciation of the organisation’s big image and be able to impact key decisions and policies.

Senyucel’s (2009) sees human useful resource administration as a combination of people-centered administration practices that recognizes employees as property and geared to developing and keeping skilful and dedicated group of workers for accomplishing organizational goals. (Ayesh et al, 2012) described human useful resource management as composed of policies, practices and structures that affect employees’ behavior, attitude and performance.

The study focused on seven variables of human resource management practices specifically education and development, overall performance appraisal, empowerment, compensation, job rotation, participation in selection making and selecting system. Having the proper personnel at the proper location and at the right time is utmost important to the survival and success of any organization Oladipo (2011).
Human resource practices and development are designed to enhance the knowledge, competencies and competencies of employees; enhance their motivation, minimize or do away with loitering on the job and decorate the retention of valuable employees; and enhance the retentions of precious employees. Those practices consist of worker recruitment and selection procedures: incentive compensation and overall performance administration policies and massive worker training, participation and involvement in decision-making.

“Human capital corresponds to any inventory of information that contributes to his or her productivity.”( Garibaldi P, 2006). Recruitment procedures that grant a massive pool of qualified applicants will have a big affect over the pleasant and kind of abilities that new employees possess. Providing formal and informal education experiences, such as fundamental ability training, on the job experience, coaching, mentoring and management development, can further influence employees’ development. Human aid management practices can have an effect on employee thru the use of legitimate resolution techniques to appoint appropriately skilled employees and through comprehensive coaching to develop modern employees. Even excessive knowledgeable personnel will now not operate efficiently if they are no longer motivated. Managers can use human aid administration practices for the motivation of employees to work both harder and smarter. The human aid administration practices include recruitment, socialisation, selection, placement, evaluation, coaching and development, compensation and benefits, and retention of the employees of an organization.

Businesses have developed human aid data structures that support: (i) recruitment, selection, and hiring, (ii) job placement, (iii) performance appraisals, (iv) workforce recruitment and selection, (v) training and development, and (vi) health, safety, and security. The first few activities of human aid administration are recruiting and choosing which deal with the movements concerned, and the recruiting is additionally less frequently alerted in human resource statistics machine recently. Besides, e-recruitment on the web being the cutting-edge trend for the recruitment and choice procedures can further distinguish many things to do of the processes.

2.2. 2 Staff Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment and choice is regularly as a planned rational activity, comprising positive sequentially-linked phases within a method of worker resourcing, which itself may be placed within a wider human aid administration strategy.

Bratton and Gold (2007) differentiate the two terms while establishing a clear link between them in the following way; recruitment is the technique of generating a pool of capable human beings to observe for employment to an organization; while determination is the method with the aid of which managers and others use specific gadgets to choose from a pool of applicants an individual or individuals greater probably to be successful in the job(s), given administration goals and prison requirements.’ In putting out a similar distinction in which recruitment activities provide a pool of humans eligible for selection, Foot and Hook (2005) advise that, although the two features are closely connected, every requires a separate vary of abilities and expertise, and may additionally in practice be fulfilled with the aid of different staff members. The recruitment activity, however now not typically the decision, can also be outsourced to an agency.
It makes sense, therefore, to deal with each activity separately. Recruitment and resolution forms a core part of the central activities underlying human resource management: namely, the acquisition, improvement and reward of workers. It often forms an necessary part of the work of human aid managers – or specific specialists within work organizations. However, and importantly, recruitment and determination decisions are regularly for proper motive taken by means of non-specialists and by means of the line managers. There is, therefore, an vital experience in which it is the accountability of all managers, and where human useful resource departments exist, it may additionally be that human aid managers play extra of a assisting advisory function to those people who will supervise or in other methods work with the new worker (French and Rumbles, 2010).
It has been argued that in order for the firm to construct and preserve the aggressive advantage, acceptable staffing is vital (Boxall, 2008). Dean (2010) highlights two techniques for effective recruitment, specifically (a) job description and individual specification, and (b) recruitment advertising. Many researchers have persistently published that having a structured strategy has the tendency to increase validity of recruitment/selection (Middlewood, 2001). Recruitment is extra likely to attain its objectives if recruiting sources reflect the type of position to be filled, certain recruitment sources are greater advantageous than others for filling sure types of positions. Internal search, for instance, has its merits such as; it endears the workers to the company and will increase worker patriotism. It builds morale via expectations of rising via ranks; encourages excellent individuals who are bold to stick with the agency and subsequently controls worker turnover; it improves the probability of a good selection, given that statistics on the individual’s performance is quite simply available; it’s less steeply-priced than going outside to recruit; and those who are subsequently taken from the enterprise and make succession planning easy. (Khan 2008) observes that in the case of internal recruitment of qualified candidates can be reached at a low cost and minimal time; this works as a reveal for performance and better evaluation of candidate’s capabilities is also possible. Armstrong (2006) observes that the assumption underpinning the practice of human aid administration is that human beings are the organization’s key resource and organizational overall performance generally depends on them. Therefore, if an appropriate range of human useful resource insurance policies and procedures are developed and implemented effectively, then human resource will make a massive impact on company performance.

Guest, Michie, Conway and Sheenan (2003) additionally argue that the case for an affiliation between human aid administration and performance is based on two arguments. The first one being that the high-quality deployment of human resources provides one of the most effective bases of aggressive advantage. The 2nd argument is that positive deployment of human resources depends on the application of a exceptional combination of practices, or the use of a steady set of human resource practices. Additionally, Guest et al (2003) stress that there is a possible case that human useful resource management will be more effective if it matches the commercial enterprise approach of the firm. External recruitment is highly-priced and time consuming; more over external recruitment can be demotivating for the existing personnel and it can purpose serious worker morale problems. There is additionally the danger of hiring candidates who does not fit with the job or organisation when in contrast to the apparent high plausible displayed at some stage in the decision manner (Jackson and Mathis, 2005). In addition, posting jobs internally is an fantastic method of presenting advertising possibilities to all personnel and minimizing employee complaints of unfair cure and unlawful discrimination (Bernthal, 2009). Campus recruitment is a recruiting method in which an groups go to a number universities and schools to recruit fresh graduates. Though it can be time consuming and costly, the organizations can generate a large number of younger and full of life candidates thru campus recruitment. Beside campus recruiting many of the employers now participate in job affairs. Through job gala’s the can fill the vacancies quickly (Jackson and Mathis, 2005). Another formal method of recruiting is to use an employment organisation that finds and pre monitors candidates referring these who appear certified to the company for in addition assessment and closing resolution (Fisher and Schoenfeldt, 2004). This kind of recruitment is very high priced however wonderful when groups does not prefer to put time and effort into recruitment activities. According to Costello el al. (2006) recruitment is described as the set of things to do and procedures used to legally gain a ample variety of certified people at the right region and time so that the humans and the business enterprise can choose every other in their very own best short and long term interests. In other words, the recruitment technique gives the corporation with a pool of doubtlessly qualified job candidates from which judicious resolution can be made to fill vacancies. Successful recruitment begins with perfect employment planning and forecasting. Jovanovic (2004) stated recruitment is a procedure of attracting a pool of high fantastic applicants so as to pick out the satisfactory among them. For this reason, pinnacle performing groups dedicated enormous sources and energy to developing excessive nice resolution systems. Recruitment and selection method are essential practices for human aid management, and are necessary in affecting organizational success (Jovanovic, 2004). Due to the reality that agencies are usually fortified through data science to be extra competitive, it is herbal to additionally consider utilizing this science to re-organize the normal recruitment and decision system through proper choice techniques, with that each the effectiveness and the efficiency of the processes can be expanded and the excellent of the recruitment and decision selection improved. Many decision-making problems, which include recruitment and selection, are herein involved. The gadget allows computerized or computerized approaches to solve the problems, and is of quintessential significance as an aggressive device in the data age. Researchers indicate that high quality recruitment practices and insurance policies enable boards to discover the first-class candidate for their organization. The personnel function turns into especially necessary when recruiting and choosing new administrators. A necessary position for human useful resource management is how to elicit nice reactions from candidates when discussing administrative roles. When opportunities are to personnel to pass toward careers in administration (i.e., tapping shoulders of attainable candidates), often a negative reaction occurs. People except administrative experiences have terrible perceptions and views of the position of the administrator. In tries to appeal to and support individuals to the administrator’s function it is necessary to pick out what boundaries prevent potential candidates from applying to the pool. Job complexity and workload are perceived by means of personnel as the two issues having had the biggest affect on the quantity of applicants for administrative positions. Other elements include terrible remuneration as it relates to needs and expectations of the job and lack of resources and aid structures. Many highly qualified, competent, and gifted personnel disregard careers in administration because they do no longer choose to sit in an office all day. Selection is a chain which is as robust as its weakest link. The choice entails a series of complex selections concerning the desire of person, choice of techniques to use, and the preference of information. Stonner, Freeman and Gilbert (2000) see the determination method as the mutual system whereby the organization decides whether or not or now not to make a job provide and the candidate decides whether or not to accept it.

2.2.3 Job Definition
In each organization, job definition helps management to define task, authority and structures that will be prepared and integrated throughout organizational devices and in character jobs. Job definition is combination of job description and job specification.
2.2.4 Training
Training can also be defined as a deliberate application designed to improve performance and to bring about measurable modifications in knowledge, skills, mindset and social conduct of an employee for performing a particular job. Training ; Development (T;D) is a very prominent function of HRM (Vlachos 2008).

2.2.5 Employee’s Participation
Employee’s participation in administration is a very fine mechanism for all round boom of people and enterprise profitability; however, no longer plenty has either been performed or initiated in this direction. Partly, the trouble is that the scheme of employee’s participation in administration structures is continually pushed via statutory mechanisms and to that extent it is regarded as coercion/compulsion from the government.

2.2.5 Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal is an exercise carried out to consider the contribution of all the executives and staff/workers made in the direction of the standard increase of the organization.

Performance appraisal has attracted a lot of attention from HRM professionals. For example, Levin (1986) in his studies identified some makes use of overall performance appraisal like assessment of worker benefit appraisal, willpower of employee salary, employee coaching needs, comments ; recommendation of employee’s past performance. Thang (2004) in his experiments concluded how well a suitable Human Resource Management associated choice is made will determine how properly employees will perform their jobs.

2.2.6 Organizational performance
Organizational performance contains the real output or consequences of an business enterprise as measured in opposition to its supposed outputs (or goals and objectives). According to Richard et al. (2009) organizational performance includes three particular areas of outcomes: (a) financial overall performance (profits, return on investment, return on assets, etc.); (b) product market performance (market share, sales, etc.); ; finally (c) optimized shareholder return (economic cost added, total shareholder return, etc.).

2.2.7 Relationship between human resource management practices and organizational performancePerformance of any agency largely depends on the performance of its employees. Successful agencies are increasingly realizing that there are a range of factors that make a contribution to performance, but human useful resource is in reality the most necessary (Mello, 2005). Effective Human aid practices enhance the performance of organization and lead to greater profits.
Datta et al. (2003) found out that nice use of Human resource practices disclose a stronger association with efficiency of a firm.

2.2.8. Openness, confrontation, trust, autonomy, pro-activeness, authenticity, collaboration and experimentation culture
Development of human sources requires a developmental climate which is characterised by means of the prevalence of openness ; frankness, arguments ; discussions, confrontation, distinction of opinion, trust, pro-activeness, autonomy, authenticity, collaboration and experimentation. “Openness, Confrontation, Trust, Autonomy, Pro-activeness, Authenticity, Collaboration and Experimentation culture” is integral for facilitating Human Resource Development. Openness ; frankness refers to the surroundings where employees experience free to talk about their views, ideas, things to do and emotions with one another. Confrontation is putting at issues and issues in an open mind with the view to solving them instead than hiding them for worry of getting hurt or hurting others. Trust capability believing human beings for what they are saying.
Autonomy is granting adequate freedom to let humans work independently with responsibility. Authenticity is the tendency on the phase of personnel to do what human beings say. Collaboration is to receive the interdependence to be useful and useful to one some other and work as teams. Experimentation displays an surroundings where the spirit of attempting out new ideas with the view to bringing innovation and improvement in the existing system.
2.3 Theoretical review
This phase centered on a variety of theories of worker motivation in relation to job performance.2.3.1 Theory on human useful resource management and performance
Theories on human beings management have been sifted, going thru so many phases, from the perspectives of Taylorism, bureaucratic theory, concept X and concept Y until the breakthrough with Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne scan which commenced any other phase of humans management acknowledged as human relations. The era of personnel management surfaced which has metamorphosed into the current day Human Resource Management. Since then, human resource administration has captured the interest of many studies churning out loads and hundreds of findings that from time to time generate debates and disagreements.
2.4 Empirical Literature Review
This section aimed at explaining the various previous researches in relation to this research.2.4.1. Relationship between human useful resource administration systems, human resource outcomes, and organizational performance.

Previous empirical studies on special human resource management systems and organizational performance linkage have been well-studied (Su and Wright, 2012). Many studies depicted direct relationship between human resource administration and organizational performance. For instance, find out about of Huselid (1995) found that agency in numerous industries have accelerated organizational performance by way of employing high-performance work system. Organizations additionally yielded higher productivity and financial overall performance improvement with lower turnover rate. Moreover, it also confirmed that one factor in preferred deviation of the use of high-performance work system has have an effect on of 7.05 percent on turnover, income growth $27,044, market growth $18,641, and $3,814 more earnings than organizations didn’t rent the system. Ichniowski et al. (1997) claimed that the Innovative human resource gadget has noticeably impacted on the usual performance of employees. In a learn about by way of Elorzaet. al. (2011) which explored the “black box” in Spanish context, additionally observed the on the spot effect of greater commitment effect on lower absenteeism on productivity. This diverse context study has validated the mediator effect of human resource outcomes, which is the “black box” between HRM structures and organizational performance linkage. A numbers of students who supported SHRM studies consistently referred to that human aid administration structures impacted each organizational financial and non-monetary performance. 2.4.2 Best human useful resource management practices and organizational performanceThe study outlines empirical overview on satisfactory human aid administration practices that affect organizational overall performance namely; recruitment and selection, rewards system, job design, coaching and development and performance management. In the globalized world, the changing international market competitiveness has created new challenges for groups as nicely as humans (Pfeiffer 1994). For companies to maintain or create competitiveness, it is vital that they build and retain their knowledgeable and talented human resources. Huselid (1995) indentified the hyperlink between human aid administration practices and turnover productiveness and monetary overall performance when he discovered a bad relationship of employee competencies and organizational shape on turnover and also that worker skill and organizational shape and employee motivation have a nice have an effect on company performance. Indeed excessive overall performance work practices are probable to have an impact on association performance. In his study, all human useful resource administration variables except education and development are suggested to have a full-size association with firm performance. They researched into how human resource administration practices have an effect on organizational overall performance turnover. More so, they recognized a superb hyperlink between hiring a manager and employees, and the advent of the right culture for organizational growth. Selection is the manner of deciding on a candidate from a group of applicants who high-quality meets the resolution standards for a specific position. In this technique the proper individual chosen for the requisite qualifications and know-how is placed in the fabulous job function to reduce the prices and most the profits with the aid of capacity of their advantage and talent. (Vlachos 2008).

Cho, et al (2006) have identified that there is a nice and large relationship among human aid administration practices and staffing(recruitment source, pre-selection test, talent quotient (IQ) test, structured interview and biographical records clean of the organization) for improving economic or income performance. As a result, groups are motivated to attract qualified candidate for survival and boom of the enterprise therefore enhancing financial or earnings performance.A formal recruitment procedure is the first step closer to a extra strategic and value-added human useful resource management systems. In order to have the great affect on performance, many of the superior human aid techniques require the determination of sure kinds of workers. Those that have the character traits to be influenced through and function well in teams, or those that are slightly more educated and will respond better and more quickly to coaching has end up a integral issue.
The literature consists of research that focal point on the overall performance consequences of precise human resource management practices, such as training (Bartel,et al.,(1994). Researchers showing the impact or relationship between human useful resource practices and a firm’s performance, have operationalized human useful resource practices in countless one of a kind ways. For example, some researchers have examined solely one human resource practices in countless distinct ways. Some researchers have examined solely one human useful resource practice namely; staffing practices, compensation practices, Training practices, while different researchers have examined human resource practices and control systems. They centered on compensation inventive and reward systems as the most intensively studied human useful resource practice.

However, the fine human resource practices can also be independent. Social science literature gives some theoretical and empirical assist for this expectation. McMhan (1992) argued that researchers take a look at “bundles” of human aid practices and their collective effect, alternatively than the impact of isolated and their collective effect, rather than the impact of isolated human useful resource practices, on company performance. Human resource activities are interdependent, and as total they generate certain outcomes for the firm.Further research provides help for such arguments as they located that “bundles” of human resource practices had been extensively associated to workers’ productiveness and association financial performance. Although some research have set up fantastic associations between consistent “bundles” of human resource management practices and organizational performance, they have determined out that no longer all “bundles” have an equal influence on a firms’ performance.
Similar effects are suggested via Goodernham, et al., (2006), who located a tremendous have an effect on of human useful resource management practices on association overall performance of 3,281 firms in Europe. The outcomes furnish modest proof for the high quality and large relationship that exists between a firm’s performance and human useful resource management practices. The current literature on human useful resource administration practices, the recent theoretical work on the “resource based” view of the company (Barney, 1998) helps the action that human useful resource administration may additionally be an necessary source of aggressive advantage. He in addition argued that resources lead to sustainable competitive advantages when they are valuable, rare inimitable and nicely organized. The researcher determined that without having ample human resource, the agency will be unable to acquire establishes goals. Hence, managing human aid is the key role of success of an organization. Currently, most organizations have handled their humans as the most essential resource of an organization, in particular human aid as the most necessary asset in the carrier organization. The previous studies have supported the notion that when correctly designed, human useful resource administration practices can help companies to enhance performance. This human useful resource administration practices elicit some behavioral outcomes in addition to the improvement of capabilities and competencies of employees.
Barney (1991) argued that human resource can provide a supply of sustained aggressive benefit when four primary necessities are met, that is thru valuable, rare, inimitable and properly geared up resources. As a result, it is necessary that groups adopt human aid management human aid management practices that make high-quality use of its employees. Lado and Wilson (1994) outline human useful resource administration system as “a set of distinct but interrelated activities, functions, and procedures that are directed at attracting, developing and maintaining (or disposing of) a firm’s human resources”.

In addition, it can be described as “….as an organizational set of human aid administration activities, functions and processes: Selection, training, appraisal, promotion and compensation, carried out to attract, strengthen and keep strategic human useful resource that permit the company to obtain its goals. Dessler (1997) Categorizes human resource management gadget in accordance to 5 activities: selection, training, compensation, labour members of the family and employee security. Petra and Juan (2004) proposed a mannequin based on their essential speculation that human sources represent a supply of competitive advantage. This mannequin also considers that be aware of how to establish a human aid administration system that contains human resource policies and practices in order to create and preserve the strategic human capital ought to have a sustainable competitive advantage. Many researchers on human aid administration practices have been carried out from time to time and researchers have identified different practices via exceptional names. Theories on the best practices or excessive commitment theories advocate that universally, positive human useful resource management practices, both one after the other or in combination are related with improved organizational performance. In one another find out about Redman and Mathews (1998), pick out “Human resource administration bundle” of key practices which assist service companies first-class strategies being: i. Recruitment and decision of example, ‘Total best recruitment; zero defects recruitment’ right first time recruitment.

ii. Reward system, for example, bonuses accessible for staff willing into is multi-skilled.iii. Job design, for example, encouraging a sense of cohesiveness and designing empowered jobs.iv. Training and development, for example, the front line team of workers having better interpersonal and social skills.

v. Performance administration with hyperlinks to contingent reward systems, for example, gathering patron comments to recognize the work by means of employees over and above their anticipated duties, which in turn are likely to lead to a bonus for staff.

2.5 Conceptual Framework
Figure 2.5.1: Conceptual framework two
Job Placement and Definition
Performance Appraisal

Financial Performance (Profit, Return on Investment and Assets)

Training and Development

Product Market Performance (Market Share and Shares)
Organisation
Performance
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Health, Safety, and Security

Optimised Shareholder Return (Economic Value Added, Total Shareholder Return)

Staff Recruitment and Selection

(Source: Researcher’s Own Model)
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY3.1. IntroductionThis chapter offers with the research approach and design, selection of area, population, sample and sampling techniques, research instrument, pre-test, statistics series techniques, facts analysis techniques, facts processing and analysis and moral considerations3.2 Research Strategy and DesignResearch format is the blueprint for conducting the learn about that maximizes manage over elements that could intrude with the validity of the findings. Burns and Grove (2001) stated designing a study helps the researcher to plan and put in force the find out about in a way that will assist the researcher to attain intended results, hence growing the possibilities of acquiring data that ought to be associated with the actual situation. The study designs adopted for the study was a case learn about strategy.A case learn about is an empirical in-depth inquiry about an individual, family, crew or organization. It is preferable when ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions are asked. McNamara, (2007), opines that case studies are mainly beneficial in depicting a holistic portrayal of a client’s experiences and effects related to a programme. He again stated that case research are used to organize a huge range of records about a phenomenon and to analyze the content material with the aid of looking for patterns and topics in the data, and similarly analysis via cross comparisons with other cases. The case study technique is therefore the most appropriate for this study due to the fact in this study, the researcher ambitions at explaining in depth the experiences of individuals in a specific district. Secondly, the case study used to be selected because, the researcher wanted to check out a precise phenomenon.

Quantitative research method used to be used by the researcher. Quantitative lookup regularly translates into the use of statistical evaluation to make the connection between what is recognized and what can be discovered with the aid of research. Consequently, analysing facts with quantitative strategies requires an appreciation of the relationships among variables with the aid of both descriptive or inferential statistics. Descriptive information helps to draw inferences about populations and to estimate the parameters (Trochim 2009). The essential cause of the use of the quantitative method is to make an most reliable selection by means of using mathematical and statistical models in a state of affairs when the probability of all outcomes is uncertain. Another motive is that, quantitative method to decision-making produces the first-class effects when the hassle is virtually defined, a number of choices exist, and decision effects are without difficulty measurable. Quantitative method techniques, especially the ones relying on statistical software, have the benefit of suggesting the satisfactory solution to the hassle without even identifying all possible alternatives. This feature is quite beneficial in issues where the wide variety of viable choices is very large even though only a few are well worth considering for selection. Once the problem and prerequisites are defined, the decision-making technique becomes quick.

(http:methods.sagepub.com.reference.encyc.of.quantitative.approach.research.n108.xml;2010/03/4;t;13:18,GMT).3.3. Population
The goal population in this lookup used to be the employees which include securities and cleaners of GN Bank, Utrack Financial and mortgage Service, Ecobank-Ghana and Zenith Bank (Ghana) Ltd within the Sunyani Municipality as shown below.

Table 3. SEQ Table * ARABIC 1 Selected Banks in Sunyani MunicipalityBanksMaleFemaleTotalGN Bank454489Utrack Financial and loan Service252045Ecobank-Ghana201838Zenith Bank (Ghana) Ltd13922Total10391194(Source: Field data, 2018)
3.4 Sampling Procedure
Sampling is a procedure or method of choosing a sub-group from a populace to take part in the study; it is the procedure of selecting a number of men and women for a study in such a way that the humans selected characterize the massive crew from which they were selected (Ogula, 2005). The researchers used easy random sampling technique.
Simple random sampling (lottery) takes into account the fact that all persons in the populace get equal chance of resolution and are judged to be homogenous. This was used to pick eighty-four (84) employees as the sample dimension from GN Bank (20 workers), Utrak Financial and loan Service (22 workers), Ecobank-Ghana (20 workers) and Zenith Bank (Ghana) Ltd (22 workers) inside the Sunyani Municipality. Here, paper cut-out indicating “Yes” and “No” of which people have been asked to pick from and those who picked “Yes” became the sample size for the study.
This technique was once used in order to make sure that all the respondents had been given equal chances of been selected. Based on the above information, the pattern measurement (n) is calculated for the target populace of one hundred and ninety-four (194) and it sample size is eight-four (84).

3.5 Data Collection Techniques
The researcher first made a visit to the chosen Banks, introduced herself and her mission and sought permission from the authorities to allow her make a second go to administer the questionnaires. A time viewed to be handy for the people used to be given to the researcher to come at some point of her second visit. The questionnaires had been administered and some clarification was once given on some questions by means of the researcher to the chosen sample in order to extract unique facts on the subject beneath discussion. The researcher left the questionnaires with the workers and a date was agreed on by means of each the employees and the researcher for the collection of the crammed questionnaire.
3.6 Data Analysis Techniques
The records used to be edited to observe and correct, feasible mistakes and omissions that were possibly to occur, to make sure consistency across respondents. The information used to be coded to allow the respondents be grouped into confined number of categories. This was performed for every question. Microsoft excels was once used for the analysis therefore tables, frequencies and graphs had been drawn.
3.7 Ethical Considerations
The purpose of the research used to be explained properly to the respondents and assured them of utmost confidentiality. Ethical concerns always emerge as the researcher plans the research, seeks access to groups and to individuals, collection of data, analyzing information and reporting the data.

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Introduction
This chapter analyses data on the have an effect on of human useful resource management practices on performance of the chosen banks in the Sunyani Municipal. The records for these analyses had been received via the administration of questionnaires. In line with the primary research goal, this chapter reflects on the core research targets as outlined in chapter One. The first section discussed the demographic background of respondents; however, the 2nd section discussed information bearing on to the lookup objectives.

4.2 Data Presentation4.2.1 Descriptive of Results for the Socio-Demographic CharacteristicsTable 4.1: Profile of Respondents.

SEX FREQUENCY PERCENT (%)
Male 50 59.5
Female 34 40.5
TOTAL 84 100
AGE GROUP
Below 30 Years 32 38.1
31 – 40 34 40.5
41 – 50 14 16.7
51 and above 4 4.7
TOTAL 84 100
MARITAL STATUS
Single 45 53.6
Married 36 42.8
Divorced 3 3.6
Separated 0 0
Widowed 0 0
TOTAL 84 100
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
Certificate 12 14.3
Diploma 24 89.5
Bachelors’ Degree 42 50.0
Master’s Degree 22 26.2
TOTAL 84 100
(Source: Field data, 2018).From the table, 59.5% of the respondents have been male while 40.5% were female. However, it has to be said that even though the majority of the employees are males, the banks do now not go towards the gender equality policy enshrined in the country wide labour laws which require that each guys and female have to be handled equally.
This means that the figure of male being bulk of the respondents may have been mere twist of fate but now not based on any cultural, non secular and/or gender reasons. In admire to age, the consequences indicated that most of the employees’ age was once between 31-40 years with a proportion discern of 40.5%, accompanied with the aid of those less than 30 years (38.1%) while 16.7 percent aged between 41 and 50. The least age team was those above the age of 51 with a percentage discern of 4.7%.
What can be inferred from this age demographic trouble of the respondents is that, in the first place, the pattern may want to be viewed to be all-inclusive as it captured the opinions of a range of age corporations within the institutions.
In addition, searching at the proportion number of the employees who are older than 50 being the 1/3 least (4.7 %), it is truthful to deduce that the turnover price is high in the banking region as in the work of Kipkebut (2010), while the younger workers regularly have high expectations from the work place and as a result at hazard of turnover, the older people opt for to maintain their fame quo, and hence stay in the work for a longer duration of time given that they do now not want to disrupt their benefits such as pension.

With reference to marital status, 53.6% of the respondents were single. 42.8% were married.3.6% were divorced whilst none of the respondents was once separated and widowed.When it comes to instructional level, these who were the majority were those with First Degree (50%) accompanied via Master’s holders (26.2%), certificates holders’ were 14.3% while the least used to be these with Diploma (9.5%). This offers the indication that the banking area has academically certified employees for its provider delivery. Another discovering on the demographic points was about the team of workers ranking. On this issue, it was located that majority of the respondents were junior staffs (53%) while the senior staffs were 47%. However, although the majority of the employees have been junior staffs, the small share wide variety of 6% as the difference can be seen to be a truthful reflection of the kind effective promotional attitude of the institutions.

With regards to the wide variety of years labored in the banking sector, the finding indicates that those who have worked between 1-5 years are the majority with 64.3% while these who worked above 5 years were 35.7%. This suggests that, most of the personnel have no longer labored for a longer length and therefore might also lack journey in contrast to the number of workforce who have worked for longer period and have had adequate experience, there is a proper mixture of workers in the institutions. The experienced ones are rather giant ample to be able to have an effect on their information on the inexperienced staff.
4.3 Descriptive Analysis Results Relating to the ObjectivesResearch Objective1: To find out the Kinds of Human Resource Management Practices Available to the Banking Sector
In an attempt to answer this research objectively, the researcher asked the respondents how they were recruited into the organization, the responses received are presented below
Figure 4.1: How Workers were Recruited into the Organization

(Source: Field data, 2018)
The result acquired from the field suggests that 40.5% of the employees said they got here into the corporation through other employees’ referral. This affirmed the work of Khan 2008 observes that in the case of inside recruitment of qualified candidates can be reached at a low fee and minimal time. Also, 31.5% of the workers additionally stated they obtained recruited by first hearing the statistics in local newspaper in a shape of advertisement, 20.4% of the people stated net which means they obtained to know of the vacancy via the net and was subsequently recruited into the organization. This finding affirms the work of Dean (2010) which highlighted two techniques for positive recruitment, particularly (a) job description and person specification, and (b) recruitment advertising. Then 7.6% of them stated they got recruited via the expert bodies.
These findings antagonistic the work of the following scholars; beside campus recruiting many of the employers now take part in job affairs. Through job festivals they can fill the vacancies rapidly (Jackson and Mathis, 2005).
Figure 4.2: Kind of Method of Selection Used Most in the Banking Sector

(Source: Field data, 2018)
The consequences confirmed that, 46% of the respondents indicated personal interview, accompanied through 40.5% of them who indicated aptitude test 9.5% of the respondents said written interview and 4% of them went via sensible test. The results showed that many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipality used non-public interview to pick out workers this was followed by using aptitude take a look at and then written interview and sooner or later sensible test. Also, the workers stated many reasons for joining the organization. These include; earning a living, exact reputation, to work, to get experience, due to the fact of the company’s vision, exact remuneration.
These motives defeat the work of these scholars that say that, having the right personnel at the right place and at the right time is utmost vital to the survival and success of any corporation Oladipo (2011).

The researcher in a quest to comprehend the type of human resource practice that is frequent in the banking sector, the people were asked the type of human resources exercise they are familiar with, the responses given are in the desk below.

Table 4.2: Type of Human Resource Practice Workers Are Familiar With in the Organization.

HRP Frequency Percent
Training ; development 25 29.8
Employee appraisal 18 21.4
Attractive salary 10 11.9
Availability of right tools 22 26.2
Recruitment and selection procedure 9 10.7
Total 84 100.0
(Source: Field data, 2018)
From the table 29.8% of the workers had been used to coaching and improvement at their a number of work places. These groups of the workers agree with Training ; Development (T;D) is a very prominent function of human aid administration (Vlachos 2008).
Also, 26.2% of them indicated availability of right tools. Also, 21.4% of the people indicated worker appraisal system. 11.9% of the employees indicated eye-catching salary. And 10.7% of the people had been additionally familiar with the recruitment and determination process in the banking sector. This end result showed that many of the banks in Sunyani Municipality do education and improvement of their employees, however, many of them do have beautiful salary for workers.

The researcher in an attempt to answer the research question asked a question about which human resource management practice management use to retain workers in the organization. The workers indicated their choices and this is presented in the figure below.

Figure 4.3: Kind of Human Resource Management Practice Do Management Used To Retain Workers in the Organization

(Source: Field data, 2018)
From the analysis, 40.5% of the employees indicated eye-catching salary. 32.2% of them indicated suitable working environment. And finally, 27.3% of the workers indicated promotion. This potential many of the people are retained in the company because of the beautiful salary. However, a few of the people did point out excellent working surroundings and promotion. These findings agree with Boxall (1996) as he said Researchers have additionally found out that these well-paid, well motivated workers, working in an atmosphere of together and trust, generate greater productivity positive aspects and lower unit costs.
In addition, the researcher desired to understand from the employees which practices need to be maintained by way of the enterprise and which be discarded. The workers suggested that attractive salary, exact working environment, and availability of the right equipment need to be maintained and employee appraisal and promoting discarded. The employees additionally endorsed that provider quality enhancement; diversity, innovation and empowerment have to be stimulated in the organization. This affirmed the work of Levin (1986). In his studies, he recognized some uses of overall performance appraisal like evaluation of worker advantage appraisal, dedication of employee salary, worker education needs, feedback ; recommendation of employee’s previous performance. It is prevalent that human resource administration activities may additionally have an effect on organizational performance either immediately or in a roundabout way via human aid administration outcomes.

Research Objective2: To examine how human resources management practices influence organizational performance
The researcher made an attempt to answer the question by asking series of questions. The first was to determine whether the organizations train its employees. The workers responses are presented in the figure below.

Figure 4.4: Seeking to Find Out Whether the Organizations Train its Employees

(Source: Field data, 2018)
From the results obtained, 95.2% of the workers indicated ‘yes’ which means their establishments do arrange training for them, whiles 4.8% two of them indicated ‘no’ which means their corporations do now not prepare any structure of coaching to its workers. The evaluation indicated that many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipality do prepare education for their people and subsequently building on the capability of the workers. This has the manageable to increase the productivity of the workers and subsequently the performance of the business enterprise in general.
In addition, the employees delivered that people are selected for the training the use of the following basis; by using looking at the performance of the workers, they have been picked at random, via appraisal periodic evaluation and via selection.

This component of this learn about confirms the work of Ayesh et al.(2012) as they identify periodic appraisal and training of personnel as composed of policies, practices and structures that impact employees’ performance. Workers were asked to indicate whether they have obtained any structure of coaching due to the fact they joined the organization. The responses bought are summarized in the figure below.

Figure 4.5: Seeking to Find Out Whether Workers have Received any form of Training Since they Joined the Organization

(Source: Field data, 2018)
The evaluation above, shows that 88.1% of the employees indicated ‘yes’ meaning they have acquired training, whiles 11.9 % of them indicated ‘no’ which means they have now not obtained any training considering that they joined the organization. The workers’ opinion was once sought on what accounted for greater productivity in the organization. The effects from the discipline are proven in the desk below.

Table 4.3: What Accounted for Higher Productivity in the Organization
Response Frequency Percent
Training ; Development 34 40.5
Improved Supervision 12 14.3
Time Management 18 21.4
Periodic Staff Appraisal 20 23.8
Total 84 100.0
(Source: Field data, 2018)
From the results, 40.5% of the people cited coaching and improvement as the cause for the higher productivity in the organization. Therefore, this finding adversarial the work of Thang (2004) in his experiments which concluded that a suitable Human Resource Management related decision made will decide how nicely employees will perform their jobs.

Also, 23.8% of them indicated periodic team of workers appraisal as a reason. 21.4% of them noted perfect time management whiles 14.3% of them indicated accelerated supervision. The evaluation confirmed that the coaching and development of the workers is viewed as a practice that helped in the high productiveness of the organization. These findings opposed the works of, Park et al. (2003) a study of Japanese multinational organisation (MNC) corporations which suggested that skills, attitude, and motivation were the elements of human aid outcomes derived from human useful resource administration system.

In addition, the people have been requested whether or not they will remain in the organisation for long and for what reasons. Those who said they will stay lengthy in the business enterprise gave the following as their reasons; suitable management of the organization, higher prospects, to acquire extra experience, and that there are higher stipulations of provider in the organisation. Others who will like to depart the business enterprise for others locations companion to alternate of environment, to have greater exposure, to search for properly paid jobs and to analyze more as some reasons that they will like to leave the agency for others.

As to whether the workers have all the necessary tools to work the responses gave by using the workers is shown in the figure below.

Figure 4.6: As to Whether the Workers have all the Necessary Tools to Work

(Source: Field data, 2018)
From the figure the consequences shows that 88% of the people indicated ‘yes’ meaning they have the critical equipment to work with, whiles 12% of them indicated ‘no’ which means they do no longer get the proper equipment to work with which means that the banks do supply their workers with the right equipment to work with hence many of the banks have the welfare of their employees at their hearts and they are performing their duties as employers as stipulated in the labour Act.

Again, as to whether or not the current human assets management practices assist the organisational objectives, the employees of the a number institutions gave their responses which are in the discern below
Figure 4.7: As to Whether the Existing Human Resources Management Practices Support the Organisational Objectives

(Source: Field data, 2018)
From the results, 76% of the people indicated ‘yes’ which means that the human sources administration practices in their various establishments guide the organizational objectives, According to SethumadHavan (2007), human resources managers of nowadays may also discover it difficult because of the rapidly altering enterprise environment and consequently they update their understanding and abilities through searching at the organization’s objectives. In order to succeed, human resource management practices ought to be a enterprise pushed feature with a thorough appreciation of the organisation’s large photograph and be capable to have an impact on key choices and insurance policies whiles. 24% of the employees said that their banks human useful resource administration practices do no longer support the organizational objectives.The workers were asked to price their number of establishments with regards to profitability, workforce retention, and credit score mobilization, this is shown in the figure below.

Figure 4.8: Workers Rating their Various Institutions With Regards to Profitability, Staff Retention, and Deposit Mobilization
lefttop
(Source: Field data, 2018)
From the parent above, 32% of the people rated their institutions very excessive when it comes to profitability. 38% of them rated their institution’s performance in profitability high, 18% of them rated the companies average and 12% of them rated their organization profitability low.In all many of the employees in the banking area referred to that the a number banks are doing well in the phrases of profitability.

In additions, workers’ scores of their organization’s in terms of staff retention suggests that 16% of the employees rated their organization’s performance in staff retention as very high, 22% of the employees rated their organization’s performance as high, 36% of them rated the institution’s as average . 26% of them also rated their institution’s low in terms of their performance in the location of personnel retention. Here, the groups are doing properly in the vicinity of workforce retention. This should build competitive advantage in these banks as stipulated by using Boxall, 2008, who argued that in order for a firm to construct and maintain the aggressive advantage, suitable staffing retention is critical. When it comes to credit score mobilization, 24% of them rated their quite a number organizations as very high, 34% of them additionally rated the businesses as high, 16% of them rated the institutions as average whiles 26% of them rated their a number of institutions as low. Meaning, many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipality, function very well when it comes to savings mobilization. This indicates that, the performance of the number banks is high.

Research Objective 3: To Investigate the Extent to Which Human Resource Management Practices have been used in the Banking Sector.

The number of times workers received training in a year, is shown in the table below.
Table 4.4: Seeking For the Number of Times Workers Received Training in a Year
No of times Workers Received Training Frequency Percent
Once a year 38 45.2
Twice a year 27 32.2
Three times a year 11 13.1
Quarterly 8 9.5
Total 84 100.0
(Source: Field data, 2018)
From the table, 45.2% of the employees said they received training once in each year, 32.2% of the people said they received coaching twice in each year, whiles 13.1% of them indicated three instances in a year. Finally 9.5% of the people indicated quarterly as the quantity of times they obtained education in a year. Hence, it be inferred that many of the banks inside the Sunyani Municipality do now not prepared training for their employees very frequently as over 50% of the workers indicated that they obtained coaching twice or less within a year. They brought that, the coaching they acquired has helped improved their carrier delivery. It equipped them with skills. It helped accelerated on their accuracy and skills and also elevated productivity in general.

The type of training management apply is stated by the workers is in the table below.

Table 4.5: Seeking for the type of Training that Management do Apply
Type of Training Frequency Percent
On The Job Training 39 46.5
Off Job Training 26 30.9
Both 19 22.6
Total 84 100.0
(Source: Field data, 2018)
From the desk above, 46.5% of the people indicated that, they undergo on the job training. 30.9% of the them indicated that they do endure off the job coaching whiles 22.6% of them indicated both on the job coaching and the off the job training. The analysis shows that many of the banks do have interaction their workers on the job training. This means that many of the workers have received coaching and this will assist the banks extend productivity. It is inferred from this that the high productiveness of the banks stated beforehand may additionally be due to the on the job education most of the banks take their employees through.

Workers had been asked whether or not administration overview their salaries. Their responses are put in the figure below.

Figure 4.9: Seeking to Find Out From Workers Whether Management do Review their Salaries.

(Source: Field data, 2018)
As to whether management of the banks do evaluation the profits of the workers, 80.3% of the workers indicated ‘yes’. Whiles 19.7% of the employees indicated ‘no’ meaning their establishments do not review their revenue structures. From this, one can say that many of the people in the banking institutions will be comfortable with their salaries. It confirms that many of the administration in the banking area are imposing the human resource management practices, however, the small element of the workers whose salaries or have an effect on productivity.Workers were also asked if emplooyees were rewarded and their responses are shown in the figure below.
Figure 4.10: Seeking to Find Out Whether Emplooyees Were Rewarded

(Source: Field data, 2018)
From the figure above 73.8% two of the employees indicated ‘yes’ meaning they agree that their institutions do reward them, whiles 26.2% of them indicated ‘no’ meaning their establishments do now not reward them. The data indicated above indicates that many of the banks reward their workers subsequently people at the banking establishments are in all likelihood to be motivated to work challenging to carry out their best which could amplify productivity of every worker and the banks as a whole. This component has the same opinion with Guest et al (2003) as they stress that there is a possible case that employees have a tendency to be more high quality and will amplify the productivity of the company concerned. They further indicated that the profitable of personnel is finished in their more than a few institutions with the aid of looking at; lengthy service, via performance appraisal, commitment and amongst others.

Hence one can inferred that there may want to no longer be any biases in the decision of the employees for the awards.
Research Objective 4: To Determine the Challenges Facing the Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Organizational Performance.

The researcher requested a direct query if there have been challenges with regards to the have an effect on of human resource management practices in the a number enterprise beneath study. The workers responses to the query are put in the diagram below.

Figure 4.11: Challenges With Regards to the Impact of Human Resource Management Practices in the Various Banks.

(Source: Field data, 2018)
The consequences from the area suggests that 54.74% two of the people indicated ‘no’ meaning there were no challenges with the have an impact on of the human useful resource management practices whiles 45.25% two indicated ‘yes’ that means there had been challenges with the human useful resource management practices.
Those who stated that there were challenges with affect of human sources management practices, stated some of the challenges to include; Poor remuneration, location of group of workers on profits scale, poor conversation channels embezzlement of cash and favoritism and victimization when it comes to advertising and appointment.

They indicated the following measures to resolve the above noted challenges; by using checking the historical past of doable employees, clear-cut policies must be laid on promotion, there be free and truthful management practices in the organization, administration ought to admire the views of their employees in choice making and that there ought to be clear insurance policies on recruitment in the organization.

CHAPTER FIVEMAJOR SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 IntroductionThis chapter discusses major summary, conclusions and recommendations.

5.2 Major Summary
From the study, 59.5% of the respondents have been male whilst 40.5% had been females. The figure of male being bulk of the respondents might have been mere accident however now not primarily based on any cultural, religious and/or gender reasons.

In appreciate to age, the results indicated that most of the employees’ age was once between 31-40 years with a percentage discern of 32%. When it comes to educational level, these who have been the majority have been those with First Degree (50%). This gives the indication that the banking quarter has academically qualified employees for its service transport as a result enhanced performance.

Another discovering on the demographic aspects used to be about the group of workers ranking. On this issue, it was discovered that majority of the respondents were junior group of workers (53%), while the senior staffs have been 47%. With regards to experience, the finding indicates that these who have worked between 1-5 years had been the majority with 64.3%. This suggests that most of the employees have now not worked for a longer period and therefore may additionally lack journey in contrast to the wide variety of personnel who have worked for longer period. The consequences got from the discipline indicate that 40.5% of the employees stated they came into the organisation through other employees’ referral.
This affirmed the work of Khan 2008 who observed that, inner recruitment of certified candidates can be reached at a low cost and minimal time.
Also, 35.7% of the workers also said they obtained recruited with the aid of first hearing the statistics in local newspaper in a form of advertisement. 21.4% of the people said they had the data through the internet. This finding does now not confirm the work of Dean (2010), who highlights two strategies for positive recruitment, namely (a) job description and individual specification, and (b) recruitment advertising.

The results confirmed that, increased quantity of the employees representing 46% indicated personal interview as a way of recruitment and selection. The outcomes confirmed that many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipality used non-public interview to pick out workers.Also, the people noted the following motives for becoming a member of the company include; incomes a living, exact reputation, to work, to get experience, due to the fact of the company’s vision, true remuneration. It was printed from the result that, larger wide variety of the employees have been used to education and improvement as the human aid management process.From the analysis, 40.5% of the workers indicated desirable salary, as the human resource management practice that administration do used to hold workers in the organization.In addition, the workers referred to the following human aid management practices that to be maintained by using the enterprise as; promotion, correct working environment, and availability of the right tools ought to hold and employee appraisal. Most of the workers also suggested that provider great enhancement; range and innovation empowerment have to be prompted in the organization. These reasons defeat the work of these scholars that says that, having the proper personnel at the proper region and at the proper time is utmost important to the survival and success of any organisation Oladipo (2011). The research suggests that the proper candidates were not recruited thru commercial of vacancies.
It has been argued that in order for the company to build and maintain the aggressive advantage, proper staffing is indispensable (Boxall, 2008).
The analysis, indicated that 11.9% of the people indicated ‘yes’ which means they have received coaching whiles 88.1% of them indicated ‘no’ which means they have no longer acquired any training given that they joined the organization. From the results, 40.5% of the workers cited training and improvement as the motive for the higher productiveness in the organization. Researchers have also observed out that those well-paid, properly inspired workers, working in an surroundings of at the same time and trust generate higher productivity positive factors and lower unit prices Boxall (1996).

From the results, 88% of the people indicated ‘yes’ meaning they have the indispensable equipment to work with. Seventy six percentage of the workers indicated ‘yes’ which means that the human resources administration practices in their more than a few institutions assist the organizational objectives.

In additions, workers’ ranking of their organizations’ in phrases of team of workers retention with the following degrees; very high, high, common and low, indicate that greater range of people rated the institution’s as average in its performance.

From the result, 45.2% and 32.1% of the workers stated they acquired education once and twice in each and every yr respectively. Further, they introduced that, the training they received has helped extended their carrier delivery, it equipped them with skills. Also it helped them to enhance on their accuracy and skills. It additionally elevated in their productiveness in general.The result indicated that, 80.3% of the people indicated that administration does assessment the salaries. From the result, 73.8% of the workers agreed that their institutions do reward their workers.
The records indicated above shows that many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipal reward their workers. This aspect has the same opinion with Guest et al.(2003) who stress that there is a workable case that human resource administration will be more fine if it suits the enterprise method of the firm and will expand the productivity of the employer concern.The results from the subject indicates the following as challenges with the human useful resource administration practices; negative remuneration, region of team of workers on income scale, terrible communication channels embezzlement of cash and favoritism and victimization when it comes to promoting and appointment.

However, they indicated the following measures to solve the above cited challenges; by means of checking the background of possible employees, straight forward policies need to be laid on promotion, there ought to be free and fair administration practices in the organization, management must admire the views of their personnel in choice making, and that there have to be clear insurance policies on recruitment in the organization.

5.3 Conclusions
It was revealed in the find out about that, higher numbers of the respondents were men which advise gender disparity. In admire to age, the outcomes indicated that most of the employees’ age used to be between 31-40 years with a percentage determine of 32%.When it comes to instructional level, those who were the majority had been these with First Degree (50%). With regards to experience, the discovering indicates that, these who have labored between 1-5 years had been the majority with 64.3%. The results showed that, higher variety of the workers, representing 46% indicated private interview as a way of recruitment and selection.
The outcomes showed that many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipality used private interview to pick out their workers. This shows that the right candidates have been not recruited to fill advertised vacancies.

Also, the workers mentioned many motives for joining the agency to include; earning a living, true reputation, to work, to get experience, due to the fact of the company’s vision, precise remuneration. From the analysis, 29.8% of the employees as the increased wide variety were used to education and development as the human resource administration process.
It was once again revealed that, greater range of the workers indicated top working surroundings as the human aid administration exercise that administration do use to keep employees in the organization.In addition, the people recommended the following human resource administration practices that ought to be maintained via the organization; desirable salary, exact working environment, and availability of the proper equipment should be maintained and employee appraisal.

The evaluation indicated that 88.1% two of the employees indicated ‘yes’ which means they have received education whiles 11.9 percent of them indicated ‘no’ that means they have no longer received any education on account that they joined the organization.

From the results, greater quantity of workers, representing 40.5% cited education and improvement as the cause for the higher productivity in the organization.

From the results 88% of the employees indicated ‘yes’ that means they have the quintessential equipment to work with.
From the results, 76% of the people indicated ‘yes’ meaning that the human sources administration practices in their various institutions help the organizational objectives. From the result, 45.2% and 32.1% of the employees stated they acquired coaching once and twice in each and every 12 months respectively. The result indicated that, 80.3% of the workers said that administration do evaluate their salaries.
From the result, 73.8% of the people agreed that their establishments do reward their workers. The consequences from the area suggests the following as challenges with the human aid administration practices; poor remuneration, location of staff on revenue scale, terrible communication channels, embezzlement of money and favoritism and victimization when it comes to promotion and appointment. However, they indicated the following measures to solve the above noted challenges; by using checking the historical past of possible employees, clear-cut policies be laid on promotion, there must be free and fair management practices in the organization, management must recognize the views of their personnel in selection making and that there must be clear policies on recruitment in the organization.

5.4 Recommendations
The learn about seeks to examine the affect of the human resource administration practices on the affect of human aid management practices on overall performance of the selected banks in the Sunyani Municipal. Based on the empirical evidences, the following hints are outlined to assist tackle the conditions in the selected banks in the Sunyani Municipal.

1. Management of the chosen banks inside the Sunyani Municipal must have a merit-based reward or motivation or incentive system. This helps expand workers’ performance and amplify productivity. Other employees who recognize that the fine performers are the ones who are motivated can also put forth greater effort to be stimulated as well.
2. Management of the selected banks ought to think about merit-based recruitment and selection by using adhering to the requirements and insurance policies of the chosen banks due to the fact merit-based process is viewed to be fair that helps recruit the certified applicants for the advertised vacancies.
3. Management of the selected banks inside the Sunyani Municipality make it a responsibility to organize education and development programs to the employees’ considering the fact that these improve know-how and abilities hence promote performance.
4. The management of the selected banks within the Sunyani Municipality must ensure that performance appraisal is taken significantly and coverage standards carefully adhered to due to the fact overall performance appraisal help personnel to construct their very own self-awareness of their strengths, weaknesses and development needs.

5. Management must update workers on new development in the market considering that well-informed traits workers make sound choices and continue to be motivated.
5.5 Area for Further Study
This lookup is limited to solely some chosen banks within the Sunyani Municipality consequently lookup carried out into the Human Resource Management practices of all banks within Ghana will make sure better generalisation of findings. This study could also be extended to include respondents from other organisations too. Research can also be conducted into other related areas.

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APPENDIX II
KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
INSTITUTE OF DISTANCE LEARNING
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR RESPONDENTS
Please answer all the questions by filling appropriately after carefully reading through them. The questions are seeking your opinion on the influence of human resource management practices on performance in the banking sector within the Sunyani Municipality. All the answers you give will help in achieving the objectives of this study. Your answers will be treated with confidentiality and will only be used for the purpose of this study. Thank you.

1. Gender Male Female
2. Age Below 30 31 – 40 41-50 Above 51 years
3. Marital status Single Married Divorced Widowed
4. Educational qualification High School Diploma Undergraduate Post Graduate
5. How long have you been working in this bank?
Less than 1 year 1-6year 7-12 year Above 12 years
6. What role do you play as an employee? …………………………………………………….

Research question 1: What are the kinds of human resource management practices available to the banking sector?
7. How were you recruited into the organization?
(a) Employee referrals (b) Advertisement in local newspapers (c) Internet
(d) Professional bodies (e) Both internet and Local Newspapers
8. Which of the following selection procedures and methods is used by the organization the most?
(a) Aptitude test (b) Personal interview (c) Written test (d) Practical test
9. Why did you join the Organization? …..…………………………………………………………………………………

10. Which of the following human resource management practices in the banking sector are you familiar with?
– Training and development -Employee appraisal
– Availability of right tools/equipment to work with -Empowerment
-Attractive remuneration – Recruitment and selection
– Good condition of service -Empowerment
-Time management – Discipline
11. Which human resource management practices does management use to retain employees in the organization?
– Attractive remuneration – Good working environment
– Promotion – Others ………………………..

12. Which of the practices should be maintained or discarded by the organization?
Specify. ………………………………………………………………………………..

13. Aside the management practices of the organization, which other human resource retention practices would you recommend?
-Good condition of service -Service Quality Enhancement
-Diversity and Innovation/ Empowerment – Others …………………………
Research question 2: How do Human Resource Management Practices Influence Organizational Performance?
14. Does your organization train its employees? Yes No
15. How does management choose or identify employee for training?
………………………………………………………………………………………………
16. Have you received any training since you joined the organization? Yes No
17. What do you think has accounted for productivity in the organization?
a. Training and development b. Time management c. Improved supervision
d. Employee discipline e. Periodic staff appraisal f. quality recruitment
18. Do you intend to stay in the organization for long or will you like to join any organization?
Give reasons…………………………………………………………………………

19. Do you have all the tools / equipment you need to work with? Yes No
20. Do the existing human resource management practices support the organizational objectives? Yes No
21. How will you rate your organization in the following areas?
Very high high average low very low
i. Profitability
ii. Staff retention
iii. Deposit mobilization
Research question 3: Determine the extent to which human resource management practices have been used in the banking sector?
22. How many times have you received training? …………………………………………………………

23. How has the training you have received impacted on your work? …………………………………………………………………………..

24. Which methods of training does management apply?
(a) On job training only (b) Off job training only
(c) Both on and off job training (d) Others …………………..

25. Does management review your salary structure? Yes No
26. If yes, how often is the salary structure reviewed?……………………………………………………..

27. Are you satisfied with the method used to choose employees for training? Yes No
28. Are employees in this outfit/organization rewarded? Yes No
29. If yes, how is it done? …………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Research question 3: To determine the challenges facing the impact of human resource management practices on organizational performance and measures that can be put in place to solve the challenges.

30. Does management have challenges in the impact of human resource management practices in the organization? Yes No
31. If yes, what are the challenges?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
32. How can the above mentioned challenges be solved?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

APPENDIX III
Sample Size Formula shown below was used to determine the Sample Size Calculator
Sample size = Z 2 * (p) * (1-p)

c 2
Where:
Z = Z value (e.g. 1.28 for 85% confidence level) p = 15% from previous study, expressed as decimal (0.15 used for sample size needed)c = 5% margin of error, expressed as decimal (0.05)
Sample Size= (1.28 ×1.28) × 0.15 (15%)
= 1.6384×0.15 (0.85)
= 0.24576 (0.85)
= 0.208896÷0.05²
= 0.208896÷0.0025
= 83.5584
Sample Size = 84

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against infections

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against infections. It is oldest mechanism of defense against microbes. Innate immunity is present in all multicellular organisms. Innate in many cases can also eliminate microbes.It increases susceptibility to infections when the adaptive immune system is intact. Innate immunity stimulates the adaptive immune responses and make them active to act against adaptive immune responses.
Innate immunity can only recognize microbial pathogens. It cannot recognize non mammalian pathogens as adaptive immunity do.
The microbial target of innate immunity is called microbial pattern.These are the conserved structures and the receptors that bind to these receptors are called pattern recognition receptors. These receptors are present on the host cells. These receptors will recognize the different patterns of viruses, gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria,fungi.That’s why innate immunity can distinguish between self and non self.

In breaking down the two short stories “Hills like White Elephants” and “A Clean

In breaking down the two short stories “Hills like White Elephants” and “A Clean, Well- Lighted Place” written by Ernest Hemingway I hope to have hit all points while comparing and contrasting of each. Hemingway used more dialogue with less key points and scenery in his writing explaining his style of writing. Symbolizing the setting while hitting all five elements of plot.

In the short story “Hills like White Elephants” a man and a girl discussed a difficult topic, that doesn’t have a conclusion on what they will decide. The short story occurred at a train station near a river in the North of Spain, dividing two cities, indicating the crossroads in the two characters relationship. In depth, the reader can analysis that the girl is indecisive about something that could possibly be harmful to their relationship, whereas, the man further explains that it is a simple operation. “It’s really an awfully simple operation Jig, they just let the air in and then it’s all perfectly natural,” the man said. It is not known to the reader as to what the simple operation is and why it is needed, while on the other hand the girl wants to do whatever it takes to bring happiness back into their relationship. Ernest uses small scenery to symbolize how the girl is feeling about the topic. As she moves to cross the other side to view the fields of grains she states that they can have everything, but once “it” is taken it likes the “white elephants”. In further grouping of knowledge, white elephants indicate a possession that is expensive to maintain, useless, and difficult to dispose of; meaning that the decision they make could be easily confirmed but is difficult to uphold.

A Clean, Well- Lighted Plac invites readers in a café after dark with a deaf old man and two waiters, one ready to go home while the other is being reasonable with the over stayed welcome customer. In this story Hemingway brings a connection between the two characters; the old man and the older waiter. “You have youth, confidence, and a job,” the older waiter said. In this statement readers learn the diversion of the two waiters. The connection that the older waiter has to the old deaf man is said ” I am of those who like to stay late at the café”. Here makes the understanding that the older waiter holds sympathy for the older man and doesn’t mind him staying late. The older waiter and the younger waiter discuss the likes and dislike of cafe/ bars. The older waiter feel that bars are two crowded, hard persona, loud, and bright. While the younger waiter feels that café is to slow and quit, people would just want to sit around past close time and hold up his time to getting home.

In both short storied the author wants readers to dig into the dialogue and get in the setting of the short story so one can understand the reading. This style type used in this short story is less storytelling, which allows Hemingway to use dialogue to reverse the tightness between his characters. In the story “Hill like White Elephants” Ernest makes the reader look deeper into the context in order for one to understand the true argument. As well with “A Clean, Well- Lighted Place the discussion between the two waiters, Hemingway gives part of the scenery. Meanwhile, still wants the reader to focus on the despair similarities dealing with the old man and the older waiter. Ernest’s style of writing avoids usage of excessive dialogue and description of the settings, leaving it up to the readers to interpret how the characters feel. In Hills like White Elephants” the discussion about the hills, the excessive drinks and the unidentifiable decision is a deeper analyzed topic. As wells as the story “A Clean, Well- Lighted Place” the discussion about the attempt suicide of the old man, the connection that the old man and the older waiter shares, and a different outlook on life. These two stories both have a deeper outline than what is given. Both stories are symbolic in their own way. However, they both contain the main characters drinking and sharing the problems of being a male mourning. One dealing with decision of being fruitful or risking it all for happiness, as for the other releasing it all a quiet setting outside of your norm. While not being disturbed by loudness.

In each short stories the plot differs but, in its theme, it allows readers to understand each character life through different perspectives.

ASIAN COLLEGE OF HIGHER STUDIES

ASIAN COLLEGE OF HIGHER STUDIES (ACHS)
Tribhuvan University
Institute of Science and Technology
208407013525500
A PROJECT REPORT
ON
Movie Recommender System
Submitted to
Institute of Science and Technology
Department of Computer Science and Information Technology
Tribhuvan University
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the
Bachelor Degree in Computer Science and Information Technology
5402/Dipendra Shahi
5428/Sita Neupane
5405/Manoj Shrestha
September 3
ASIAN COLLEGE OF HIGHER STUDIES (ACHS)
Tribhuvan University
Institute of Science and Technology
SUPERVISOR’S RECOMMENDATION
I hereby recommend that this project prepared under my supervision by Dipendra Shahi Registration no., Sita Neupane Registration no., Manoj Shrestha Registration no. entitled “Movie Recommendation System With Collaborative Filtering Technique” in partial fulfillment of this requirement for the degree of B. Sc. In Computer Science and Information Technology (B. Sc. CSIT) be processed for evaluation.

……………………………
Rupesh Pradhan,
Supervisor
Acknowledgement
First of all we would like to thank to the CSIT department of “Asian College of Higher Studies” for providing such an opportunity to make this project. We would like to express our deep gratitude to our supervisor, Rupesh Pradhan for his encouragement, inspiration and support for accomplishing this project.

We would like to acknowledge the contributions of Mr. Sabindra Maharjan, the CEO and Mr. Brihat Boshwa, the coordinator of ACHS College for their kind cooperation during the organizational visit. Their precious time and the necessary information were really informative and helpful to us.

For the completion of this report, it was difficult to do but the support and help of the senior brothers and the respected teachers was really grateful. We would like to thank our friends and teachers and seniors of Asian College of Higher Studies College who directly and indirectly helped us for the completion of this report.

Dipendra Shahi: 5402/071
Sita Neupane: 5430/071
Manoj Shrestha: 5405/071
ABSTRACT
A movie recommendation is important in our social life due to its strength in providing enhanced entertainment. Such a system can suggest a set of movies to users based on their interest, or the popularities of the movies. While, a set of movie recommendation systems have been proposed, most of these either cannot recommend a movie to the current users efficiently or to a fresh user by any means. In this report, we propose a movie recommendation system that has the ability to recommend movies to a new user as well as the others. It mines movie databases to assemble all the important information, such as, popularity and attractiveness, required for recommendation. It creates movie clouds not only convenient for movie producer to plan a new movie but also useful for movie recommendation. In this project, we implement an information filtering technique called as Collaborative Filtering for generating personalized recommendations in movies for user. Cosine Similarity techniques is used in order to find the similarity between users and to generate recommendations to the users.

Table of Contents
Acknowledgement4
Abstract5
List of figures7
List of tables8
Chapter 1: Introduction9
1.1 Introduction9
1.2 Problem Statement 9
1.3 Objectives10
1.4 Scope and Limitation10
Chapter 2: Requirement Analysis and Feasibility Analysis11
2.1 Literature Review11
2.2 Requirement Analysis12
2.2.1 Functional Requiremen13
2.2.2 Non- Functional Requirement15
2.3 Feasibility Analysis16
2.3.1 Economical Feasibility16
2.3.2 Operational Feasibility16
2.3.3 Technical Feasibility16
2.3.4 Schedule Feasibility16
2.4 Structuring System Requirement 17
2.4.1 Data Modeling18
2.4.1.1 ER diagram18
2.4.1.2 Class diagram19
2.4.2 Process Modeling 20
2.4.2.1 Activity Diagram20
2.4.2.2 Sequence Diagram21
Chapter 3: System Design22
3.1 Interface Detail Design 23
3.2Process Modeling23
3.3.1 Flowchart 23
Chapter 4: Implementation& Testing24
4.1 Implementation24
4.1.1 Implementation tools25
4.1.2 System Testing26
4.1.2.1 Test Cases27
Chapter 5: Maintenance and Support28
Chapter 6: Conclusion29
6.1 Conclusion 29
6.2 Future works29
Reference30
Appendix32
-Source Code33
-System Screenshot56
List of Figures
Figure1: Use Case Diagram
Figure2: Grant Chart
Figure3: ER Diagram
Figure4: Class Diagram
Figure 5: Activity Diagram
Figure6: Sequence Diagram
Figure 7: Block diagram of Movie Recommender System
Figure8: SDLC for Movie Recommender System
Figure 9: Flowchart
List of Tables
Table 1: Schedule Table
Table 2: Test Case Table
Table 3: Developer Software Requirement Table
Table 4: Client-Side Software Requirement Table
Table 5: Server-Side Software Requirement
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Introduction
In these modern days, Internet has become most important part of human life but also users face the problem of too much choices and options. With the so many movies at hand, people face the dilemma and confuse of what to watch. People watch something that matches with their interest, mood, taste and style. This is where Recommendation Systems can help them for suggesting and recommending movies that match user taste and viewing habits. Thus, recommended imitate social process to enable quick refining of the information on the internet. These systems are also able to collect information about users’ choices and can use this information to progress their suggestions in the future.

Thus, Movie Recommender System helps people to find the movies of their choices based on the movie experience of other users in efficient and effective way without killing time in useless browsing. Hence, for a system to understand a movie, it needs movie structures such as movie cast, movie genre, movie category etc.

1.2 Problem Statement
Sometimes, we cannot find and search the movies as per as our needs. We face so many dilemmas and confused on what to watch and confuse on how to search on our required movies. The question is:
Is it possible to extract or produce features of movie from user reviews?
Is it possible to procedure extracted features to find other similar movies?
What is good feature and how can we discriminate good features from bad ones?
Given a set of users with their earlier ratings for different movies, can we guess the rating they will assign to a movie that they have not earlier rated?
So, Movie Recommendation System aims to recommend movies to users based on user-movie ratings and their interest. This system will provide more exact results as compared to the present systems. This system analyses the similarities among the different users and then recommended movie to them according to the ratings given by the different users of related tastes.

1.3 Objectives
The main objectives of this movie recommended system are:
Extract movies features from user Ratings of movies.

Examine extracted features to find similar movies.

Draw conclusions about the performance of the developed system.

Recommend the movies based on the user preference and interest.

1.4 Scope and Limitation
Scope
It helps to reduce the problem of information burden which is a very common phenomenon with information retrieval systems and allows users to have access to services which are not easily available to users on the system. We came up with a policy that focuses on dealing with user’s personal interests and based on his earlier rating, movies are recommended to users. This strategy helps in improving correctness of the recommendations.

A personal profile is created for each user, where each user has access to his history, ratings, password modification processes. It also helps users in collecting authentic data along with improved accuracy and makes the system more responsive.
Limitation
1. Lack of Data:
Since, the biggest problem facing recommender systems is that we need a lot of data to effectively make recommendations. The more information and user data a recommender system has to work with, the stronger the probabilities of getting good recommendations. To get good recommendations, we should need a lot of users. So, we must get a lot of data for the recommendations.

2. Changing User Preference:
The problem here is that while today I have one intention or interest now and when browsing tomorrow I might have a different intention or interest.
Chapter 2: Requirement Analysis and Feasibility Analysis
2.1 Literature Review
Since, the idea of recommender system developed in mid-1990s. In past 10 years there has been a enormous growth in the development of recommender sites. The people using the recommender systems is increasing rapidly that makes it very important for these systems to make recommendations that are close to user’s interest.

Jia Zhou and Tiejan Luo, has issued a paper on Collaborative Filtering applications. The paper describes about the collaborative filtering techniques which were currently in used in that generation.
SongJie Gong and Zhejiang proposes that ‘personalized recommendation systems’ are widely used in e-commerce websites to provide recommendations to the users.
Robert M Bell and Yehuda Koren, state that recommender systems provide recommendations to the users based on past user-item relationship. Based on past user-item relationship the neighbors are computed which makes the prediction easy.

Micheal Pazzani discuses about recommending data sources for news articles or web sites after learning the taste of the users by learning their profile.

Koren stated that the user tastes change with in the changing of time and developed a recommendation system implementing temporary data into ‘factor modeling’ and ‘item-item neighbor’ modeling.

‘Shambour and Lu’ examined the ‘recommender frameworks’ in the setting of the e-government space, and stated a consistent business accomplice proposal e-administrations for little to-medium organizations.
‘Yin and Peng’ given a sensible schema to the execution correlation among another suggestion calculation and the delegate acknowledged calculations.2.2 Requirement Analysis:
Tools RequiredThe tools required for our project are given below:
Software Tools
TMDB (The Movie Database)
It is an online database of information related to the movie, world film, TV program including cast production crew and fan base rating and review.

HTML (Hypertext markup language) – HTML5
HTML5 is used as front end for our project. It is a markup language that is used for organizing and presenting the content on World Wide Web.

CSS (Cascading Style sheet) – CSS3
CSS3 is used for presenting our document that is written in HTML5 .CSS is proposed to enable the separation of presentation and content, along with contents, layout colors, and fonts.
JS (JavaScript) – JS 1.8.1
JavaScript is a Client-side scripting language which helps on several factors to make the application dynamic and efficient. We are using JavaScript version 1.8.1 in our project to manipulate different functionalities of our system needs.

Ruby on Rails-2.5.1
Ruby on Rails, or Rails, is a server-side web application framework that is written in Ruby. Rails are a model view controller framework that provides default structures for a database, web pages and web services. It encourages the use of HTML CSS and JS for display and user interfacing.

PosrgreSQL-10
It is an object relational database management system with an emphasis on extensibility and standards compliance. It stores data securely and return that data in response to requests from other software applications.

Hardware Tools
Laptops or PC with minimum system requirement of
Operating System: Microsoft Windows, Vista, XP or higher
Processor: 800MHz Intel Pentium III or higher
Memory: 512MB
Disk space: 750 MB or higher2.2.1 Functional Requirement
This project basically describes how the system reacts to particular inputs and how the system should behave to particular situation. The functional requirements of the project are mainly categorized as user requirements and device requirement each of which are explained below:
• User Requirement: User profile should be created and user must select at least one value of likes or dislikes based on preferences of our project for the movie recommendation.

• Device Requirement: System must be initiated on web-browser.

For our system ‘Movie Recommender System’, the functional requirements are as follows:
User data collection functionality that can be used to review their data.

One user’s rating can be helpful and useful to other users for recommending movies.

Decrease in the searching process for a user and navigation time.

Help users to find the information of related movie.

Use Case Diagram
Use case diagram can be helpful in understanding the functional requirement of movie recommendation system. In given figure, it shows the interaction between user and the system in particular environment.
-12382558102500
Fig: Use Case diagram of User
The above figure shows the major function of movie recommendation system. User is considered as an actor of the movie recommender system. The user can perform the function like registering account, viewing their profile, searching for movie, rate on movie and get recommended movies.

2.2.2 Non- Functional requirement
Non-functional requirements define the overall qualities or attributes of our system project. So, the non-functional requirements for the project are:
Usability:
Every customer can use this Website easily.

Performance:
The system software use very less amount of memory. Customer can complete the operations in a short interval of time.

Reliability:
Whenever user calls system over a particular period of time, the system delivers the expected services.
Security
The system is secured. Unauthorized access to the system and the data are not allowed. It has guaranteed to the security of user information. Only admin user should know the id and password. All data is protected and not accessible by others.

Availability
The portal provides proper service to the user when it is run.

2.3 Feasibility Analysis
Here we have analysis and evaluation of a proposed project to determine if it is technically feasible, if it is feasible within the estimated cost, and if it will be profitable. Here are some key factors to evaluate feasibility are as follows: 2.3.1 Economical FeasibilityHere we will show the analysis of a project’s costs and expenses in an effort to determine whether or not it is logical and possible to complete. Here we have cost on printing document, transportation and internet cost. We don’t require special hardware and software for this project. Laptops and required software are easily available. We need at least minimum 2 laptops which may cost Rs.60000 each. Since, we hosted the system on Heroku cloud hosting service that is free of cost for limited use. So, the system can be considered as economically feasible for our project.

2.3.2 Operational Feasibility
Our project gives the correct outcomes based in user input. So our project will be feasible in term of operation. It enables us ease of use and low learning curve. System is designed as operationally feasible as the system can be operated with the resource as of personal computer that is browser. The project is developed as the website allows the easy access to the several users. The system analyzes and processes the data from the users and based on their data, system works to afford recommendation. The information will be reliably provided to the users about movie description and many more.

2.3.3 Technical Feasibility
All the tools and software products required to construct our system is easily available in the web. Windows OS and Linux are used. Requirement hardware and software are easily available. Since all the tools and software products required for constructing movie recommender system is easily available. It does not require special environment to execute. It needs a web server and a DBMS to operate. The operation makes use of internet.

2.3.4 Schedule Feasibility
We divide the task among the group based on our knowledge and capabilities. Special planning was performed by planning and time management. Since, the project is completed in estimated timeframe. The time duration of each task is set. It takes about 4 months to complete our project. We performed the task and project based on given Schedule table:
Table: Schedule table for our project
-7620093345SN Task name Duration start Finish
1 Research and analysis 3 days 13 April 15 April
2 Proposal defense 2 days 16 April 17 April
3 Algorithm Study 10 days 18 April 27 April
4 System Design
15 days 28 April 13 may
5 Coding and Integration 30 days 14 May 18June
6 Testing 15 days 19June 5July
7 Output analysis and debugging
20 days 5 July 25 august
8 Documentation
3 .5month 12 April August 30
00SN Task name Duration start Finish
1 Research and analysis 3 days 13 April 15 April
2 Proposal defense 2 days 16 April 17 April
3 Algorithm Study 10 days 18 April 27 April
4 System Design
15 days 28 April 13 may
5 Coding and Integration 30 days 14 May 18June
6 Testing 15 days 19June 5July
7 Output analysis and debugging
20 days 5 July 25 august
8 Documentation
3 .5month 12 April August 30

Fig: Grant Chart
2.4 Structuring System Requirement
2.4.1 Data Modeling
2.4.1.1 ER Diagram

Fig: ER-diagram of movie recommender System
The ER diagram shows the entities used in the system and relationship between them is given. The entities in the system are:
1. User: It consists of attributes user name, email, password and has one to one relationship with entity User Profile and one to many relationship with entity Movie
2. User Profile: It consist of attribute User name, Genre rating, profile pictures and email and has one to one relationship with User.

3.Movie: It consist of attributes image, overview, Title, related movies and one to one relation with movie description and many to one with User .

4. Movie description: It consists of attributes image, titles, overview, release date, budget and has one to one relation with movie and rating item.

5. Rating form: It has attribute of numeric rating and has one to one relation with movie description.

2.4.1.2 Class Diagram
In the given figure of class diagram, it indicates the static structure of an object-oriented model: the object classes, their internal structure and the relationship in which they participate. A class is represented by a rectangle with three compartments separated by horizontal lines. The class name in the top compartment, list of attributes in the middle and list of operations in the bottom compartment. Here we have 5 classes having different attributes on each class with their respective operations.

-762003810000 Here the user class has the operation of creating user, login and rating movies.User Profile class has basic operaton of rating on category or prefernce of movie. Similarly, movie class help in displaying related movie. Descrption class operates to display the description or overview of movie. Movie rating class is used for input or displaying rating of user.

2.4.2 Process Modeling
2.4.2.1 Activity Diagram
In the given Activity Diagram, it describes the dynamic aspects of the system. Here, the diagram shows user oriented view of system operation.

381034163000
Fig: Activity Diagram
The above diagram shows the activity diagram of the system. It depicts how the user interacts with system. Initially, user login into the system providing the basic user profile information. Afterwards, user search for a movie and rate on movie. Then system uses algorithm to find the similarity with other users and then movie is recommended to the user.

2.4.2.2 Sequence Diagram
Here, a sequence diagram shows the flow of the project. It shows several modules and also the messages passed in between them. In the figure, different modules of the project are shown. Authentication, Movie Database, Object are the modules and the function of each module is shown in figure.

left41275000
Fig: Sequence Diagram
Chapter 3: System Design
3.1 System Design
The system uses the information of user and with the help of their information and rating values, movies are recommended to the users. System uses collaboration filtering technique .In order to recommend movies we have to find the similarity of user with other users. For this, we have used cosine similarity algorithm to find the similarity between the user based on their preferences like action, comedy and romance.

3.2.1 Interface Detail Design
The design phase includes planning different stages for implementing the software. Result of a process is seen in the output of the system. The design of output requirement carried out with much user friendliness. The system delivers messages for user friendliness. Screen is provided with help menus and messages so that they can help users at problematic conditions. It also provides error message wherever it is necessary.

In the user login screen, the user enters the login id and password after signup process. After login into the system the user home page opens and gets recommendations, rate movies, and logout. There is also search option of movie.

When clicked on the home link, the movies reviewed recently are displayed along with the movies rated most highly are also present in home page.

When clicked on signup link, users profile is created with their username and password. They also need their profile pictures. After signup they can search movies and rate movie.-340995-91440000
3.2.2 Input Output Design
Algorithm:
The algorithm used in this project is User Based Collaborative filtering using Cossine Similarity.

Similarity= cosine (?) = (A.B)/ (|A|.|B|)
This ratio is used as a similarity measure between any two users denoted by cossine (A, B)
This algorithm takes preference of user for different genre of movie:
Action (Like or Dislike)
Romantic (Like or Dislike)
Comedy (Like or Dislike)
User gives their preference for these three genres of movie, “Action” “Romantic” and “Comedy” while user registered in these systems.

16764068326000In sign up form:
Now based on the data collected from user while user registered in the system. The record for the user is created on the basis of above mentioned three genre of movie. Here if user has selected “like” for any particular genre , it is treated as “1” and if user has selected “dislike” then it is treated as “0”, i.e. :
Like is treated as “1”.

Dislike is treated as “0”.

User preference table:
Action Comedy Romantic
User1 1 1 1
User2 1 0 0
User3 0 0 1
User4 1 1 1
So on the basis of this obtained result, “Cossine Similarity” is used for finding the most closed or similar user that has similar preference of a movie to a particular user.

Algorithm to find closeness of current user to others users :Cossine similarity:

Here, u.rates is the cossine similarity between current user and the user with whom similarity with current user is being calculated.

For example:
Action Comedy Romantic
User1 1 1 1
User2 1 0 0
User3 0 0 1
Current_user 1 1 1
Here, Current_user has preference “like” for all three genre of movie. So, current_user value for three genre of movie is (1, 1, 1).

Now using cossine similarity , if we try to find most close user to current user then it will be “User1” because “User1” value for three genre of movie is also (1,1,1).

i.e.:Cossine(current_user,User1)=((current_user.romance*u.romance)+(current_user.comedy*u.comedy)+(current_user.action*u.action))/(Math.sqrt(current_user.romance**2+current_user.comedy**2+current_user.action**2)*Math.sqrt(u.romance**2+u.comedy**2+u.action**2))
= (1*1+1*1+1*1) / (?(1²+1²+1²)* (?(1²+1²+1²)*)
=1
Like this using cossine similarity formula, closeness of all the users with current user can be calculated. Higher the cossine similarity value higher will be the closeness.

Movie Rating:
In this application user can search for a particular movie and can give rating to that movie out of 5.

33210535877500Search for a movie
564515465455002. Give rating to the movie
Now the last part of algorithm is that, after finding closeness of current user to all the users in the system, we find the movie that contains the rating of “4” or “5”.

That means in the above example , for the current user since using cossine similarity “User1” is the most closed user, so the movies that are rated “4 or 5” by the “User1” is recommended to the current user.Then algorithm again search for next close user after “User1” and recommend movies that contains rating of 4 or 5 rated by next closed user to current user.

Final algorithm for recommending movies to user:
;% @user.order(“rates DESC”).each do |u| %;
;% if u.id != current_user.id %;
;% u.reviews.order(“rating DESC”).each do |rev| %;
;% if rev.rating ;= 4 %;
;%= u.username %;
;%= rev.movie.title %;
;% if rev.movie.poster != nil %;
;%=image_tag(rev.movie.poster) %;
;% else %;
;%= image_tag(“no.jpg”) %;
;% end %;
;% end %;
;% end %;
;% end %;
;% end %;

3.2.3 Process Model
44132554673500 Flow Chart
Chapter 4: Implementation and Testing
Implementation
Since, we have many stages during our project. Firstly, we prepare a proper plan. We set budget and schedule. Then, we identify our objectives and goals for our project. Requirements are determined for our project. Then, we design the system process and planed our layout. Then, we choose our personnel, set schedules and budget and performed our planning tasks. We design our static web pages in which HTML, CSS, JS is used for front end and Ruby on Rails is used as Backend.
-39687534925
Fig: SDLC for movie recommender system
4.1.1 Implementation tools:
Front end:
Hypertext Markup Language(HTML)
HTML5 is used as front end for our project. It is a markup language that is used for structuring and presenting the content on World Wide Web.

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
CSS3 is used for presenting our document that is written in HTML5 .CSS is intended to enable the separation of presentation and content, along with layout, content, fonts and colors.

JavaScript (JS)
JS 1.8.1 is used for both backend and frontend. It is characterized as dynamic, prototyped based and multi-paradigm.

.
Back end:
Ruby on rails-5.1
Ruby on Rails, or Rails, is a server-side web application framework that is written in Ruby. Rails is a model view controller framework, that provides default structures for a database, web service and web pages. It encourages the use of HTML CSS and JS for display and user interfacing.

JavaScript (JS)-1.8.1
JavaScript is a Client-side scripting language which helps on various factors to make the application dynamic and systematic. We are using JavaScript version 1.8.1 in our project to manipulate different functionalities of our System needs.

PostgreSQL-10
It is an object relational database management system with an emphasis on extensibility and standards compliance. It stores data securely and return that data in response to requests from other software applications.

Operating System Windows 10, Linux
IDE Visual Studio 1.25
Database Server PostgreSQL, TMDB
Programming Language Ruby on Rails
Developer side:
Table 1: Developer Software Requirements
Client side:
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2 : Client Software RequirementsBrowsers Opera, Mozilla, Internet explorer, Chrome
Server Side:Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3 : Server Software Requirements
Operating System Linux
Web Server Rails Server
Database Server PostgreSQL Server
4.2 Testing
Testing is done to evaluate the software against requirements collected from users and system specifications. Software system testing identifies important flaws, errors, defects, in the application code that must be fixed. Testing is done at the phase level in software development life cycle or at module level in program code. Software testing includes the Validation and Verification of testing.

4.2.1 Unit Testing
For Unit Testing, we have tested the individual testable part of the system independently. We have done that manually like Login module, Registration module.

4.2.2 Integration Testing
After unit testing is performed, we performed Integration testing in which we combine the modules and performed testing.

The content is logically arranged and easy for users to understand. We have checked for spelling errors. We also check that pages adhere to color and pattern style guidelines, including fonts, frames, and borders. Since, the images also loaded correctly and with proper sizes.

4.2.3 System Testing
During the designing process, this project had so many bugs which were debugged one by analysing the problem occurred on each steps. This project has gone through following testing procedure.

S. N Test Cases Expected Results
1. Form Validation Registration error indicating missing information
2. User Authentication Error Indicating Incorrect Username or Password.

3. Session management Maintain the User Session period.

5. Browser Compatibility Web application that for correct function on several browsers, including Firefox, IE, Chrome, Opera
6. Operating Environment Compatible Compatible on all OS supporting Web Browser
7. Server Connection 404 Error may arise during Server error
8. Database Connectivity No database found error may arise
9. Syntax error Programming syntax error may arise
10. Device Compatibility Devise such as mobile, tablet, pc, gear may arise error.

Table: Test Cases
Chapter 5: Implementation and Support
Maintenance and Support
The main objective of maintenance and support is to make the system error free at all times possible. This can be achieved by constantly looking for bugs and taking feedback from users who access this system. Sometimes the system might also experience unknown bugs in the programming logic itself which should be tackled swiftly. Similarly, this system might experience lagging due to heavy traffic and it should be managed accordingly.
Client may Contact Developers any time for any kinds of problems in the System. And our Developers are always available for the Support of their Clients.

Chapter 6: Conclusion
6.1 Conclusion
Movie is recommended to the users on the basis of their interest, rating and preference
The aim of this application is to implement the collaborative filtering algorithm that will forecast the feature of movie on the basis of record and data collected from user. The Collaborative filtering takes input from users and collaborates user input to get best suitable feature (Rating) for the movie. But we face few disadvantages, that due to lack of data, all information might not available for users and some information can be outdated.

6.2 Future Works
It can be installed in Apache Server and so it can be also published in internet. Data can be updated continuously and we can make it as online rating predictions to the users. As a result, it can be finely satisfying current user tastes.

Due to time constraints and other factors some of the features, we unable in the preliminary stage of the development. Some of the features which currently could not be incorporated are:
User can only rate on movies but cannot comment on related movie and give feedback on them.

Users can get the information about movies and some of their deception but they are unable to watch public review and trailer.

REFERENCES

“Introduction to Recommender Systems Handbook”. Francesco Ricci, Lior Rokach and Bracha Shapira, 2011

“Recommender Systems for the web” J.Ben Schafer, Joseph A Konstan John T Reidl, 2006

Recommender System- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2013
“Towards an Introduction to Collaborative Filtering”. Jia Zhou, Tiejian Luo, 2009

“Extraction and integration of MovieLens and IMDb Data”. Veronika Peralta, 2007
Scalability-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Correlation and dependence- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Statistical dependence: Independence, Correlation and dependence, Copula, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient
“A Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Algorithm based on User Clustering and Item Clustering”. SongJie Gong, Zhejiang Business Technology Institute, 2010
“Improved Neighborhood-based Collaborative Filtering”. Robert M. Bell and Yehuda Koren, 2007
“Collaborative Filtering with temporal dynamics”. Y. Koren, 2009
“Collaborative Filtering in a Non-Uniform World.” R. Salakhutdinov, N. Sebro, 2010
“A Hybrid trust-enhanced collaborative filtering recommendation approach for personalized government-to-business e-services”. Q. Shambour, 2011
APPENDIX
Index.html.erb(landing page Code):
;%ifuser_signed_in?%;
;div class=”row”;
;div class=”col-xs-12 col-md-6 col-md-offset-3″;
;h1 class=”text-center” style=”color:purple “;Search Movie;/h1;
;div class=”row”;
;form id=”movie-search”;
;div class=”col-xs-8″;
;input type=”text” name=”query” class=”form-control” placeholder=”Enter Movie Name”;
;/div;
;div class=”col-xs-4″;
;button type=”submit” class=”btn btn-success”;Search;/button;
;/div;
;/form;
;/div;
;/div;
;br/;
;div class=”col-xs-12 col-md-6 col-md-offset-3 ” style=”margin-top:50px “;

;div id=”movies”;
;h1 style=”color:green”;Recent Reviewed Movie: ;/h1;
;% @movie.each do |m| %;
;div class=”box panel panel-default pull-left”;
;div class=”panel-body”;
;p;;h3 style=”color:red”;;%= m.title %;;/h3;;/p;
;% Tmdb::Api.key(“3deceb9041e72a8856191ddeaf96a293”) %;
;% Tmdb::Api.language(“en”) %;
;% if m.poster != nil ;; Tmdb::Movie.posters(m.tmdb_id).first != nil %;
;% @mov = Tmdb::Movie.posters(m.tmdb_id).first.file_path %;

;%= image_tag(“https://image.tmdb.org/t/p/w185#{@mov}”) %;
;% else %;
;%= image_tag(“no.jpg”) %;
;% end %;
;/div;
;/div;
;% end %;
;/div;

;/div;
;/div;
;h1 style=”color:blue”;Recommendation: ;/h1;
;% @user.each do |u| %;
;% if u.id != current_user.id ;; u.romance == current_user.romance ;; u.comedy == current_user.comedy ;; u.action == current_user.action %;
;% u.reviews.each do |rev| %;
;% if rev.rating ;= 4 %;
;h3 style=”color:green”; ;%= u.username %; ;/h3;
;h3 style=”color:red”; ;%= rev.movie.title %; ;/h3;
;% if rev.movie.poster != nil ;; Tmdb::Movie.posters(rev.movie.tmdb_id).first != nil %;
;% @mov = Tmdb::Movie.posters(rev.movie.tmdb_id).first.file_path %;

;%= image_tag(“https://image.tmdb.org/t/p/w185#{@mov}”) %;
;% else %;
;%= image_tag(“no.jpg”) %;
;% end %;
;% end %;
;% end %;
;% end %;

;% end %;
;% else %;
;h1; PLEASE LOG IN ;/h1;
;% end %;
Profile.html.erb(User Profile Code)
;h3; Name: ;/h3;
;%= current_user.username%;
;h3; Email: ;/h3;
;%= current_user.email %;
;h3; Profile Picture ;/h3;
;%= image_tag current_user.photo ,class: ‘picture’ %;
;h3; Action Movie Rating: ;/h3;
;%= current_user.action %;
;h3; Romance Movie Rating: ;/h3;
;%= current_user.romance %;
;h3; Comedy Movie Rating: ;/h3;
;%= current_user.comedy %;
;br/;
;br/;
;h3 style=”color: blue”; MOVIES RATED ;/h3;
;% @review.each do |rev| %;
;% if rev.user.id == current_user.id %;
;h3 style=”color: red”; ;%= rev.movie.title %; ;/h3;
;h4 style=”color: green”; ;%= rev.rating %; ;/h4;
;% end %;
;% end %;
New.html.erb(Login Page Code)
;h2;Log in;/h2;
;%= form_for(resource, as: resource_name, url: session_path(resource_name)) do |f| %;
;div class=”field”;
;%= f.label :email %;;br /;
;%= f.email_field :email, autofocus: true %;
;/div;
;div class=”field”;
;%= f.label :password %;;br /;
;%= f.password_field :password, autocomplete: “off” %;
;/div;
;% if devise_mapping.rememberable? -%;
;div class=”field”;
;%= f.check_box :remember_me %;
;%= f.label :remember_me %;
;/div;
;% end -%;
;div class=”actions”;
;%= f.submit “Log in” %;
;/div;
;% end %;
;%= render “devise/shared/links” %;
New.html.erb(SignUp Page Code)
;h2;Resend confirmation instructions;/h2;
;%= form_for(resource, as: resource_name, url: confirmation_path(resource_name), html: { method: :post }) do |f| %;
;%= devise_error_messages! %;
;div class=”field”;
;%= f.label :email %;;br /;
;%= f.email_field :email, autofocus: true, value: (resource.pending_reconfirmation? ? resource.unconfirmed_email : resource.email) %;
;/div;
;div class=”actions”;
;%= f.submit “Resend confirmation instructions” %;
;/div;
;% end %;
;%= render “devise/shared/links” %;
Application.html.erb(Main Application Layout Code)
;!DOCTYPE html;
;html;
;head;
;title;CollegeProject;/title;
;%= csrf_meta_tags %;
;%= stylesheet_link_tag ‘application’, media: ‘all’, ‘data-turbolinks-track’: ‘reload’ %;
;%= javascript_include_tag ‘application’, ‘data-turbolinks-track’: ‘reload’ %;
;%= javascript_tag “window._token = ‘#{form_authenticity_token}'” %;
;/head;
;body;
;nav;
;div class=”row”;
;div class = “col-lg-6 col-lg-offset-3″;
;div class=”row”;
;div class=”nav_wrapper”;
;div class=”col-xs-3″;
;span class=”pull-left brand”;;%= link_to ‘Hernajau.com’, root_path %;;/span;
;/div;
;!– <div class=”col-xs-6″> –>
;% if user_signed_in? %;

;%= link_to ‘Profile’, profile_path , class: ‘btn btn-small btn-warning’ %;
;div class=”col-xs-3″; ;span class=”nav_links pull-right”;;%= link_to ‘Edit Settings’, edit_user_registration_path %;;/span;;/div;
;div class=”col-xs-3″; ;span class=”nav_links pull-right”;;%= link_to ‘Log Out’, destroy_user_session_path, method: :delete %;;/span;;/div;
;% else %;
;span class=”nav_links pull-right”;;%= link_to ‘Sign Up’, new_user_registration_path %;;/span;
;span class=”nav_links pull-right”;;%= link_to ‘Log In’, new_user_session_path %;;/span;
;% end %;
;/div;
;/div;
;/div;
;/div;
;/div;
;/nav;
;%= yield %;
;/body;
;/html;
Show.html.erb(Show User Code)
;h3; Name: ;/h3;
;%= @user.username%;
;h3; Email: ;/h3;
;%= @user.email %;
;h3; Profile Picture ;/h3;
;%= image_tag @user.photo ,class: ‘picture’ %;
;h3; Action Movie Rating: ;/h3;
;%= @user.action %;
;h3; Romance Movie Rating: ;/h3;
;%= @user.romance %;
;h3; Comedy Movie Rating: ;/h3;
;%= @user.comedy %;
Main.js(Main JavaScript Code)
$(function(){
let form = $(‘#movie-search’);
form.submit(function(e){
e.preventDefault();
$.ajax({
url: ‘https://api.themoviedb.org/3/search/movie?api_key=3deceb9041e72a8856191ddeaf96a293’,
data: form.serialize()
})
.done(function(data){
displayMovies(data);
});
});
$(‘#movies’).on(‘click’,’img.movie_poster’,function(e){
e.preventDefault();
let id = $(e.target).data(‘id’);
$.ajax({
url: ‘https://api.themoviedb.org/3/movie/’ + id + ‘?’,
data: {‘api_key’ : ‘3deceb9041e72a8856191ddeaf96a293′}
})
.done(function(data){
displayMovie(data)
})
});
function displayMovies(data){
let container = $(“#movies”);
let htmlString = “”;
container.empty();
let imageUrl = getBaseImageUrl();
if (data”results”.length == 0) {
htmlString = `;div class=”alert alert-danger text-center” role=”alert”;No Data Found!;/div;`;
}
else{
data”results”.forEach(function(movie){
htmlString += `
;img src=${movie”poster_path” == null ? “/assets/no.jpg” : imageUrl + “/” + movie”poster_path”} data-id=”${movie’id’}” class=”movie_poster”/;
;h6 style=”color:green”; (*** Click image to give rating ***) ;/h6;
;p;${movie”title”};/p;
;p;${movie”overview”};/p;`;
});
}
container.append(htmlString);
}
function displayMovie(movie){
let container = $(“#movies”);
let htmlString = “”;

var imageUrl = getBaseImageUrl();
container.empty();
htmlString +=
`

;img src=${movie”poster_path” == null ? “/assets/no.jpg” : imageUrl + “/” + movie”poster_path”} data-id=”${movie’id’}” class = “movie_poster” /;
;h1;${movie”title”};/h2;
;br /; ;br /; ;br /; ;br /;
;h3;Vote Average:${movie”vote_average”};/h3;
;b; Adult:;/b; ${movie”adult”};br /;
;b;Overview: ;/b; ${movie”overview”};br /;
;b;Original Title: ;/b; ${movie”original_title”};br /;
;b;Original Language: ;/b; ${movie”original_language”};br /;
;b;Release Date: ;/b; ${movie”release_date”};br /;
;b;Plot: ;/b; ${movie”plot”};br /;
;b;Runtime: ;/b; ${movie”runtime”};br /;
;b;Released: ;/b; ${movie”released”};br /;
;b;Genre: ;/b; ${movie”genre”};br /;
;b;Language: ;/b; ${movie”language”};br /;
;b;Budget: ;/b; ${movie”budget”};br /;
;b;Homepage: ;/b; ${movie”homepage”};br /;
;b;Tmdb Id: ;/b; ${movie”tmdb_id”};br /;
;b;Imdb Id: ;/b; ${movie”imdb_id”};br /;
;b;Popularity: ;/b; ${movie”popularity”};br /;

;form id=”rating-form” action=”/reviews” method=”POST”;
;input type=”hidden” name=”authenticity_token” value=${window._token} /;
;input type=”hidden” name=”tmdb_id” value=${movie”id”} /;
;b; Ratings: ;/b;
;input type=”text” name= “reviewrating” class=”form-control” placeholder=”Ratings out of 10″;
;br /;
;input type=”submit” class=”btn btn-success pull-right” /;
;/form;
`;
container.append(htmlString);

}

function getBaseImageUrl(){
var url = “”;
var settings = {
“async”: false,
“crossDomain”: true,
“url”: “https://api.themoviedb.org/3/configuration?api_key=3deceb9041e72a8856191ddeaf96a293”,
“method”: “GET”,
“headers”: {},
“data”: “{}”
}
$.ajax(settings).done(function (response) {
url = response”images””base_url” + response”images””poster_sizes”3;
});
return url;
}
});
CSS Code:
nav.scss(Navbar Code)
// Header Styles
.site-header {
padding: 10px 0 5px 0;
*zoom: 1; }
.site-header:after {
content: ” “;
clear: both;
display: block;
overflow: hidden;
height: 0; }

//Branding

#branding {
float: left;}
#branding .logo, #branding .logo-copy {
display: inline-block; }
#branding .logo {
margin-right: 5px; }
// #branding .site-title {
// margin: 0;
// text-transform: uppercase;
// color: rgb(58, 2, 2);
// font-size: 16px; }
// #branding .site-title a {
// color: rgb(3, 5, 107); }
// #branding .site-description {
// font-size: 13px;
// color: #26575e; }

//Navigation
.main-navigation {
float: right;
background: rgb(26, 0, 0);
border-radius: 5px;
margin: 60px 40px;}
.main-navigation .menu-toggle, .main-navigation .menu, .main-navigation .search-form {
display: inline-block;
vertical-align: middle; }
.main-navigation .menu-toggle {
color: #333;
border: none;
background: none;
font-size: 18px;
font-size: 1.2em;
padding: 8px 15px;
display: none;
outline: none; }
@media screen and (max-width: 990px) {
.main-navigation .menu-toggle {
display: inline-block; } }
@media screen and (min-width: 991px) {
.main-navigation .menu-toggle {
display: none !important; } }
.main-navigation .menu {
list-style: none;
margin: 0; }
@media screen and (min-width: 991px) {
.main-navigation .menu {
display: inline-block !important; } }
@media screen and (max-width: 990px) {
.main-navigation .menu {
display: none; } }
.main-navigation .menu-item {
display: inline-block;
padding: 10px 0; }
.main-navigation .menu-item a {
padding: 0 15px;
display: inline-block;
color: #84878d;
font-size: 14px;
font-size: 0.9333333333em;
font-weight: 400;
line-height: 1;
border-right: 1px solid #eeeeef; }
.main-navigation .menu-item.current-menu-item, .main-navigation .menu-item:hover {
position: relative; }
.main-navigation .menu-item.current-menu-item:after, .main-navigation .menu-item:hover:after {
content: ” “;
position: absolute;
width: 80%;
height: 3px;
background-color: #ffaa3c;
bottom: -3px;
left: 0;
right: 0;
margin: 0 auto;
display: block; }
.search-form{
input{
background-color: #f0f0f0;
border: none;
// border-left: 1px solid white;
border-radius:2px solid rgb(26, 0, 0);
font-family: inherit;
font-weight: 300;
width: 0;
visibility: hidden;
opacity: 0;
transition: .3s ease;
padding: 10px 0;

;.active{
width:200px;
visibility: visible;
opacity: 1;
padding: 10px;
}
}
button{
background-color: transparent;
border:none;
// border-left: 1px solid white;
border-radius: 0;
border-top-right-radius: 5px;
border-bottom-right-radius: 5px;
margin-left: -5px;
color: inherit;
box-shadow: none;
outline: none;
transition: .3s ease;

;.active{
background-color: #f0f0f0;
}
}
}
Footer.scss(Footer Code)
/*
* Footer Styles
*/
.site-footer {
background-color: #0e0e16;
padding: 50px 0; }
.site-footer .widget {
margin-bottom: 30px; }
.site-footer .widget-title {
color: #bec1c8;
font-weight: 300; }
.site-footer .subscribe-form inputtype=”text” {
width: 100%;
border: 1px solid #bec1c8;
background-color: transparent;
background-image: url(./arrow.png);
background-repeat: no-repeat;
background-position: right center;
color: inherit;
font-size: 13px;
font-size: 0.8666666667em;
-webkit-transition: .3s ease;
transition: .3s ease; }
.site-footer .subscribe-form inputtype=”text”:focus, .site-footer .subscribe-form inputtype=”text”:hover {
border-color: #ffaa3c; }
.site-footer a {
color: #84878d;
-webkit-transition: .3s ease;
transition: .3s ease; }
.site-footer a:hover {
color: #ffaa3c; }
.site-footer .colophon {
padding-top: 30px; }

.site-footer .colophon {
padding-top: 30px;
text-align: center;}
movies.scss(Main Body Code)
footer,
header,
nav,{
display: block;}
html,body {
background: #fff;
color: #000;
-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;
-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;
height: 100%;
width: 100%;
}
/*
* Global Styles
*/
html,
button,
input,
select,
textarea {
font-family: sans-serif; }
body {
background-color: #c1cccbe5;
color: #84878d;
font-family: “Roboto”, “Open Sans”, sans-serif;
font-size: 15px;
font-weight: 400;
line-height: normal;
margin: 0;}

h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 {
font-weight: 700;
margin: 0 0 20px; }

hr {
border: none;
border-bottom: 1px solid #777; }

ul, ol {
margin: 0;
padding-left: 0; }

a {
text-decoration: none;
color: #ffaa3c; }

address {
font-style: normal; }

p {
margin-top: 0; }

form input, form textarea, form select {
outline: none;
border: 1px solid #ccc;
padding: 10px;
border-radius: 5px;
outline: none; }
form select {
-webkit-appearance: none;
-moz-appearance: none;
appearance: none; }
form textarea {
resize: vertical; }
.wrapper{
width: 100%;
height: 100%;
margin: 0px;
padding: 0px;
}
.contents{
width: 100%;
height: auto;
margin: 0;
padding: 0;
}
/*
* Reusable Components Style
*/
.button, form inputtype=”submit”, form button, form inputtype=”reset”, .contact-form inputtype=”submit” {
border: none;
background: #ffaa3c;
padding: 10px;
border-radius: 3px;
color: #92601e;
box-shadow: 0 1px 1px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.3);
-webkit-transition: .3s ease;
transition: .3s ease; }
.button:hover, form inputtype=”submit”:hover, form button:hover, form inputtype=”reset”:hover, .contact-form inputtype=”submit”:hover, .button:focus, form inputtype=”submit”:focus, form button:focus, form inputtype=”reset”:focus, .contact-form inputtype=”submit”:focus {
background-color: #ffc06f; }
.slider {
position: relative;
margin-bottom: 10px; }
.slider .slides {
list-style: none;
*zoom: 1; }
.slider .slides:after {
content: ” “;
clear: both;
display: block;
overflow: hidden;
height: 0; }
.slider li {
border-radius: 5px;
overflow: hidden; }
.slider img {
max-width: 100%;
width: 100%;
height: auto;
display: block; }
.slider .flex-direction-nav {
list-style: none;
z-index: 2;
position: absolute;
top: 45%;
width: 100%; }
.slider .flex-direction-nav a {
width: 45px;
height: 45px;
border-radius: 50%;
background: white;
text-align: center;
line-height: 2.5;
font-size: 18px;
font-size: 1.2em;
display: block;
position: absolute;
-webkit-transition: .3s ease;
transition: .3s ease; }
.slider .flex-direction-nav a:hover {
background-color: #ffaa3c;
color: white; }
.slider .flex-direction-nav .flex-prev {
left: 30px; }
.slider .flex-direction-nav .flex-next {
right: 30px; }
.latest-movie {
margin-bottom: 30px;
border-radius: 5px;
overflow: hidden;
height: 100%; }
.latest-movie img {
max-width: 100%;
width: 100%;
display: block;
height: 250px; }
.container {
margin-right: auto;
margin-left: auto;
padding-left: 15px;
padding-right: 15px;
*zoom: 1; }
.container:after {
content: ” “;
clear: both;
display: block;
overflow: hidden;
height: 0; }
@media (min-width: 768px) {
.container {
width: 750px; } }
@media (min-width: 992px) {
.container {
width: 970px; } }
@media (min-width: 1200px) {
.container {
width: 1170px; } }
.container-fluid {
margin-right: auto;
margin-left: auto;
padding-left: 15px;
padding-right: 15px;
*zoom: 1; }
.container-fluid:after {
content: ” “;
clear: both;
display: block;
overflow: hidden;
height: 0; }
.row {
margin-left: -15px;
margin-right: -15px;
height: 40%;
width: 100%;
margin-bottom: 20px;
*zoom: 1; }
.row:after {
content: ” “;
clear: both;
display: block;
overflow: hidden;
height: 0; }
.main-content .container {
background: white;
border-radius: 5px;
padding: 30px; }

.no-bullet {
list-style: none; }
.leading {
font-size: 26px;
font-size: 1.7333333333em;
font-weight: 300; }
.page figure {
margin-bottom: 30px; }
.page img {
max-width: 100%; }
.page .movie-title {
font-size: 36px;
font-size: 2.4em;
font-weight: 300; }
.filters {
margin-bottom: 50px; }
.filters select {
-webkit-appearance: none;
-moz-appearance: none;
appearance: none;
padding: 10px 50px 10px 10px;
background-color: #e7e7e7;
border-radius: 5px;
border: none;
margin-right: 10px;
box-shadow: 0 1px 1px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.3);
outline: none;
background-image: url(images/select.png);
background-repeat: no-repeat;
background-position: 100% center; }
.movie-list {
margin: 0 -15px; }
.movie-list .movie {
width: 25%;
padding: 0 15px;
float: left;
margin-bottom: 30px; }
@media screen and (min-width: 991px) {
.movie-list .movie:nth-child(4n+1) {
clear: both; } }
@media screen and (max-width: 990px) {
.movie-list .movie {
width: 50%; }
.movie-list .movie:nth-child(4n+1) {
clear: none; }
.movie-list .movie:nth-child(2n+1) {
clear: both; } }
@media screen and (max-width: 480px) {
.movie-list .movie {
width: 100%;
clear: both; } }
.movie-list .movie .movie-poster {
border-radius: 5px;
overflow: hidden;
margin-bottom: 20px;
border: 1px solid transparent; }
.movie-list .movie .movie-poster img {
display: block;
width: 100%;
max-width: 100%;
height: auto;
-webkit-transition: .3s ease;
transition: .3s ease; }
.movie-list .movie:hover img {
-webkit-transform: scale(1.2);
-ms-transform: scale(1.2);
transform: scale(1.2); }
.movie-list .movie .movie-title {
font-size: 24px;
font-size: 1.6em;
font-weight: 300;
margin-bottom: 20px; }
.movie-list .movie .movie-title a {
color: #84878d;
-webkit-transition: .3s ease;
transition: .3s ease; }
.movie-list .movie .movie-title a:hover {
color: #ffaa3c; }
Form.scss(Form Code)
@import url( HYPERLINK “https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Roboto:300” https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Roboto:300);
.signup-page {
width: 100%;
padding: 2% 0 0;
margin: auto;
height: 100%;
}
.form {
position: relative;
z-index: 1;
background: #FFFFFF;
max-width: 50%;
margin: 0 auto 100px;
padding: 45px;
text-align: left;
box-shadow: 0 0 20px 0 rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2), 0 5px 5px 0 rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.24);
height: auto;
}
.form input {
font-family: “Roboto”, sans-serif;
outline: 0;
background: #f2f2f2;
width: 100%;
border: 0;
margin: 0 0 15px;
padding: 15px;
box-sizing: border-box;
font-size: 14px;
}
.form .register-form {
display: none;
}
.signup-page{background: #76b852; /* fallback for old browsers */
background: -webkit-linear-gradient(right, #76b852, #8DC26F);
background: -moz-linear-gradient(right, #76b852, #8DC26F);
background: -o-linear-gradient(right, #76b852, #8DC26F);
background: linear-gradient(to left, #76b852, #8DC26F);
font-family: “Roboto”, sans-serif;
-webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;
-moz-osx-font-smoothing: grayscale;
}
Screenshots:
Recommended Movies

Search Movies

Life before invention of science Science and Technology has been playing important role indifferent areas of human lives

Life before invention of science
Science and Technology has been playing important role indifferent areas of human lives. In history we found man has developed and employed appliances and techniques to make better their lives. Here we are going to discuss how human being spend their lives before invention of science.what kind of services they used.
Communication services
Humans are naturally very social and the way we communicate is vital aspect of our lives. We know that, communicating over miles is something that people once faced problem, but thanks to recent change in technology, today it is much peaceful and quick for us. Where people once depend on smoke signals and even pigeons for means of comunication.In past when latest facilities were not available people were using birds for communication services. Pigeons were mostly used for this purpose, hence the name ‘pigeon post’. Generally homing pigeons, have a good ability to find their way around easily in a new place. That is the reason , people chose pigeons for sending message to someone. After writing the message in piece of paper they tied and attached it to pigeons or birds leg.
Transportation services
In transportation Before invention of wheel in this world, there were two means of transportation.
1-By “walk”
2-Using “animals”

first animal that was used for transportation was donkey.they used their back for carrying loads. Donkeys were very easily instructed for carrying stuffs like grain sacks,woods,water, bricks,vegetables. These kinds of animals are known as “pack animals”. camel, , elephant, reindeer, llamas etc are also these types of animals.

Horses were used for riding.peoples covered long distance by using horse as a mean of transportation.Horses have the capacity to walk entire day along with rider at the back over 40-45 kilometers per hour.
In the 17th and 18th century, many new means of transportation were invented such as bicycles,cars, trains, buses,trucks, airplanes, and trams etc.
Food production

615 × 465Images may be subject to copyright. Find out m

200 years back, almost( 85- 90 )% population of the U.S.A worked on agricultural farms and they produced their own food material. But in present, only 2% of the population produces food for the whole world to eat. That is a big change in the amount of food producing associated with people and assuring that everybody has sufficient food to eat.In earlier days farmer used animals for field work and It take long time to complete their work in fields Therefore farmer worked on small piece of land. Animals were not very fast, and they would get tired soon and need some rest side by side to recover from their hard work.
Food preservation
In those daysThe three main ways of curing (the process of preserving food) included drying, smoking, and salting. Each method drew moisture out of foods to keep it save from spoiling. vegetables Fruits and other food items could be dried by being placed out in the sun or near a heat source.

4

4.1 SWOT analysis A situation analysis has been correctly developed covering all relevant factors (SWOT, PESTLED, Competitors).

A way had to be brought into place so as to perform an analysis on both the internal and external areas of the business. This was done so as to define the business’s advantages and general strategies that would be introduced according to its specific necessities as a real estate company. This was an analysis which should take into consideration the real estate´s specific characteristics and act according to the market´s characteristics for the area where the real estate is visible.
The method employed for this is referred to as the SWOT analysis (acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats). This methodologic resource is used for the internal and external analysis of organizations. SWOT’s main target for E M Properties was to manage to define the company´s advantages and the general strategies which should be introduced according to the specific necessities of the real estate.
In the field of Real Estate, SWOT analysis is constantly used in order to cure those points that the real estate lacks both internally as externally. It is also an excellent tool for creating a methodologic research for the real estate or for its members. As an analysis methodology, SWOT model is efficient when we need to define clearly the Weaknesses and the Strengths of a real estate and also for detecting the Threats and Opportunities of it. The real estate´s Weaknesses and Strengths are considered factors and Internal characteristics, while the Threats and Opportunities are the External factors.
? Strengths – Gives confidence about factors which the company got right and which it can capitalize on.
? Weaknesses – Shows the major weaknesses within a company which the company needs to work on
? Opportunities – Informs of the opportunities available to the company to increase business and get further customers
? Threats – Determines the major threats for the company, mostly in the external environment.
Through the use of a SWOT Matrix, the following areas were established through a table of double entry, showing points and elements that could either be harmful or helpful to the business.
– Internal analysis of the real estate:
• Strengths (positive/helpful points).
• Weaknesses (negative/harmful points).
– External analysis of the real estate:
• Opportunities (positive/helpful elements).
• Threats (negative/harmful element
SWOT analysis applied to E M Properties
The following were arrived at after a thorough analysis of the Strengths and Opportunities that the business would have as positive aspects; against its Weaknesses and Threats that would pose negatively or harmfully against it.
Internal analysis of E M Properties
4.1.1 Strengths (positive points):
? Valuation of the different capacities.
? Individual abilities reflected in a group.
? Higher level of available resources.
? Good levels of proactivity, assertiveness and resilience.
? Well-defined individual competences.
? Well-defined action conventions.
? An effective, productive and vigorous team
4.1.2 Weaknesses (negative points):
? High level of resistance and adaptability to changes.
? Gaps in the organizational leadership.
? Motivational problems of the staff.
? Limited levels of the individual abilities.
? The stress and the difficulties to process them.
? Lacks in the social abilities and training.
? Absence of organizational policies.
External analysis of E M Properties
4.1.3 Opportunities (positive elements):
? Implement the new technologies in an effective way.
? Weakening of the competition.
? Strategic real estate visibility.
? An effective use of the new ways of communication.
4.1.4 Threats (negative elements):
? Take on high levels of risk.
? Changes of the real estate positioning environment.
? Changes in the real estate market.
? Changes of the potential buyers´ preferences.
? Eventual legal modifications especially the recently introduced legislation dealing with credit.

North Korea has unleashed a series of threats against the United States and South Korea

North Korea has unleashed a series of threats against the United States and South Korea, since the last round of United Nations sanctions in 2013. North Korea’s nuclear programme remains a source of deep concern to the International Community. North Korea is now a de facto nuclear state, a more military than a political problem, and an issue that is more deterrent than non- proliferation. Pyongyang now has all the elements necessary for an operational nuclear force. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether North Korea is the greatest threat to the United States.
North Korea is mNorth Korea has unleashed a series of threats against the United States and South Korea, since the last round of United Nations sanctions in 2013. North Korea’s nuclear programme remains a source of deep concern to the International Community. North Korea is now a de facto nuclear state, a more military than a political problem, and an issue that is more deterrent than non- proliferation. Pyongyang now has all the elements necessary for an operational nuclear force. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether North Korea is the greatest threat to the United States.
North Korea is much more equipped militarily as compared to 10-15 years ago. Even though their conventional forces are somewhat antiquated. The basic reality is if a conflict were to take place, a full blown conflict undoubtedly the United States with its South Korean ally would prevail. North Korea cannot win this conflict. The North Korean leadership may be a leader that values or appreciates the importance of taking risk but it is still rational. North Korea does have the largest standing Army in the world- 1.1 million active duty troops and 5.5 million reserves. But they lack the capabilities to mobilize their forces in a foreign country- except perhaps China and South Korea. Furthermore North Korean soldiers are not trained to any proper degree. Troops are frequently deployed to bring in harvest of crops- they aren’t prepared for an all-out war, especially against the United States.
uch more equipped militarily as compared to 10-15 years ago. Even though their conventional forces are somewhat antiquated. The basic reality is if a conflict were to take place, a full blown conflict undoubtedly the United States with its South Korean ally would prevail. North Korea cannot win this conflict. The North Korean leadership may be a leader that values or appreciates the importance of taking risk but it is still rational. North Korea does have the largest standing Army in the world- 1.1 million active duty troops and 5.5 million reserves. But they lack the capabilities to mobilize their forces in a foreign country- except perhaps China and South Korea. Furthermore North Korean soldiers are not trained to any proper degree. Troops are frequently deployed to bring in harvest of crops- they aren’t prepared for an all-out war, especially against the United States.

SCHOOL OF NURSING RESEARCH PROPOSAL INTRODUCTION PART 1 ASSESMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS UTILIZATION OF MODERN FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AMONG FEMALE NURSING STUDENTS AT MUHIMBILI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH AND ALLIED SCIENCES

SCHOOL OF NURSING
RESEARCH PROPOSAL INTRODUCTION PART 1
ASSESMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS UTILIZATION OF MODERN FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AMONG FEMALE NURSING STUDENTS AT MUHIMBILI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH AND ALLIED SCIENCES,ILALA MUNICIPAL, DAR ES SALAAM.

NAME: HAIRUN TUNU LASHKU
REG NO: 2015-04-08560
PROGRAM: BScN GENERAL
SUPERVISOR: VICTOR CHIKWALA
COORDINATOR: Dr LILIAN MSELLE

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Family planning: is allowing people to attain their desired number of children and determine the spacing of pregnancy (WHO, 2015)
Perception: the ability to see, hear or become aware of something through the senses. (Oxford dictionary 2018)
Knowledge: is the facts, information and skills acquired through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of subject. (Oxford dictionary 2018)
Unmet needs: are women who are fecund and sexually active but are not any method of contraception, and report not wanting any more children or wanting to delay childbearing (WHO 2018)
Unintended pregnancy: is the pregnancy which occurs at time that a woman does not want to get it.

Contraceptives: a device or drug serving to prevent pregnancy.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
Throughout the world, female students are exposed to the risk of unplanned pregnancies as a result of ineffective or non-use of modern family planning methods. This may result in failure to complete their education, inability to maintain gainful employment and making independent marital decision. Young students sexual activities are communal, municipal and public health concern ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.4102/curationis.v38i2.1535”, “ISBN” : “1500020001”, “ISSN” : “2223-6279”, “PMID” : “26842088”, “abstract” : “<p>Background: Unplanned pregnancies amongst students at higher education institutions are au00a0major concern worldwide, including South Africa. Apart from various social and psychologicalu00a0challenges, unplanned pregnancies affect studentsu2019 objectives of achieving academic success.u00a0Research undertaken in the United States of America (USA) indicates that around 80% ofu00a0female students in institutions of higher education between ages 18 and 24 are sexually active.Objectives: To assess and describe the use of contraceptives by undergraduate female studentsu00a0in a selected higher educational institution in Gauteng.Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative design was used. A total of 400 femaleu00a0undergraduate students were requested to respond to a self-administered questionnaire.u00a0Stratified random sampling was used to select the participants. They were selectedu00a0systematically from two campuses. Data were entered using an excel sheet at the Departmentu00a0of Statistics, and analysed using the Statistical Analysis Software programme, (SAS versionu00a09.3), of the Department of Statisticsu2019 higher educational institutions.Results: A total of 74%females indicated they were sexually active, 79%of whom reportedu00a0using contraceptives. The most common used methods were oral contraceptives at 38%, andu00a025% for male condoms. The most commonly known methods were condoms at 84%, and theu00a0oral contraceptive at 68%. The knowledge of condom use to prevent sexually transmittedu00a0diseases was high at 91%.Conclusion: Inadequate knowledge and awareness on some contraceptive methods was found.u00a0Thus, educational programmes to increase studentsu2019 knowledge on the use of all contraceptiveu00a0methods are urgently needed</p>”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Coetzee”, “given” : “Maria H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ngunyulu”, “given” : “Roinah N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Curationis”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-7”, “title” : “Assessing the use of contraceptives by female undergraduate students in a selected higher educational institution in Gauteng”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “38” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6a76a9d9-6bdf-45a2-a683-fde63ee68e90” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015). Family planning is an organized effort to assist people to have the number of children they want to space them as they choose ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eze”, “given” : “B U”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hope”, “given” : “Adhure”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “182-190”, “title” : “Hindrances to effective usage of family planning methods among women in Adamokolo Lokoja Urban area of Kogi state , Nigeria”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0f34e128-815c-49ae-a21f-f446443dcc20” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eze and Hope, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eze and Hope, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eze and Hope, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eze and Hope, 2014). Also family planning allows people to attain their desired number of children and determine the spacing of pregnancies (WHO, 2015). There are different modern family planning methods which are short term such as pills, injections, barrier methods, spermicides, withdrawal and abstinence. Long term methods are intrauterine devices and Norplant as well as permanent methods tubal ligation and vasectomy ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Associates”, “given” : “Abt”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sector”, “given” : “Private”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “One”, “given” : “Partnerships”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Collaborating and Supporting Organizations”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dd640cf3-bc75-4ed2-b894-b2215c21238c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Associates, Sector and One, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Associates, Sector and One, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Associates, Sector and One, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Associates, Sector and One, no date).

It has been found that, family planning promote education and economic empowerment for women. When women use family planning methods control the birth interval, hence increasing their economy. Such as farming, trading, seeking for higher education level and being employed. Lack of awareness is found to be the main contribution factors which hinder family planning use in Uganda. Lack of adequate counseling in women about side effects of contraceptives use becomes one of challenges ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.11604/pamj.2015.20.10.5301”, “ISBN” : “1937-8688”, “ISSN” : “19378688”, “PMID” : “25995807”, “abstract” : “INTRODUCTION: Usage of family planning services in developing countries have been found to avert unintended pregnancies, reduce maternal and child mortality, however, it’s usage still remains low. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the decision of women in fertility age to go for family planning services.\n\nMETHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Talensi district in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Systematic random sampling was used to recruit 280 residents aged 15-49 years and data was analysed using SPSS version 21.0.\n\nRESULTS: The study revealed that 89% (249/280), of respondents were aware of family planning services, 18% (50/280) of respondents had used family planning services in the past. Parity and educational level of respondents were positively associated with usage of family planning services (P;0.05). Major motivating factors to the usage of family planning service were to space children, 94% (47/50) and to prevent pregnancy and sexual transmitted infections 84% (42/50). Major reasons for not accessing family planning services were opposition from husbands, 90% (207/230) and misconceptions about family planning, 83% (191/230).\n\nCONCLUSION: Although most women were aware of family planning services in the Talensi district, the uptake of the service was low. Thus, there is the need for the office of the district health directorate to intensify health education on the benefits of family planning with male involvement. The government should also scale up family planning services in the district to make it more accessible.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Apanga”, “given” : “Paschal Awingura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Adam”, “given” : “Matthew Ayamba”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Pan African Medical Journal”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-9”, “title” : “Factors influencing the uptake of family planning services in the Talensi district, Ghana”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “20” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d819832-c44e-4df5-9a94-c69159f0c784” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Apanga and Adam, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Apanga and Adam, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Apanga and Adam, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Apanga and Adam, 2015). According to the two survey conducted among university students in Uganda, findings indicate that student did not have access to reproductive health in spite of their engagement in high risk sexual behaviors. Findings also showed that quarter (25%) of university students had unmet need for contraceptives. In most African countries such as Uganda most university students who are unmarried and get unintended pregnancy seek abortion due to cultural and societal judgment ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1186/s12905-016-0286-6”, “ISBN” : “1290501602”, “ISSN” : “14726874”, “PMID” : “26818946”, “abstract” : “Background: In Uganda, the risk of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions remains high due to relatively low contraceptive use. There is paucity of data on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices towards modern contraceptives and, sexual and reproductive health especially among the young female university students. Methods: A survey was conducted at Makerere University main campus in Kampala, Uganda during April 2014. A team of well-trained and experienced research assistants interviewed female undergraduate students who provided data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes and use of contraceptives, as well as other sexual and reproductive health practices. Users of any contraceptive method in the past 12 months were coded as u20181u2019 and none users as u20180u2019. The prevalence of contraceptive use was determined as the number of users divided by all female participants. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals were used as measures of association between contraceptive use and associated factors. The PRs were obtained via a modified Poisson regression model using a generalized linear model with Poisson as family and a log link without an offset but including robust standard errors. All analyses were conducted with Stata version 13. Results: A total of 1,008 females responded to the survey; median (IQR) age was 21(20, 21) years, 38.6 % in year 2 of study, and nearly three quarters (72.3 %) were of Christian faith. Knowledge of any contraceptives was almost universal (99.6 %) but only 22.1 % knew about female condoms. Perceived acceptability of contraceptive use at the university (93 %) or being beneficial to male partners too (97.8 %) were high. Nearly 70 % had ever engaged in sexual intercourse and 62.1 % reported sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Overall, 46.6 % reported current contraceptive use, with male condoms (34.5 %) being the commonest methods. Factors associated with higher contraceptive use were being in year 2, consensual union or perception that contraceptives are for females only. However, being evangelical/SDA or perception that contraceptive use is wrong was associated with lower contraceptive use. Overall, 9 % reported ever being pregnant, 2 % were pregnant at the time of the survey and a third (33.8 %) knew of a pregnant friend. About 40 % of ever pregnant respondents reported ever trying to terminate the pregnancy. Conclusions: Knowledge, perceived acceptau2026”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nsubuga”, “given” : “Henry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sekandi”, “given” : “Juliet N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sempeera”, “given” : “Hassard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Makumbi”, “given” : “Fredrick E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “BMC Women’s Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-11”, “publisher” : “BMC Women’s Health”, “title” : “Contraceptive use, knowledge, attitude, perceptions and sexual behavior among female University students in Uganda: A cross-sectional survey”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “16” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=73dc4029-aa03-4ac9-aa0f-896023e43e85” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nsubuga ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nsubuga et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nsubuga ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Nsubuga et al., 2016).

Pre-marital sexual activities seem to be increasing among higher education students in countries such as Asia and Africa, due to factors such as rapid urbanization and exposure to mass media. Nearly half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended, the highest of this instance occurs between 18-24 years of age. Sexually active women are at the highest risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases. The highest occurrence of unintended pregnancies and HIV/STIs contractions can be prevented through contraceptives use ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine and to understand undergraduate students’ contraceptive attitudes and its effects on contraceptive use to further enhance the education regarding unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). DESIGN AND METHODS: A descriptive study to understand contraceptive attitudes while exploring demographics and sexual behaviors as well as the incorporation of the Contraceptive Attitude Scale (CAS). The researchers utilized an online survey system to distribute surveys electronically. RESULTS: Most students had a positive attitude regarding contraception. IMPLICATIONS: Nurses at college health facilities can focus on educating the college population since their age group is likely to engage in risky behavior.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Heisler”, “given” : “Katrina and”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eron”, “given” : “Danielle M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “Van”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “39”, “title” : “A descriptive study of undergraduate contraceptive attitudes among students at the University of New Hampshire”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f6bf247b-f930-49c9-ad83-fb4fc23412a2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Heisler and Van Eron, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Heisler and Van Eron, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Heisler and Van Eron, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Heisler and Van Eron, 2012). Study in South Africa reported that the lack of adequate knowledge and awareness of effectiveness of modern family planning among higher education female students, result in non-utilization of contraceptives. 2-8 percent of 2.1 million higher educations afflicted with HIV/AIDS. Eventually contribute to high unplanned pregnancy rates. Several factors were identified as contributing factors to non-utilization of modern family planning methods. These were lack of knowledge, religion, poor access to contraceptives services, peer pressures, alcohol and substances abuseADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.4102/curationis.v38i2.1535”, “ISBN” : “1500020001”, “ISSN” : “2223-6279”, “PMID” : “26842088”, “abstract” : “<p>Background: Unplanned pregnancies amongst students at higher education institutions are au00a0major concern worldwide, including South Africa. Apart from various social and psychologicalu00a0challenges, unplanned pregnancies affect studentsu2019 objectives of achieving academic success.u00a0Research undertaken in the United States of America (USA) indicates that around 80% ofu00a0female students in institutions of higher education between ages 18 and 24 are sexually active.Objectives: To assess and describe the use of contraceptives by undergraduate female studentsu00a0in a selected higher educational institution in Gauteng.Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative design was used. A total of 400 femaleu00a0undergraduate students were requested to respond to a self-administered questionnaire.u00a0Stratified random sampling was used to select the participants. They were selectedu00a0systematically from two campuses. Data were entered using an excel sheet at the Departmentu00a0of Statistics, and analysed using the Statistical Analysis Software programme, (SAS versionu00a09.3), of the Department of Statisticsu2019 higher educational institutions.Results: A total of 74%females indicated they were sexually active, 79%of whom reportedu00a0using contraceptives. The most common used methods were oral contraceptives at 38%, andu00a025% for male condoms. The most commonly known methods were condoms at 84%, and theu00a0oral contraceptive at 68%. The knowledge of condom use to prevent sexually transmittedu00a0diseases was high at 91%.Conclusion: Inadequate knowledge and awareness on some contraceptive methods was found.u00a0Thus, educational programmes to increase studentsu2019 knowledge on the use of all contraceptiveu00a0methods are urgently needed</p>”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Coetzee”, “given” : “Maria H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ngunyulu”, “given” : “Roinah N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Curationis”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-7”, “title” : “Assessing the use of contraceptives by female undergraduate students in a selected higher educational institution in Gauteng”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “38” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6a76a9d9-6bdf-45a2-a683-fde63ee68e90” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015).

Unintended pregnancies have significant consequences and occur most frequent among adolescent, low income groups and women from minority groups. Improving contraceptives among high risk groups is the key to reducing rates of unintended pregnancies in population. Previous studies suggest that there is variation noted at 44.7% by rural women and 29.9% by urban women. Knowledge should provide valid and reliable information on the utilization of family planning methodsADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3934/publichealth.2015.4.655”, “ISSN” : “2327-8994”, “PMID” : “29546129”, “abstract” : “This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County. This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting) and Renk (urban setting). The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes. The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes. The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak) and urban (Renk) areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for 656 AIMS Public Health Volume 2, Issue 4, 655u2013666. economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural settings reported intentions to use conventional methods of family planning without the knowledge of their spouses.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Amen Mohammed Ahmed”, “given” : “Waled”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boutros Shokai”, “given” : “Sara”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hassan Abduelkhair”, “given” : “Insaf”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yahia Boshra”, “given” : “Amira”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “AIMS Public Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “655-666”, “title” : “Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3c969135-2b83-4661-a34a-15615ff90194” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed <i>et al.</i>, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed <i>et al.</i>, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Amen Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2015).

Family planning is of great importance is such a way it helps in preventing unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion, reduce maternal mortalities and prevent sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS, globally the demand for unmet need increases especially in Africa. In Tanzania unmet need for family planning is estimated to be 22% among married women aged 15-49 years and 23.5% among young women aged 20-24 year ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1097/00001888-196911000-00043”, “ISBN” : “0275-5122 (Print)\r0275-5122 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “0275-5122”, “PMID” : “12310238”, “abstract” : “In Egypt the population is expanding at a rate of 100,000 more people each month. Some demographers predict that by the year 2000, the population may reach 70-74 million. The Coptic Evangelical Organization for Social Service (CEOSS), established in 1954, uses a community development approach to provide health programs, which include family planning, projects in literacy, agriculture, religion, and leadership development. Once CEOSS agrees to work in a village, its staff members and community leaders form a committee to identify the tasks to be undertaken. Then, a team of young “motivators” is sent to the village to initiate projects. If the village requests a family planning program, the motivators arrange for clinics to be held in the village and for a visiting doctor to provide services. They distribute the contraceptives the clinic physician prescribes and keep records tracking users. In the effort to carry out the family planning program, the motivators identify women in the village who are leaders. The women, to qualify as family planning workers, must be at least age 19 or 20, believe in the importance of family planning, and be regular contraceptive users. The motivators train the women workers in the methods of family planning, record keeping, and distribution of contraceptives. Once a family planning program has been established, the village leaders take over responsibility for contraceptive distribution. CEOSS currently has 5000 family planning users in the 25 villages in which it works. Family Planning International Assistance has budgeted $78,000 for CEOSS in 1981.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kerr”, “given” : “M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Planned parenthood review”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “18-9”, “title” : “Family planning in Egypt.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “44” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=60021695-37f7-4df2-b827-e79acb0bf6ca” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kerr, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kerr, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kerr, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kerr, 2014). Despite of government of Tanzania having introduced the family planning methods to serve their people but still the total fertility rate is higher, about 5.2 birth per women,(WHO 2013). Tanzania demographic health survey (TDHS) showed that total fertility among rural women 6.0 higher than urban which are 3.8. Fertility rate also vary with education and economic status, women with no education have 3.3 more children than women with secondary education. Use of family planning to married women age 15-49 is 38%, while unmarried women age 15-49 is higher 54% (TDHS, 2015-16). There are so many factors that can hinder the use of family planning methods, such as lack of knowledge, social-cultural, beliefs/norms, economic status, perception and stigma ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eze”, “given” : “B U”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hope”, “given” : “Adhure”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “182-190”, “title” : “Hindrances to effective usage of family planning methods among women in Adamokolo Lokoja Urban area of Kogi state , Nigeria”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0f34e128-815c-49ae-a21f-f446443dcc20” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eze and Hope, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eze and Hope, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eze and Hope, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eze and Hope, 2014).

In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who do not use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Unmet need for family planning is defined as percentage of all fecund women who are married or living in union and thus presumed to be sexually active but are not using any methods of contraception. One of sequels of unmet need is unwanted pregnancy with its serious consequences. Sudan maternal mortality and fertility indicators are among the highest in the world which was 713 per 100000 live births ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1186/1471-2458-13-102”, “ISSN” : “14712458”, “PMID” : “23379387”, “abstract” : “In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3) and 3.4 (1.8) respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812) and 26.2% (213/812) were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13%) and 130 (16%) respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%.In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education ; secondary level (OR=7.8; CI=5.6-10.9; P=0.00), husband education ; secondary level (OR=1.9; CI=1.3-2.6, P = 0.00) and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00) were associated with the total unmet need. Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ali”, “given” : “Abdel Aziem A”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Okud”, “given” : “Amira”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “BMC public health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “102”, “title” : “Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “13” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c50d7f4c-c003-4242-ae2c-3f8cc9d7b2c4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ali and Okud, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ali and Okud, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ali and Okud, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ali and Okud, 2013).
The uptakes of modern family planning methods remain low in sub Saharan Africa including Ghana. The average contraceptives prevalence rate was estimated to be 6.2% related to national average. Globally 50 million women resort to induce abortion which result in higher maternal morbidity and mortalityADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dodam”, “given” : “Konlan Kennedy”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mohammed”, “given” : “Abdul-raheem”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eneye”, “given” : “Adabara Helen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yeboah”, “given” : “Prince Appiah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Knowledge and Perception of Ghanaian Adolescents about Family Planning”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f61a47fb-2b1f-432a-b70c-113aa4b54e32” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dodam <i>et al.</i>, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dodam et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dodam <i>et al.</i>, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dodam et al., 2017).

Tanzania maternal mortality rate 398 per 100000 live births in urban, (WHO 2015).There are factors that can contribute on ineffective use of family planning methods such as culture, women hide their contraceptive hence reduce effectiveness of family planning. In regard to perception some women perceive on contraceptive usage as sexually immoral. Economic factors lack of contraceptive in government hospitals/dispensary. Many women have less knowledge on family planning methods. There are other factors that can contribute on ineffective use of family planning such as attitude, norms, religion and lack of facilities (WHO 2009).

According to the ministry of health instituted national policy guidelines and standard for family planning services and training state “that all males and female of reproductive age including adolescence irrespectively of their parity and marital status, shall have the right to access to family planning information, education and services”ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.11604/pamj.2015.20.10.5301”, “ISBN” : “1937-8688”, “ISSN” : “19378688”, “PMID” : “25995807”, “abstract” : “INTRODUCTION: Usage of family planning services in developing countries have been found to avert unintended pregnancies, reduce maternal and child mortality, however, it’s usage still remains low. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the decision of women in fertility age to go for family planning services.\n\nMETHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Talensi district in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Systematic random sampling was used to recruit 280 residents aged 15-49 years and data was analysed using SPSS version 21.0.\n\nRESULTS: The study revealed that 89% (249/280), of respondents were aware of family planning services, 18% (50/280) of respondents had used family planning services in the past. Parity and educational level of respondents were positively associated with usage of family planning services (P;0.05). Major motivating factors to the usage of family planning service were to space children, 94% (47/50) and to prevent pregnancy and sexual transmitted infections 84% (42/50). Major reasons for not accessing family planning services were opposition from husbands, 90% (207/230) and misconceptions about family planning, 83% (191/230).\n\nCONCLUSION: Although most women were aware of family planning services in the Talensi district, the uptake of the service was low. Thus, there is the need for the office of the district health directorate to intensify health education on the benefits of family planning with male involvement. The government should also scale up family planning services in the district to make it more accessible.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Apanga”, “given” : “Paschal Awingura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Adam”, “given” : “Matthew Ayamba”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Pan African Medical Journal”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-9”, “title” : “Factors influencing the uptake of family planning services in the Talensi district, Ghana”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “20” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d819832-c44e-4df5-9a94-c69159f0c784” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Apanga and Adam, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Apanga and Adam, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Apanga and Adam, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Apanga and Adam, 2015).

1.1 Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study is to asses knowledge and perception of modern family planning methods among female nursing students at MUHAS and to address the identified problems.

1.2 Problem statement
In developing countries, one in three women give birth before the age of 20. In sub Saharan Africa, unintended pregnancies occur every year half occurring among women age 15-24 years. It is evident that use of effective contraceptives methods prevent 90% of abortion,20%pregnancy related morbidity and 32% maternal death ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1186/s12905-016-0286-6”, “ISBN” : “1290501602”, “ISSN” : “14726874”, “PMID” : “26818946”, “abstract” : “Background: In Uganda, the risk of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions remains high due to relatively low contraceptive use. There is paucity of data on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices towards modern contraceptives and, sexual and reproductive health especially among the young female university students. Methods: A survey was conducted at Makerere University main campus in Kampala, Uganda during April 2014. A team of well-trained and experienced research assistants interviewed female undergraduate students who provided data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes and use of contraceptives, as well as other sexual and reproductive health practices. Users of any contraceptive method in the past 12 months were coded as u20181u2019 and none users as u20180u2019. The prevalence of contraceptive use was determined as the number of users divided by all female participants. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals were used as measures of association between contraceptive use and associated factors. The PRs were obtained via a modified Poisson regression model using a generalized linear model with Poisson as family and a log link without an offset but including robust standard errors. All analyses were conducted with Stata version 13. Results: A total of 1,008 females responded to the survey; median (IQR) age was 21(20, 21) years, 38.6 % in year 2 of study, and nearly three quarters (72.3 %) were of Christian faith. Knowledge of any contraceptives was almost universal (99.6 %) but only 22.1 % knew about female condoms. Perceived acceptability of contraceptive use at the university (93 %) or being beneficial to male partners too (97.8 %) were high. Nearly 70 % had ever engaged in sexual intercourse and 62.1 % reported sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Overall, 46.6 % reported current contraceptive use, with male condoms (34.5 %) being the commonest methods. Factors associated with higher contraceptive use were being in year 2, consensual union or perception that contraceptives are for females only. However, being evangelical/SDA or perception that contraceptive use is wrong was associated with lower contraceptive use. Overall, 9 % reported ever being pregnant, 2 % were pregnant at the time of the survey and a third (33.8 %) knew of a pregnant friend. About 40 % of ever pregnant respondents reported ever trying to terminate the pregnancy. Conclusions: Knowledge, perceived acceptau2026”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nsubuga”, “given” : “Henry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sekandi”, “given” : “Juliet N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sempeera”, “given” : “Hassard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Makumbi”, “given” : “Fredrick E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “BMC Women’s Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-11”, “publisher” : “BMC Women’s Health”, “title” : “Contraceptive use, knowledge, attitude, perceptions and sexual behavior among female University students in Uganda: A cross-sectional survey”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “16” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=73dc4029-aa03-4ac9-aa0f-896023e43e85” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nsubuga ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nsubuga et al., 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Nsubuga et al., 2016) .

Despite of availability of free contraceptives offered by health centers, perception and lack of knowledge on the use of contraceptives is associated with the failure of modern family planning utilization. The high rate of underutilization of modern family planning cause multiple challenges for academic institutions across the world. These challenges such as unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal mortality rate and high dropout by university students. Therefore by increasing knowledge and impacting positive perceptions towards utilization of available modern family planning methods empowers female nurses student to overcome the problem. Hence utilization of family planning reduces these consequences and improve well-being of female nursing students.

1.3 Objectives
1.3.1 Broad objective
To determine knowledge and perception towards utilization of family planning methods among female nursing students at MUHAS.1.3.2 Specific Objectives
1. To Identify female nursing students knowledge towards utilization of modern family planning methods at MUHAS.

2 To Determine female nursing student’s perception towards utilization of modern family planning methods at MUHAS.

1.4 Research questions
1. What is the knowledge of female nursing students at MUHAS about the concept of modern family planning methods?
2. What is the perception of female nursing students at MUHAS towards utilization of modern family planning methods?
1.5 Hypothesis
1.Female Student’s nurses at MUHAS with knowledge and positive perception on utilization are more likely to use modern family planning methods.

1.6 Conceptual framework
Conceptual framework is a written or visual presentation that explains either graphically or in narrative form the relationship of ideas or the main things to be studied can be the key factors, concepts or variables. (Oxford dictionary, 2010)
The conceptual framework of the study examines the utilization of family planning at MUHAS among female nursing students; there are possible factors which cause underutilization of family planning such as lack of knowledge about family planning, negative perceptions, Economic status, religion beliefs and availability of family planning methods. Dependent variable and independent variable these variables are interrelated in the cause of problem statement. When there is lack of knowledge and negative perception on utilization of family planning methods, there will be low utilization of modern family planning methods.

Conceptual framework diagram
2303780292100Under-utilization of family planning
00Under-utilization of family planning
Dependant variable
399288025069800195072025069800
Independent variable
-30988269113Knowledge deficit
Negative Perception
Religious beliefs
Economic status
Unavailability of contraceptives
00Knowledge deficit
Negative Perception
Religious beliefs
Economic status
Unavailability of contraceptives
427888413081Unwanted pregnancy
Unsafe abortion
Mortality rate
Sexually transmitted infections
00Unwanted pregnancy
Unsafe abortion
Mortality rate
Sexually transmitted infections
Independent variable
1.7 Literature review
1.7.1 Perception
Perception is the ability to see, hears, or become aware of something through the senses, (Oxford dictionary, 2011). People of Sudan perceived family planning as follows; some of them wanted large family size with many children, and other people wanted more children for agriculture and work purpose, other wanted to keep women and children healthy. Only small number of people wishes to use family planning for economic purpose, they wanted their children to be educated and raise their income. Most people with negative perception regarding utilization of family planning services are found in rural area whereby they fear about side effect of modern contraceptives, some of them were complaining of unavailability of family planning services, some of them indicated that it was only found in private sectors so it was cost full for them to buy. This study indicated low utilization of modern family planning due to affordability and availability services ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3934/publichealth.2015.4.655”, “ISSN” : “2327-8994”, “PMID” : “29546129”, “abstract” : “This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County. This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting) and Renk (urban setting). The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes. The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes. The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak) and urban (Renk) areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for 656 AIMS Public Health Volume 2, Issue 4, 655u2013666. economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural settings reported intentions to use conventional methods of family planning without the knowledge of their spouses.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Amen Mohammed Ahmed”, “given” : “Waled”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boutros Shokai”, “given” : “Sara”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hassan Abduelkhair”, “given” : “Insaf”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yahia Boshra”, “given” : “Amira”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “AIMS Public Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “655-666”, “title” : “Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3c969135-2b83-4661-a34a-15615ff90194” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed ;i;et al.;/i;, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed ;i;et al.;/i;, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Amen Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2015).
A cross sectional study was done in Uganda 2014 among female students at Makerere University concerning about perception of family planning were by 1008 female university were enrolled, 23.6% perceived that modern contraceptive services were not accessible,24.4% said it was not easy to discuss with partener,21.3% perceived that contraceptives were not for poor people,20.1% it was wrong to use contraceptives,6% contraceptives were for female only. Among the sexually active students one in five were engaged in unsafe sex leading to high risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1186/s12905-016-0286-6”, “ISBN” : “1290501602”, “ISSN” : “14726874”, “PMID” : “26818946”, “abstract” : “Background: In Uganda, the risk of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions remains high due to relatively low contraceptive use. There is paucity of data on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices towards modern contraceptives and, sexual and reproductive health especially among the young female university students. Methods: A survey was conducted at Makerere University main campus in Kampala, Uganda during April 2014. A team of well-trained and experienced research assistants interviewed female undergraduate students who provided data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes and use of contraceptives, as well as other sexual and reproductive health practices. Users of any contraceptive method in the past 12 months were coded as u20181u2019 and none users as u20180u2019. The prevalence of contraceptive use was determined as the number of users divided by all female participants. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals were used as measures of association between contraceptive use and associated factors. The PRs were obtained via a modified Poisson regression model using a generalized linear model with Poisson as family and a log link without an offset but including robust standard errors. All analyses were conducted with Stata version 13. Results: A total of 1,008 females responded to the survey; median (IQR) age was 21(20, 21) years, 38.6 % in year 2 of study, and nearly three quarters (72.3 %) were of Christian faith. Knowledge of any contraceptives was almost universal (99.6 %) but only 22.1 % knew about female condoms. Perceived acceptability of contraceptive use at the university (93 %) or being beneficial to male partners too (97.8 %) were high. Nearly 70 % had ever engaged in sexual intercourse and 62.1 % reported sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Overall, 46.6 % reported current contraceptive use, with male condoms (34.5 %) being the commonest methods. Factors associated with higher contraceptive use were being in year 2, consensual union or perception that contraceptives are for females only. However, being evangelical/SDA or perception that contraceptive use is wrong was associated with lower contraceptive use. Overall, 9 % reported ever being pregnant, 2 % were pregnant at the time of the survey and a third (33.8 %) knew of a pregnant friend. About 40 % of ever pregnant respondents reported ever trying to terminate the pregnancy. Conclusions: Knowledge, perceived acceptau2026”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nsubuga”, “given” : “Henry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sekandi”, “given” : “Juliet N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sempeera”, “given” : “Hassard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Makumbi”, “given” : “Fredrick E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “BMC Women’s Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-11”, “publisher” : “BMC Women’s Health”, “title” : “Contraceptive use, knowledge, attitude, perceptions and sexual behavior among female University students in Uganda: A cross-sectional survey”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “16” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=73dc4029-aa03-4ac9-aa0f-896023e43e85” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nsubuga ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nsubuga et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nsubuga ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Nsubuga et al., 2016).

Also a study was done in Ghana a cross-sectional design of perception about contraceptives methods 150 university students were recruited in 2017, 40% perceived family planning is a bad practice, while 60% were aware of family planning believed family planning is good practice. Some students believed that modern family planning is safe for their reproductive health while others believed it was not safe. There was positive and negative perception towards utilization of modern family planning ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dodam”, “given” : “Konlan Kennedy”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mohammed”, “given” : “Abdul-raheem”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eneye”, “given” : “Adabara Helen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yeboah”, “given” : “Prince Appiah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Knowledge and Perception of Ghanaian Adolescents about Family Planning”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f61a47fb-2b1f-432a-b70c-113aa4b54e32” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dodam ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dodam et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dodam ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dodam et al., 2017).
A cross section study in Nigeria was conducted 2014 to evaluate perception of modern family planning among students in Delta state University, 500 students were enrolled 47.4% had abortion, 18.7% felt it promotes promiscuity,19.6% perceived contraceptives allowed women to pursue their career where by 44% believed contraceptives are essential tools for family planning. There is evidence which shows unplanned pregnancies were increasing since the rate of abortion was high, access to utilization of contraceptives should be improved. There is high risk of increasing maternal mortality rate as well as disruption of academic career. Majority of students had negative perception toward utilization of modern family planning ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “There is evidence to show that unplanned pregnancies are on the increase among women in Nigeria. It is true that one of the ways to improve reproductive health is by enhancing access to contraception. This study was to evaluate knowledge, perceptions and practices of contraception among 500 staff and students of a university in south-south Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Abraka and Oleh Campuses of Delta State University using appropriately designed, validated and pre-tested questionnaire. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 20. Respondents were students (70%), males (47.8%), aged 21-30 (48.9%) and Christians (90.9%). 84% of the respondents had good-to-excellent knowledge of contraceptives; 75.1% were sexually-active; contraceptive use prevalence was 58.2%; main reasons for non-use of contraceptive were hatred for it an intolerable side-effects. Condoms and oral pills were the preferred methods and safety, reliability and accessibility were proffered as reasons for choice; 17.3% had experienced contraceptive failure which resulted in abortion (47.4%). Pharmacy shops, health centers and Chemist shops were the sources for procuring contraceptive products; Family/friends, television and health professionals were sources of information about contraception; 46.7% did not experience side-effects; marital status was correlated with contraceptive knowledge and use. This study recommends that family planning should be vigorously promoted in a country like Nigeria with a high fertility, maternal and child mortality rates.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eniojukan”, “given” : “Joshua”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ofulue”, “given” : “Ijeoma”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Okinedo”, “given” : “Prince”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “UK Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biosciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “71-81”, “title” : “Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Contraception among Staff and Students in a University Community in Delta State, Nigeria”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=66ef9748-0982-4b47-9507-bbb049d78c3e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eniojukan, Ofulue and Okinedo, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eniojukan, Ofulue and Okinedo, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eniojukan, Ofulue and Okinedo, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eniojukan, Ofulue and Okinedo, 2016).

A particular study among 500 university students of Nigeria show that 84% had excellent knowledge of contraceptives, 17.3% contraceptive failure which resulted in abortion 47.4%. There is high (98%) knowledge level but 54% use these methods, a study among undergraduates in Tanzania also revealed that students had good knowledge of contraceptives with 58.8% of sexually active that ever used contraceptives and 41.5% were current users. Some other studies among students have reported much lower level of contraceptives knowledge and lower rates of utilizationADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “There is evidence to show that unplanned pregnancies are on the increase among women in Nigeria. It is true that one of the ways to improve reproductive health is by enhancing access to contraception. This study was to evaluate knowledge, perceptions and practices of contraception among 500 staff and students of a university in south-south Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Abraka and Oleh Campuses of Delta State University using appropriately designed, validated and pre-tested questionnaire. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 20. Respondents were students (70%), males (47.8%), aged 21-30 (48.9%) and Christians (90.9%). 84% of the respondents had good-to-excellent knowledge of contraceptives; 75.1% were sexually-active; contraceptive use prevalence was 58.2%; main reasons for non-use of contraceptive were hatred for it an intolerable side-effects. Condoms and oral pills were the preferred methods and safety, reliability and accessibility were proffered as reasons for choice; 17.3% had experienced contraceptive failure which resulted in abortion (47.4%). Pharmacy shops, health centers and Chemist shops were the sources for procuring contraceptive products; Family/friends, television and health professionals were sources of information about contraception; 46.7% did not experience side-effects; marital status was correlated with contraceptive knowledge and use. This study recommends that family planning should be vigorously promoted in a country like Nigeria with a high fertility, maternal and child mortality rates.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eniojukan”, “given” : “Joshua”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ofulue”, “given” : “Ijeoma”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Okinedo”, “given” : “Prince”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “UK Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biosciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “71-81”, “title” : “Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Contraception among Staff and Students in a University Community in Delta State, Nigeria”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=66ef9748-0982-4b47-9507-bbb049d78c3e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eniojukan, Ofulue and Okinedo, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eniojukan, Ofulue and Okinedo, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eniojukan, Ofulue and Okinedo, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eniojukan, Ofulue and Okinedo, 2016)
1.7.2 Knowledge
Lack of knowledge among women in Sudan, most girls lack knowledge of family planning services because most of them are illiterate. Hence women lack confidence and cannot make their own decision and also affected by culture of Sudan in which girls did not get chance to attend the school. Lack of education among couples is the determinant of unmate need for usage of family planning services. The educated women have better access to health facilities and information about contraception. Education is an important factor of family planning services hence husband must be involved in education concerning to family planning method. It is agreed that women with higher education are better informed about family planning methods than the peer with low educationADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.11604/pamj.2015.20.10.5301”, “ISBN” : “1937-8688”, “ISSN” : “19378688”, “PMID” : “25995807”, “abstract” : “INTRODUCTION: Usage of family planning services in developing countries have been found to avert unintended pregnancies, reduce maternal and child mortality, however, it’s usage still remains low. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the decision of women in fertility age to go for family planning services.\n\nMETHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Talensi district in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Systematic random sampling was used to recruit 280 residents aged 15-49 years and data was analysed using SPSS version 21.0.\n\nRESULTS: The study revealed that 89% (249/280), of respondents were aware of family planning services, 18% (50/280) of respondents had used family planning services in the past. Parity and educational level of respondents were positively associated with usage of family planning services (P<0.05). Major motivating factors to the usage of family planning service were to space children, 94% (47/50) and to prevent pregnancy and sexual transmitted infections 84% (42/50). Major reasons for not accessing family planning services were opposition from husbands, 90% (207/230) and misconceptions about family planning, 83% (191/230).\n\nCONCLUSION: Although most women were aware of family planning services in the Talensi district, the uptake of the service was low. Thus, there is the need for the office of the district health directorate to intensify health education on the benefits of family planning with male involvement. The government should also scale up family planning services in the district to make it more accessible.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Apanga”, “given” : “Paschal Awingura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Adam”, “given” : “Matthew Ayamba”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Pan African Medical Journal”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-9”, “title” : “Factors influencing the uptake of family planning services in the Talensi district, Ghana”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “20” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d819832-c44e-4df5-9a94-c69159f0c784” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Apanga and Adam, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Apanga and Adam, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Apanga and Adam, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Apanga and Adam, 2015).

Several studies done in South Africa have found that lack of knowledge on contraceptives may lead to an increase rate of unplanned pregnancies. Estimates of the global incidence of unplanned pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were developed first in 1995 at that time about 38% were estimated to be unplanned pregnancies and more than half 22% ended in abortion. Of 208 million pregnancies occurred worldwide in 2008 estimated that 41% were unplanned pregnancies and 208 of these took place in developing world. In a study 2009 among college students in Nepal approximately 210 million pregnancies occur 75 million or 36% of which were unintended among the age 18 to 24 years old of women. Every year in sub Saharan Africa, about 14 million or 44% unplanned pregnancies occur aged 15 to 24 years. Having knowledge on utilization of modern family planning methods reduces the risk of unplanned pregnancies which lead to unsafe abortionADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.4102/curationis.v38i2.1535”, “ISBN” : “1500020001”, “ISSN” : “2223-6279”, “PMID” : “26842088”, “abstract” : “<p>Background: Unplanned pregnancies amongst students at higher education institutions are au00a0major concern worldwide, including South Africa. Apart from various social and psychologicalu00a0challenges, unplanned pregnancies affect studentsu2019 objectives of achieving academic success.u00a0Research undertaken in the United States of America (USA) indicates that around 80% ofu00a0female students in institutions of higher education between ages 18 and 24 are sexually active.Objectives: To assess and describe the use of contraceptives by undergraduate female studentsu00a0in a selected higher educational institution in Gauteng.Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative design was used. A total of 400 femaleu00a0undergraduate students were requested to respond to a self-administered questionnaire.u00a0Stratified random sampling was used to select the participants. They were selectedu00a0systematically from two campuses. Data were entered using an excel sheet at the Departmentu00a0of Statistics, and analysed using the Statistical Analysis Software programme, (SAS versionu00a09.3), of the Department of Statisticsu2019 higher educational institutions.Results: A total of 74%females indicated they were sexually active, 79%of whom reportedu00a0using contraceptives. The most common used methods were oral contraceptives at 38%, andu00a025% for male condoms. The most commonly known methods were condoms at 84%, and theu00a0oral contraceptive at 68%. The knowledge of condom use to prevent sexually transmittedu00a0diseases was high at 91%.Conclusion: Inadequate knowledge and awareness on some contraceptive methods was found.u00a0Thus, educational programmes to increase studentsu2019 knowledge on the use of all contraceptiveu00a0methods are urgently needed</p>”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Coetzee”, “given” : “Maria H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ngunyulu”, “given” : “Roinah N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Curationis”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-7”, “title” : “Assessing the use of contraceptives by female undergraduate students in a selected higher educational institution in Gauteng”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “38” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6a76a9d9-6bdf-45a2-a683-fde63ee68e90” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015)
A cross sectional study was done in mtwivila Tanzania to asses knowledge among women in 2014,a total of 96 women were in rolled in the study aged 19 -49. Knowledge of contraceptives was universal, women had knowledge about modern contraceptives by 97.9%, 63.3% were using at least one modern methods, 42.9% experienced side effects stopped. There is universal knowledge but not all of them were using. Women can have knowledge on family planning but the problem is utilizing the methods, high level of knowledge but poor utilization. There are other factors which hinder utilization of modern family planning methods apart from knowledge ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19”, “ISSN” : “2328-7942”, “abstract” : “This study was conducted in 2014 in Mtwivila, Tanzania. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge, perception and factors associated with use of modern contraceptive use among women. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a representative sample of 96 women aged 15-49 years. Data were collected through interviews, focus group discussions and documentary reviews. Findings show that knowledge of modern FP was almost universal (100% percent), although 79 (82.3 percent) claimed to have been using modern contraceptives methods. Much smaller proportion (17.7 percent) reported not to be using modern contraceptives during the time of interview. Most of the respondents (96%) had positive attitude on modern contraceptive use as 96 of all interviewed women stated contraceptives were effective for birth control and that they would recommend to a friend or a relative the use of modern contraceptive. However, 28% women reported having stopped using modern contraceptive of which 25% due to side effects. Chi-square confirmed the association of education, sources of information about contraceptives, occupation, household income, distance from the health center and husband’s involvement with the use of contraceptives among women. It is concluded that there is a good level of knowledge and a positive perception towards contraceptive use among women of reproductive age. Men involvement during sensitization on family planning would be an effective strategy toward sexual and reproductive health promotion.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Elia Mosha”, “given” : “Peter”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Science Journal of Public Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “335”, “title” : “Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila, Tanzania”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=83e4c544-ff96-4d35-9b99-69d8afd2ff20” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Elia Mosha, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Elia Mosha, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Elia Mosha, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Elia Mosha, 2017).

1.7.3 Culture and religious
Religious and belief are among the factor which hinder the use of family planning methods. The church leaders had habit of preaching about family planning is against God wishes the word of God say that “increase and multiply and fill the face of world “also child birth is a gift from God and any method to prevent pregnancy is the same as rejecting to God?s word. People believe that God who sent these children will always provide the essential needs for them. Religion play major part in causing underutilization of contraceptives since some people have strong belief so It reduces the possibility of using these methods ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3934/publichealth.2015.4.655”, “ISSN” : “2327-8994”, “PMID” : “29546129”, “abstract” : “This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County. This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting) and Renk (urban setting). The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes. The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes. The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak) and urban (Renk) areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for 656 AIMS Public Health Volume 2, Issue 4, 655u2013666. economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural settings reported intentions to use conventional methods of family planning without the knowledge of their spouses.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Amen Mohammed Ahmed”, “given” : “Waled”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boutros Shokai”, “given” : “Sara”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hassan Abduelkhair”, “given” : “Insaf”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yahia Boshra”, “given” : “Amira”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “AIMS Public Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “655-666”, “title” : “Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3c969135-2b83-4661-a34a-15615ff90194” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed ;i;et al.;/i;, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed ;i;et al.;/i;, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Amen Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2015)
In Tanzania some people do not support the utilization of modern family planning, one of participant in Handeni was quoted saying “God has given you the ability to reproduce children and this is gift from him, we cannot in way prevent pregnancy. There are people who work day and night to get pregnancy, now since God has given us ability to children lets have kids until the eggs are finished.”(Kerr,2014).

1.7.4 Unavailability of health services
Lack of services is a major factor affecting utilization of family planning services. According to the study done in Sudan. It was found that most health facilities had no family planning services. People of Jelhak claimed about family planning services were not available about six months at same point. Unavailability of family planning services caused many women not to utilize the modern methods this leading to unintended pregnancies. There was only one health center which provides family planning services at jelhak ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3934/publichealth.2015.4.655”, “ISSN” : “2327-8994”, “PMID” : “29546129”, “abstract” : “This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County. This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting) and Renk (urban setting). The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes. The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes. The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak) and urban (Renk) areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for 656 AIMS Public Health Volume 2, Issue 4, 655u2013666. economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural settings reported intentions to use conventional methods of family planning without the knowledge of their spouses.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Amen Mohammed Ahmed”, “given” : “Waled”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boutros Shokai”, “given” : “Sara”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hassan Abduelkhair”, “given” : “Insaf”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yahia Boshra”, “given” : “Amira”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “AIMS Public Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “655-666”, “title” : “Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3c969135-2b83-4661-a34a-15615ff90194” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed ;i;et al.;/i;, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed ;i;et al.;/i;, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Amen Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2015). Therefore women suffer from unavailability of family planning methodsADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3934/publichealth.2015.4.655”, “ISSN” : “2327-8994”, “PMID” : “29546129”, “abstract” : “This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County. This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting) and Renk (urban setting). The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes. The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes. The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak) and urban (Renk) areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for 656 AIMS Public Health Volume 2, Issue 4, 655u2013666. economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural settings reported intentions to use conventional methods of family planning without the knowledge of their spouses.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Amen Mohammed Ahmed”, “given” : “Waled”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boutros Shokai”, “given” : “Sara”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hassan Abduelkhair”, “given” : “Insaf”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yahia Boshra”, “given” : “Amira”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “AIMS Public Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “655-666”, “title” : “Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3c969135-2b83-4661-a34a-15615ff90194” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed ;i;et al.;/i;, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Amen Mohammed Ahmed ;i;et al.;/i;, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Amen Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2015).
References
ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ali, A. A. A. and Okud, A. (2013) ‘Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan.’, BMC public health, 13, p. 102. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-102.

Amen Mohammed Ahmed, W. et al. (2015) ‘Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study’, AIMS Public Health, 2(4), pp. 655–666. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2015.4.655.

Apanga, P. A. and Adam, M. A. (2015) ‘Factors influencing the uptake of family planning services in the Talensi district, Ghana’, Pan African Medical Journal, 20, pp. 1–9. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2015.20.10.5301.

Associates, A., Sector, P. and One, P. (no date) ‘Collaborating and Supporting Organizations’.

Coetzee, M. H. and Ngunyulu, R. N. (2015) ‘Assessing the use of contraceptives by female undergraduate students in a selected higher educational institution in Gauteng’, Curationis, 38(2), pp. 1–7. doi: 10.4102/curationis.v38i2.1535.

Dodam, K. K. et al. (2017) ‘Knowledge and Perception of Ghanaian Adolescents about Family Planning’, (1).

Elia Mosha, P. (2017) ‘Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila, Tanzania’, Science Journal of Public Health, 5(4), p. 335. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19.

Eniojukan, J., Ofulue, I. and Okinedo, P. (2016) ‘Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Contraception among Staff and Students in a University Community in Delta State, Nigeria’, UK Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biosciences, 4(1), pp. 71–81.

Eze, B. U. and Hope, A. (2014) ‘Hindrances to effective usage of family planning methods among women in Adamokolo Lokoja Urban area of Kogi state , Nigeria’, 2(11), pp. 182–190.

Heisler, K. and and Van Eron, D. M. (2012) ‘A descriptive study of undergraduate contraceptive attitudes among students at the University of New Hampshire’, p. 39. Available at: http://scholars.unh.edu/honors%0Ahttp://scholars.unh.edu/honors/8.

Kerr, M. (2014) ‘Family planning in Egypt.’, Planned parenthood review, 44(11), pp. 18–9. doi: 10.1097/00001888-196911000-00043.

Nsubuga, H. et al. (2016) ‘Contraceptive use, knowledge, attitude, perceptions and sexual behavior among female University students in Uganda: A cross-sectional survey’, BMC Women’s Health. BMC Women’s Health, 16(1), pp. 1–11. doi: 10.1186/s12905-016-0286-6.

Supporters of this legislation argue that the laws are necessary to obtain and keep employment in Canada

Supporters of this legislation argue that the laws are necessary to obtain and keep employment in Canada, and that they boost the economy and create jobs. They back their argument with the right-to-work states in the US that have benefited from a robust economy and more jobs. A report issued by the Fraser Institute indicated that right-to-work laws in Ontario would boost economic output by $11.8 billion and create 57,000 jobs (Ehrenberg & Smith, 2016). This argument is compelling considering that many jobs were lost in Canada when the General Motors Camaro plant was moved from Ontario to Lansing, Michigan following the enactment of the right-to-work legislation. The supporters believe that the legislation will attract investment in Canada and thus create more jobs.